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  1. Otto Fränzle1,
  2. Milan Straškraba2,
  3. Sven Erik Jørgensen3

Published Online: 1 JAN 2000

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.o09_o02

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Fränzle, O., Straškraba, M. and Jørgensen, S. E. 2000. Ecotoxicology. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, Germany

  2. 2

    Akademie věd České Republiky, Biomatematická laboratoř, Entomologický institut, České Budějovice, Czech Republic

  3. 3

    Danmarks Farmaceutiske Højskole, Copenhagen, Denmark

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2000

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The article contains sections titled:

2.Exposure Assessment
2.1.Release Estimation
2.4.Local and Regional Concentration Estimates
2.4.1.PEC Estimates in the Air Compartment
2.4.2.PEC Estimates in Soil and Subsoil
2.4.3.Variogram Analysis
2.4.4.Modeling Chemical Distribution in Soil and Subsoil
2.4.5.PEC Estimates in Aquatic Compartments
3.Effects Assessment
3.1.Test Systems for Aquatic Ecosystems
3.1.1.Level 0
3.1.2.Level 1
3.1.3.Level 2
3.1.4.PNEC Values and Assessment Factors
3.2.Testing Strategies for Terrestrial Ecosystems
3.2.1.PNEC Estimates for Soil and Subsoil
3.2.2.Complex Assessment and Modeling of Vegetation Damage
3.2.3.Statistical Analysis of Forest Dieback
3.3.Impact of Xenobiotics on Aquatic Ecosystems
3.3.1.Approaches and Methods of Studying the Impact of Xenobiotics on Aquatic Life
3.3.2.Behavior of Xenobiotics in the Aquatic Environment and their Influence on Aquatic Organisms and Indirectly on Humans
3.3.3.Impact of Xenobiotics on Pelagic and Benthic Biocenoses
3.3.4.Ecological Risk Assessment of Xenobiotics
3.4.Testing Approaches to Atmospheric Effects
4.State of the Art of Modeling in Ecotoxicology
4.1.Characteristics of Ecotoxicological Models
4.2.Classification of Ecotoxicological Models
4.3.An Overview: Application of Models in Ecotoxicology
4.4.Ecotoxicological Processes
4.5.Parameter Estimation
4.6.Fugacity Models