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Heterogeneous Catalysis and Solid Catalysts, 2. Development and Types of Solid Catalysts

  1. Olaf Deutschmann1,
  2. Helmut Knözinger2,
  3. Karl Kochloefl3,
  4. Thomas Turek4

Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.o05_o02

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Deutschmann, O., Knözinger, H., Kochloefl, K. and Turek, T. 2011. Heterogeneous Catalysis and Solid Catalysts, 2. Development and Types of Solid Catalysts. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Institut für Technische Chemie und Polymerchemie, Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Engesserstr. 20, Karlsruhe, Germany

  2. 2

    Department Chemie, Universität München, Butenandtstr. 5 – 13 (Haus E), München, Germany

  3. 3

    Schwarzenbergstr. 15, Rosenheim, Germany

  4. 4

    Institut für Chemische Verfahrenstechnik, TU Clausthal, Leibnizstr. 17, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Development of Solid Catalysts
2.Classification of Solid Catalysts
2.1.Unsupported (Bulk) Catalysts
2.1.1.Metal Oxides
2.1.1.1.Simple Binary Oxides
2.1.1.2.Complex Multicomponent Oxides
2.1.2.Metals and Metal Alloys
2.1.3.Carbides and Nitrides
2.1.4.Carbons
2.1.5.Ion-Exchange Resins and Ionomers
2.1.6.Molecularly Imprinted Catalysts
2.1.7.Metal – Organic Frameworks
2.1.8.Metal Salts
2.2.Supported Catalysts
2.2.1.Supports
2.2.2.Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts
2.2.3.Surface-Modified Oxides
2.2.4.Supported Metal Catalysts
2.2.5.Supported Sulfide Catalysts
2.2.6.Hybrid Catalysts
2.2.7.Ship-in-a-Bottle Catalysts
2.2.8.Polymerization Catalysts
2.3.Coated Catalysts
3.Production of Heterogeneous Catalysts
3.1.Unsupported Catalysts
3.2.Supported Catalysts
3.2.1.Supports
3.2.2.Preparation of Supported Catalysts
3.3.Unit Operations in Catalyst Production
4.Characterization of Solid Catalysts
4.1.Physical Properties
4.1.1.Surface Area and Porosity
4.1.2.Particle Size and Dispersion
4.1.3.Structure and Morphology
4.1.4.Local Environment of Elements
4.2.Chemical Properties
4.2.1.Surface Chemical Composition
4.2.2.Valence States and Redox Properties
4.2.3.Acidity and Basicity
4.3.Mechanical Properties
4.4.Characterization of Solid Catalysts under Working Conditions
4.4.1.Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP Reactor)
4.4.2.Use of Isotopes
4.4.3.Use of Substituents, Selective Feeding, and Poisoning
4.4.4.Spatially Resolved Analysis of the Fluid Phase over a Catalyst
4.4.5.Spectroscopic Techniques
5.Design and Technical Operation of Solid Catalysts
5.1.Design Criteria for Solid Catalysts
5.2.Catalytic Reactors
5.2.1.Classification of Reactors
5.2.2.Laboratory Reactors
5.2.3.Industrial Reactors
5.2.4.Special Reactor Types and Processes
5.2.5.Simulation of Catalytic Reactors
5.3.Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration
5.3.1.Different Types of Deactivation
5.3.2.Catalyst Regeneration
5.3.3.Catalyst Reworking and Disposal