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Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Materials

  1. Frieder W. Lichtenthaler

Published Online: 15 APR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.n05_n07

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Lichtenthaler, F. W. 2010. Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Materials. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Clemens-Schöpf-Institut für Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2010

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

In view of the impending transition of chemical industry from depleting fossil raw materials to renewable feedstocks — the end of cheap oil is predicted around 2040 — this account gives an overview on chemically and enzymatically transforming carbohydrates, by far the major part of the annually regrowing biomass, into products with versatile industrial application profiles and the potential to eventually replace those presently derived from petrochemical sources.

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Availability of Carbohydrates
3.Current Nonfood Industrial Products from Sugars
3.1.Ethanol
3.2.Furfural
3.3d-Sorbitol
3.4Lactic Acid and Polylactic Acid (PLA)
3.5.Sugar-Based Surfactants
3.5.1.‘Sorbitan’ Esters
3.5.2.N-Methyl-N-acyl-glucamides (NMCA)
3.5.3.Alkylpolyglucosides (APG)
3.5.4.Sucrose Fatty Acid Monoesters
3.6.Pharmaceuticals and Vitamins
4.Toward Further Sugar-based Chemicals: Potential Development Lines
4.1.Furan Compounds
4.1.1.5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)
4.1.2.2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMF)
4.1.3.Furans with a Tetrahydroxybutyl Side Chain
4.2.Dihydropyrones
4.3.Sugar-Derived Unsaturated Nitrogen Heterocycles
4.3.1.Pyrroles
4.3.2.Pyrazoles
4.3.3.Imidazoles
4.3.4.3-Pyridinols
4.4.Toward Sugar-Based Aromatic Chemicals
4.5.Microbial Conversion of Six-Carbon-Sugars into Simple Carboxylic Acids and Alcohols
4.5.1.Carboxylic Acids
4.5.2.Potential Sugar-Based Alcohol Commodities by Microbial Conversions
4.6.Chemical Conversion of Sugars into Carboxylic Acids
4.7.Biopolymers from Polymerizable Sugar Derivatives
4.7.1.Synthetic Biopolyesters
4.7.2.Microbial Polyesters
4.7.3.Polyamides
5.Outlook
6.References

Featured Compounds

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  1. 1 - 43
Compound 34
Molecular Weight:142.1094
Molecular Formula:C6H6O4
InChIKey:CPPCADFVLTZYFA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 32
Molecular Weight:142.1094
Molecular Formula:C6H6O4
InChIKey:BEJNERDRQOWKJM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 54
Molecular Weight:248.1883
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 6
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 12
Molecular Weight:324.3704
Molecular Formula:C20H20O4
InChIKey:CMWFUGOWAKQMSL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 2
Molecular Weight:98.0999
Molecular Formula:C5H6O2
InChIKey:XPFVYQJUAUNWIW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 47
Molecular Weight:124.0942
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 42
Molecular Weight:368.2487
Molecular Formula:C12H18O13
InChIKey:GSNZTHDJQODXMS-ZWFNRXQGSA-L
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Compound 5
Molecular Weight:138.1207
Molecular Formula:C7H6O3
InChIKey:ZCJLOOJRNPHKAV-ONEGZZNKSA-N
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Compound 41
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 14
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 30
Molecular Weight:220.2197
Molecular Formula:C9H16O6
InChIKey:XMNOVTHWCLGVID-KVEIKIFDSA-N
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Compound 53
Molecular Weight:320.2956
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 56
Molecular Weight:450.4376
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 31
Molecular Weight:170.1195
Molecular Formula:C7H6O5
InChIKey:UVCOROZSMPRGDM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 3
Molecular Weight:97.1152
Molecular Formula:C5H7NO
InChIKey:DDRPCXLAQZKBJP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 50
Molecular Weight:266.2897
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 1
Molecular Weight:102.1317
Molecular Formula:C5H10O2
InChIKey:BSYVTEYKTMYBMK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 49
Molecular Weight:150.1314
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 33
Molecular Weight:226.1828
Molecular Formula:C10H10O6
InChIKey:YSZOMMGPYJHPCT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 7
Molecular Weight:68.074
Molecular Formula:C4H4O
InChIKey:YLQBMQCUIZJEEH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 43
Molecular Weight:381.2249
Molecular Formula:C12H16O14
InChIKey:QNKJXRVQTCYEAO-XMXZDJPJSA-K
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Compound 15
Molecular Weight:126.1564
Molecular Formula:C6H10N2O
InChIKey:VKLGKDZCKSMSHG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 44
Molecular Weight:286.3224
Molecular Formula:C17H18O4
InChIKey:ZJBUUDKUOGZMAT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 10
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 52
Molecular Weight:266.2036
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 4
Molecular Weight:112.0835
Molecular Formula:C5H4O3
InChIKey:SMNDYUVBFMFKNZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 46
Molecular Weight:86.1323
Molecular Formula:C5H10O
InChIKey:JWUJQDFVADABEY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 55
Molecular Weight:506.5439
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 8
Molecular Weight:72.1057
Molecular Formula:C4H8O
InChIKey:WYURNTSHIVDZCO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 9
Molecular Weight:234.2942
Molecular Formula:C13H18N2O2
InChIKey:UCHFTZLFLFHXFL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 13
Molecular Weight:142.1094
Molecular Formula:C6H6O4
InChIKey:PCSKKIUURRTAEM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 39
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 28
Molecular Weight:244.2411
Molecular Formula:C11H16O6
InChIKey:LURMLIFYNCGMGY-FBIMIBRVSA-N
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Compound 45
Molecular Weight:131.1299
Molecular Formula:C5H9NO3
InChIKey:ZGXJTSGNIOSYLO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 18
Molecular Weight:127.1412
Molecular Formula:C6H9NO2
InChIKey:AMANOVBJYCBOPN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 17
Molecular Weight:128.1259
Molecular Formula:C6H8O3
InChIKey:DSLRVRBSNLHVBH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 40
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 19
Molecular Weight:156.093
Molecular Formula:C6H4O5
InChIKey:CHTHALBTIRVDBM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 16
Molecular Weight:96.1271
Molecular Formula:C6H8O
InChIKey:GSNUFIFRDBKVIE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 29
Molecular Weight:274.2671
Molecular Formula:C12H18O7
InChIKey:ZSOHALOBQAWWQK-FBIMIBRVSA-N
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Compound 51
Molecular Weight:224.21
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 48
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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  1. 1 - 43