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Ammonia, 2. Production Processes

  1. Max Appl

Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.o02_o11

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Appl, M. 2011. Ammonia, 2. Production Processes. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Dannstadt-Schauernheim, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Historical Development
3.Thermodynamic Data
4.Ammonia Synthesis Reaction
4.1.General Aspects
4.2.Catalyst Surface and Reaction Mechanism
4.3.Kinetics
5.Catalysts
5.1.Classical Iron Catalysts
5.1.1.Composition
5.1.2.Particle Size and Shape
5.1.3.Catalyst-Precursor Manufacture
5.1.4.Catalyst Reduction
5.1.5.Catalyst Poisons
5.2.Other Catalysts
5.2.1.General Aspects
5.2.2.Metals with Catalytic Potential
5.2.3.Commercial Ruthenium Catalysts
6.Process Steps of Ammonia Production
6.1.Synthesis Gas Production
6.1.1.Feedstock Pretreatment and Raw Gas Production
6.1.2.Carbon Monoxide Shift Conversion
6.1.3.Gas Purification
6.2.Compression
6.3.Ammonia Synthesis
6.3.1.Synthesis Loop Configurations
6.3.2.Formation of Ammonia in the Converter
6.3.3.Waste-Heat Utilization and Cooling
6.3.4.Ammonia Recovery from the Ammonia Synthesis Loop
6.3.5.Inert-Gas and Purge-Gas Management
6.3.6.Influence of Pressure and Other Variables of the Synthesis Loop
6.3.7.Example of an Industrial Synthesis Loop