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Toxicology, 2. Assessment Methods

  1. Wolfgang Dekant,
  2. Spiridon Vamvakas

Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.o27_o15

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Dekant, W. and Vamvakas, S. 2011. Toxicology, 2. Assessment Methods. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Institute of Toxicology, University of Wuerzburg, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2011


The article contains sections titled:

1.Toxicological Studies: General Aspects
2.Acute Toxicity
2.1.Testing for Acute Toxicity by the Oral Route: LD50 Test and Fixed-Dose Method
2.2.Testing for Acute Skin Toxicity
2.3.Testing for Acute Toxicity by Inhalation
3.Repeated-Dose Toxicity Studies: Subacute, Subchronic and Chronic Studies
4.Ophtalmic Toxicity
5.Sensitization Testing
6.Phototoxicity and Photosensitization Testing
7.Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Tests
7.1.Fertility and General Reproductive Performance
7.2.Embryotoxicity and Teratogenicity
7.3.Peri- and Postnatal Toxicity
7.4.Multigeneration Studies
7.5.The Role of Maternal Toxicity in Teratogenesis
7.6.In Vitro Tests for Developmental Toxicity
8.Bioassays to determine the carcinogenicity of chemicals in rodents
9.In vitro and in vivo short-term tests for genotoxicity
9.1.Microbial Tests for Mutagenicity
9.1.1.The Ames Test for Bacterial Mutagenicity
9.1.2.Mutagenicity Tests in Escherichia coli
9.1.3.Fungal Mutagenicity Tests
9.2.Eukaryotic Tests for Mutagenicity
9.2.1.Mutation Tests in Drosophila melanogaster
9.2.2.In Vitro Mutagenicity Tests in Mammalian Cells
9.3.In Vivo Mammalian Mutation Tests
9.3.1.Mouse Somatic Spot Test
9.3.2.Mouse Specific Locus Test
9.3.3.Dominant Lethal Test
9.4.Test Systems Providing Indirect Evidence for DNA Damage
9.4.1.Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (UDS) Assays
9.4.2.Sister-Chromatid Exchange Test
9.5.Tests for Chromosome Aberrations (Cytogenetic Assays)
9.5.1.Cytogenetic Damage and its Consequences
9.5.2.In Vitro Cytogenetic Assays
9.5.3.In Vivo Cytogenetic Assays
9.6.Malignant Transformation of Mammalian Cells in Culture
9.7.In Vivo Carcinogenicity Studies of Limited Duration
9.7.1.Induction of Altered Foci in the Rodent Liver
9.7.2.Induction of Lung Tumors in Specific Sensitive Strains of Mice
9.7.3.Induction of Skin Tumors in Specific Sensitive Strains of Mice
9.8.Methods to Assess Primary DNA Damage
9.8.1.Alkaline Elution Techniques
9.8.2.Methods to Detect and Quantify DNA Modifications
9.9.Interpretation of Results Obtained in Short-Term Tests
10.Evaluation of Toxic Effects on the Immune System
11.Toxicological Evaluation of the Nervous System
11.1.Functional Observational Battery
11.2.Locomotor Activity
12.Effects on the Endocrine System