Standard Article

Vitamins, 2. Vitamin A (Retinoids)

  1. Michael John,
  2. Wolfgang Hähnlein

Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.o27_o05

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

John, M. and Hähnlein, W. 2011. Vitamins, 2. Vitamin A (Retinoids). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Historical Aspects
3.Physical Properties
4.Chemical Properties
5.Occurrence
6.Biosynthesis
7.Production
7.1.Isolation and Purification from Natural Raw Materials
7.2.Industrial Synthesis
8.Metabolism and Physiological Functions
8.1.Preformed Vitamin A
8.2.β-Carotene
9.Deficiency Symptoms and Requirements
10.Analysis and Standardization
11.Trade Names and Economic Aspects
12.Tolerance

Featured Compounds

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  1. 1 - 114
Compound 35
Molecular Weight:152.2334
Molecular Formula:C10H16O
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 36
Molecular Weight:152.2334
Molecular Formula:C10H16O
InChIKey:YWTIDNZYLFTNQQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 97
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 11
Molecular Weight:536.8726
Molecular Formula:C40H56
InChIKey:OENHQHLEOONYIE-JLTXGRSLSA-N
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Compound 91
Molecular Weight:570.8873
Molecular Formula:C40H58O2
InChIKey:RJYHQGCNFVSDLR-YWZRRPSPSA-N
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Compound 59
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 41
Molecular Weight:232.3612
Molecular Formula:C16H24O
InChIKey:OISIVHUKVJCYEN-FMIVXFBMSA-N
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Compound 30'
Molecular Weight:464.4697
Molecular Formula:C21H38O7P2
InChIKey:JHPUMWZMEXYZNZ-AKYDRMJXSA-N
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Compound 2
Molecular Weight:284.4357
Molecular Formula:C20H28O
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 86
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 74
Molecular Weight:136.234
Molecular Formula:C10H16
InChIKey:UAHWPYUMFXYFJY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 105
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 29
Molecular Weight:246.0921
Molecular Formula:C5H12O7P2
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 25
Molecular Weight:344.4877
Molecular Formula:C22H32O3
InChIKey:AZAWTSYUQKXIGK-IZVRVYHKSA-N
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Compound 52
Molecular Weight:302.451
Molecular Formula:C20H30O2
InChIKey:DYJPCHNUVWLJST-ZCWJWGKDSA-N
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Compound 98
Molecular Weight:488.679
Molecular Formula:C28H40O5S
InChIKey:RHODQXACZVNLTR-RBCDEZRISA-N
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Compound 72
Molecular Weight:394.613
Molecular Formula:C26H34OS
InChIKey:GFBIXXCQWIGALG-DJQMXVOLSA-N
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Compound 49
Molecular Weight:348.5194
Molecular Formula:C22H36O3
InChIKey:CFAHHJHPNFTOOW-DLFGYXOUSA-N
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Compound 64
Molecular Weight:209.081
Molecular Formula:C7H13BrO2
InChIKey:NWXAXTQMYRQNKU-GQCTYLIASA-N
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Compound 75
Molecular Weight:154.2493
Molecular Formula:C10H18O
InChIKey:CDOSHBSSFJOMGT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 37
Molecular Weight:192.2973
Molecular Formula:C13H20O
InChIKey:CKFIXSNLHKLXFO-YCAPABECSA-N
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Compound 10
Molecular Weight:268.4363
Molecular Formula:C20H28
InChIKey:FWNRILWHNGFAIN-SSHGZYQJSA-N
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Compound 69
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 102
Molecular Weight:374.5583
Molecular Formula:C27H34O
InChIKey:ZKXAMGOXSHSUMX-DHFTXEPISA-N
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Compound 58
Molecular Weight:172.1785
Molecular Formula:C8H12O4
InChIKey:MWWXARALRVYLAE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 26
Molecular Weight:344.4877
Molecular Formula:C22H32O3
InChIKey:XLPSXOLGOSMELP-IXNZCGHASA-N
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Compound 60
Molecular Weight:128.1259
Molecular Formula:C6H8O3
InChIKey:KPJOEMKSEMLDSF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 94
Molecular Weight:410.612
Molecular Formula:C26H34O2S
InChIKey:IBYQBGHBUUQJIV-XTDDRVAVSA-N
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Compound 46
Molecular Weight:266.3758
Molecular Formula:C16H26O3
InChIKey:MNZGLSRRCQJUMY-CMDGGOBGSA-N
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Compound 54
Molecular Weight:96.1271
Molecular Formula:C6H8O
InChIKey:VBATUBQIYXCZPA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 53
Molecular Weight:346.5036
Molecular Formula:C22H34O3
InChIKey:YRSRWAVBXGMWEI-BUXFVHBUSA-N
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Compound 81
Molecular Weight:218.3346
Molecular Formula:C15H22O
InChIKey:NDGRVUREWSEVSY-PKNBQFBNSA-N
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Compound 30
Molecular Weight:450.4432
