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Steel, 2. Crude Steel Production

  1. Rolf Steffen1,
  2. Dieter Janke2,
  3. Klaus Schäfer3,
  4. Hatto Jacobi4,
  5. Rudolf Hammer5,
  6. Robert Hentrich6

Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.o25_o01

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Steffen, R., Janke, D., Schäfer, K., Jacobi, H., Hammer, R. and Hentrich, R. 2011. Steel, 2. Crude Steel Production. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    VDEh, Düsseldorf, Germany

  2. 2

    TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Eisenhütten-Institut, Freiberg, Germany

  3. 3

    GMT, Georgsmarienhütte, Germany

  4. 4

    Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG, Duisburg, Germany

  5. 5

    Thyssen Stahl AG, Düsseldorf, Germany

  6. 6

    Krupp Stahl AG, Siegen, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2011


The article contains sections titled:

1.Raw Materials
1.1.Hot Metal
1.3.Sponge Iron
2.Physical and Chemical Fundamentals
2.1.1.Metallic Systems Based on Iron
2.1.2.Slag Systems
2.1.3.Metal - Slag Reactions Reactions
2.1.4.Metal - Gas Reactions
2.2.Kinetics and Mass Transfer
2.2.1.Kinetics of Heterogeneous Reactions
2.2.2.Flow and Mass Transfer Coefficients - Glas Phase Boundaries with Nonturbulent Flow - Slag Phase Boundaries with Nonturbulent Flow (Metal or Slag) - Liquid Phase Boundaries with Nonturbulent Flow Transfer with Turbulent Flow
3.Production Processes
3.1.Oxygen-Blowing Processes
3.1.1.LD and OBM Processes
3.1.2.Other Developments
3.2.Electric Steel Process
3.2.1.Special Processes
3.2.2.The Siemens - Martin Open Hearth Process
3.3.Production of Stainless Steels
4.Secondary Metallurgy
4.1.Steel Treatment at Atmospheric Pressure
4.1.4.Temperature Control
4.2.Vacuum Treatment
4.2.2.Nitrogen Removal
5.Casting and Solidification
5.2.Ingot Casting
5.3.Continuous Casting
5.3.1.The Growth of Strand Casting
5.3.3.Mold Oscillation and Shell Formation
5.3.4.Control of Molten Steel Level and Gap Lubrication
5.3.5.Support Roller Apron and Secondary Cooling Zone
5.3.8.Horizontal Strand Casting
5.3.9.Hot Charging or Direct Rolling
5.3.10.Casting Thin Slabs
5.3.11.New Processes for Hot Steel Strip Production
5.4.Consumable Electrode Remelting Processes
5.4.1.Remelting Processes
5.4.2.General Aims of Remelting
5.4.3.Remelting Apparatus
5.4.4.Results and Applications