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Laundry Detergents, 4. Ecology and Toxicology

  1. Josef Steber,
  2. Frederike Wiebel

Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.o15_o15

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Steber, J. and Wiebel, F. 2011. Laundry Detergents, 4. Ecology and Toxicology. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Henkel KGaA, Düsseldorf, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Ecology
1.1.Laundry, Wastewater, and the Environment
1.2.Contribution of Laundry to the Sewage Load
1.3.Detergent Laws
1.3.1.Development of the European Detergent Legislation
1.3.2.Regulatory Limitations on Anionic and Nonionic Surfactants
1.3.3.Primary Biodegradation Test Procedures
1.3.4.Regulation of Maximum Phosphate Content in Detergents
1.4.General Criteria for the Ecological Evaluation of Detergent Chemicals
1.4.1.Concept
1.4.2.Environmental Exposure Assessment
1.4.2.1.Biodegradation
1.4.2.2.Biodegradability Standard Test Methods
1.4.2.3.Supplementary Biodegradation Test Methods
1.4.2.4.Exposure Analysis
1.4.3.Assessment of Environmental Effects
1.4.3.1.Basic Ecotoxicity Tests
1.4.3.2.Subchronic and Chronic Ecotoxicity Tests
1.4.3.3.Biocenotic Ecotoxicity Tests
1.4.3.4.Bioaccumulation
1.4.4.Process of Environmental Risk Assessment
1.5.Ecological Characterization of Main Detergent Ingredients
1.5.1.Surfactants
1.5.1.1.Anionic Surfactants
1.5.1.2.Nonionic Surfactants
1.5.1.3.Cationic Surfactants
1.5.2.Builders
1.5.2.1.Zeolites
1.5.2.2.Polycarboxylates
1.5.2.3.Citrates
1.5.2.4.Sodium Carbonate (Soda Ash)
1.5.2.5.Nitrilotriacetate (NTA)
1.5.3.Bleaching Agents
1.5.3.1.Sodium Perborate
1.5.3.2.Sodium Percarbonate
1.5.3.3.Tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED)
1.5.4.Auxiliary Agents
1.5.4.1.Phosphonates
1.5.4.2.EDTA
1.5.4.3.Enzymes
1.5.4.4.Optical Brighteners
1.5.4.5.Carboxymethyl Cellulose
1.5.4.6.Dye Transfer Inhibitors
1.5.4.7.Fragrances
1.5.4.8.Foam Regulators
1.5.4.9.Soil Repellents
1.5.4.10.Dyes
1.5.4.11.Sodium Sulfate
2.Toxicology
2.1.Detergent Ingredients
2.1.1.Surfactants
2.1.2.Builders
2.1.3.Bleach-Active Compounds
2.1.4.Auxiliary Agents
2.2.Finished Detergents
2.3.Conclusions