Molecular Formula:C20H36O7P2
InChIKey:OINNEUNVOZHBOX-QIRCYJPOSA-N
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Compound 80
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 100
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 71
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 66
Molecular Weight:472.68
Molecular Formula:C28H40O4S
InChIKey:CPGYDAOJQSKJGS-BCDBNBEBSA-N
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Compound 84
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 87
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 13
Molecular Weight:536.8726
Molecular Formula:C40H56
InChIKey:HRQKOYFGHJYEFS-BXOLYSJBSA-N
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Compound 42
Molecular Weight:132.1577
Molecular Formula:C6H12O3
InChIKey:PJCCSZUMZMCWSX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 61
Molecular Weight:114.0993
Molecular Formula:C5H6O3
InChIKey:DFATXMYLKPCSCX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 89
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 28
Molecular Weight:246.0921
Molecular Formula:C5H12O7P2
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 15
Molecular Weight:552.872
Molecular Formula:C40H56O
InChIKey:RVCRIPILOFSMFG-WWSVUWEKSA-N
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Compound 27'
Molecular Weight:118.1311
Molecular Formula:C5H10O3
InChIKey:PHOJOSOUIAQEDH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 38
Molecular Weight:218.3346
Molecular Formula:C15H22O
InChIKey:OPSSCPNCFKJCFR-ANKZSMJWSA-N
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Compound 43
Molecular Weight:258.3984
Molecular Formula:C18H26O
InChIKey:UBTNVRPIHJRBCI-LUXGDSJYSA-N
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Compound 39
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 16
Molecular Weight:552.872
Molecular Formula:C40H56O
InChIKey:DMASLKHVQRHNES-FKKUPVFPSA-N
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Compound 45
Molecular Weight:281.4351
Molecular Formula:C20H27N
InChIKey:LKTQCZNCSHAYSX-OVSJKPMPSA-N
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Compound 6
Molecular Weight:282.4198
Molecular Formula:C20H26O
InChIKey:QHNVWXUULMZJKD-OVSJKPMPSA-N
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Compound 31
Molecular Weight:722.9112
Molecular Formula:C40H68O7P2
InChIKey:RVCNKTPCHZNAAO-QKUGLALCSA-N
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Compound 40
Molecular Weight:328.4883
Molecular Formula:C22H32O2
InChIKey:QGNJRVVDBSJHIZ-QHLGVNSISA-N
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Compound 73
Molecular Weight:344.4877
Molecular Formula:C22H32O3
InChIKey:YYFXDNVAUIVBIN-ZGJDQDOGSA-N
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Compound 90
Molecular Weight:272.425
Molecular Formula:C19H28O
InChIKey:QZDNGQHXXIMLFS-XBFPUDCUSA-N
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Compound 34
Molecular Weight:192.2973
Molecular Formula:C13H20O
InChIKey:PSQYTAPXSHCGMF-BQYQJAHWSA-N
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Compound 3
Molecular Weight:300.4351
Molecular Formula:C20H28O2
InChIKey:SHGAZHPCJJPHSC-XFYACQKRSA-N
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Compound 14
Molecular Weight:416.638
Molecular Formula:C30H40O
InChIKey:DFMMVLFMMAQXHZ-DOKBYWHISA-N
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Compound 103
Molecular Weight:350.5369
Molecular Formula:C25H34O
InChIKey:BQTOMHXDSCUCFR-PHPDKTIJSA-N
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Compound 8
Molecular Weight:286.4516
Molecular Formula:C20H30O
InChIKey:LWSSYLJSLZBNKE-YIAYGWAFSA-N
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Compound 1
Molecular Weight:286.4516
Molecular Formula:C20H30O
InChIKey:FPIPGXGPPPQFEQ-OVSJKPMPSA-N
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Compound 63
Molecular Weight:344.511
Molecular Formula:C21H28O2S
InChIKey:UWVXGPNWYORDED-MIFVOYFBSA-N
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Compound 70
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 14a
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 51
Molecular Weight:96.1271
Molecular Formula:C6H8O
InChIKey:ZSJHASYJQIRSLE-XQRVVYSFSA-N
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Compound 77
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 83
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 17
Molecular Weight:550.8562
Molecular Formula:C40H54O
InChIKey:QXNWZXMBUKUYMD-QQGJMDNJSA-N
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Compound 55
Molecular Weight:220.3505
Molecular Formula:C15H24O
InChIKey:PZGYHDPZANRCSM-PKNBQFBNSA-N
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Compound 67
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 56
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 4
Molecular Weight:366.4315
Molecular Formula:C20H31O4P
InChIKey:PDRZOMUQUZBNKV-OVSJKPMPSA-N
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Compound 107
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 50
Molecular Weight:206.3239
