Standard Article

Plant and Process Safety, 2. Hazardous Materials and Process Conditions

  1. Cordula Wilrich1,
  2. Volkmar Schroeder1,
  3. Elisabeth Brandes2,
  4. Martin Schmidt1,
  5. Peter-Andreas Wandrey1,
  6. Karl-Heinz Mix3,
  7. Klaus-Diter Wehrstedt1,
  8. Herbert Bender4,
  9. Ursula Stephan5,
  10. Albert Eberz6,
  11. Jörg Steinbach7,
  12. Francis Stoessel8

Published Online: 15 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.q20_q01

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Wilrich, C., Schroeder, V., Brandes, E., Schmidt, M., Wandrey, P.-A., Mix, K.-H., Wehrstedt, K.-D., Bender, H., Stephan, U., Eberz, A., Steinbach, J. and Stoessel, F. 2012. Plant and Process Safety, 2. Hazardous Materials and Process Conditions. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Berlin, Germany

  2. 2

    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany

  3. 3

    Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany

  4. 4

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Germany

  5. 5

    Halle/Saale, Germany

  6. 6

    Hennef, Germany

  7. 7

    Schering AG, Berlin, Germany

  8. 8

    Ciba-Geigy AG, Basel, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2012

Chemistry Terms

Choose one or more boxes to highlight terms.

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Flammable Gases and Vapors
2.1.Introduction
2.2.Explosion Limits
2.3.Influence of Temperature and Pressure on Explosion Limits
2.4.Safety Characteristics Derived from Explosion Diagrams—Inerting
2.5.Flammability of Gases in the GHS
2.6.Oxidizing Potential of Gases in the GHS
2.7.Chemically Unstable Gases
2.8.Autoignition Temperature, Minimum Ignition Energy, and Maximum Experimental Safe Gap
2.9.Maximum Explosion Pressure and Maximum Rate of Pressure Rise
3.Combustibility of Liquids
4.Dust Explosions
4.1.Introduction
4.2.Ignition Sensitivity of Dust Clouds
4.3.Explosion Characteristics of Dust Clouds
5.Explosive Condensed Substances
5.1.Introduction
5.2.Chemical Nature and Definition of an Explosion
5.3.Classification of Explosive Substances
5.4.Explosion Mechanisms
5.5.Testing of Explosive Substances
5.6.Conclusions
6.Harmful Effects of Substances
6.1.Introduction
6.2.What is New?
6.3.Routes of Exposure and Toxic Effects
6.4.Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC)
6.5.Control of Exposure to Harmful Substances by Limit Values—Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL)
6.6.Short-Term Exposure Limits for Land-Use Planning and for Emergency Planning
6.7.Limits for the Population at Large under REACH
7.Exothermic and Pressure-Inducing Chemical Reactions
7.1.Introduction
7.1.1.Runaway Potential of Exothermic Reactions
7.1.2.Causes and Consequences of Overpressure-Inducing Exothermic Reactions
7.1.3.Processes Hazard Assessment and Safety Evaluation for Exothermic Reactions
7.1.4.Hazard Characteristics of Exothermic Processes due to Process Design
7.2.Methods of Investigation and their Systematic Application
7.2.1.Screening Methods
7.2.2.Sophisticated Tests and Runaway Kinetic Modeling
7.2.3.Calorimetry
7.2.4.Systematic Testing
7.3.Assessment Criteria
7.3.1.Runaway Scenario
7.3.2.Severity: Adiabatic Temperature Increase
7.3.3.Probability and Kinetics of a Runaway
7.3.4.Assessment of Criticality
7.4.Measures