Molecular Formula:C14H22O
InChIKey:FJCQUJKUMKZEMH-YRNVUSSQSA-N
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Compound 82
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 32
Molecular Weight:544.9362
Molecular Formula:C40H64
InChIKey:YVLPJIGOMTXXLP-AYUJBPIWSA-N
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Compound 78
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 48
Molecular Weight:282.4183
Molecular Formula:C17H30O3
InChIKey:WYVOKVARWRJCLL-PKNBQFBNSA-N
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Compound 22
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 92
Molecular Weight:164.2011
Molecular Formula:C10H12O2
InChIKey:AYODHZHFDRRQEZ-XLKYRCCQSA-N
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Compound 57
Molecular Weight:142.1525
Molecular Formula:C7H10O3
InChIKey:LPDDKAJRWGPGSI-ZZXKWVIFSA-N
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Compound 27
Molecular Weight:148.1571
Molecular Formula:C6H12O4
InChIKey:KJTLQQUUPVSXIM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 106
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 47
Molecular Weight:332.477
Molecular Formula:C21H32O3
InChIKey:YGMBUSCBEQHGSR-HXAUSYJYSA-N
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Compound 9
Molecular Weight:328.4883
Molecular Formula:C22H32O2
InChIKey:RXSVPWZHDSZQTG-FGBIIHGTSA-N
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Compound 44
Molecular Weight:215.3339
Molecular Formula:C15H21N
InChIKey:YOYODHNOTKUUDY-ANKZSMJWSA-N
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Compound 65
Molecular Weight:162.614
Molecular Formula:C7H11ClO2
InChIKey:URVYVINLDPIJEH-ZZXKWVIFSA-N
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Compound 5
Molecular Weight:284.4357
Molecular Formula:C20H28O
InChIKey:XWCYDHJOKKGVHC-OVSJKPMPSA-N
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Compound 85
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 33
Molecular Weight:536.8726
Molecular Formula:C40H56
InChIKey:OAIJSZIZWZSQBC-GYZMGTAESA-N
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Compound 93
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 95
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 7
Molecular Weight:298.4192
Molecular Formula:C20H26O2
InChIKey:SYESMXTWOAQFET-YCNIQYBTSA-N
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Compound 79
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 88
Molecular Weight:90.049
Molecular Formula:C5H7LiO
InChIKey:GXTBUSMMASRHAA-BJILWQEISA-M
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Compound 96
Molecular Weight:679.048
Molecular Formula:C46H62O2S
InChIKey:URRGCDRTABXXBC-QSXQIYSTSA-N
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Compound 101
Molecular Weight:348.521
Molecular Formula:C25H32O
InChIKey:FYIUEEWREMGMIE-XBMYAKQNSA-N
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Compound 12
Molecular Weight:536.8726
Molecular Formula:C40H56
InChIKey:ANVAOWXLWRTKGA-JLTXGRSLSA-N
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Compound 104
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 68
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 76
Molecular Weight:278.41
Molecular Formula:C16H22O2S
InChIKey:WQRHISGXRFLGKQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 24
Molecular Weight:360.4871
Molecular Formula:C22H32O4
InChIKey:RRGXRHDKPWHMOC-IXNZCGHASA-N
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Compound 12'
Molecular Weight:536.8726
Molecular Formula:C40H56
InChIKey:ANVAOWXLWRTKGA-NTXLUARGSA-N
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Compound 18
Molecular Weight:286.4516
Molecular Formula:C20H30O
InChIKey:FPIPGXGPPPQFEQ-HWCYFHEPSA-N
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Compound 19
Molecular Weight:284.4357
Molecular Formula:C20H28O
InChIKey:NCYCYZXNIZJOKI-IOUUIBBYSA-N
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Compound 20
Molecular Weight:300.4351
Molecular Formula:C20H28O2
InChIKey:SHGAZHPCJJPHSC-ZVCIMWCZSA-N
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Compound 21
Molecular Weight:286.4516
Molecular Formula:C20H30O
InChIKey:FPIPGXGPPPQFEQ-OVSJKPMPSA-N
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Compound 23
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 32a
Molecular Weight:544.9362
Molecular Formula:C40H64
InChIKey:YVLPJIGOMTXXLP-JPWSVPCBSA-N
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Compound 32b
Molecular Weight:544.9362
Molecular Formula:C40H64
InChIKey:YVLPJIGOMTXXLP-KEKOKYSKSA-N
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Compound 33'
Molecular Weight:536.8726
Molecular Formula:C40H56
InChIKey:OAIJSZIZWZSQBC-GYZMGTAESA-N
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Compound 62
Molecular Weight:300.4351
Molecular Formula:C20H28O2
InChIKey:SHGAZHPCJJPHSC-XFYACQKRSA-N
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Compound 99
Molecular Weight:410.612
Molecular Formula:C26H34O2S
InChIKey:IBYQBGHBUUQJIV-XTDDRVAVSA-N
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  1. 1 - 114