Intervention Review

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Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation

  1. Adrian R White1,*,
  2. Hagen Rampes2,
  3. Jian Ping Liu3,
  4. Lindsay F Stead4,
  5. John Campbell5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group

Published Online: 23 JAN 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 26 NOV 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000009.pub4


How to Cite

White AR, Rampes H, Liu JP, Stead LF, Campbell J. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD000009. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000009.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Primary Care, Plymouth, UK

  2. 2

    University of Toronto, Department of Psychiatry, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  3. 3

    Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China

  4. 4

    University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford, UK

  5. 5

    Peninsula Medical School University of Exeter, Department of General Practice and Primary Care, Exeter, UK

*Adrian R White, Primary Care, Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, 25 Room N32, ITTC Building, Tamar Science Park, Plymouth, PL6 8BX, UK. adrian.white@pms.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 23 JAN 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Antoniou 2005 {unpublished data only}
  • Antoniou D, Bouros D, Pavlakou G, Chaimala D, Papageorgiou C, Beltegris, et al. Aural electrical stimulation for smoking cessation - a double blind, placebo controlled study [abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2005;26(Suppl 49):388s.
Aycicegi-Dinn 2011 {published data only}
  • Aycicegi-Dinn A, Dinn W. Efficacy of an alternative smoking cessation treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases 2011;30(4):368-81. [CRS-ID: 9400123000011988]
Bier 2002 {published data only}
  • Bier ID, Wilson J, Studt P, Shakleton M. Auricular acupuncture, education, and smoking cessation: a randomized, sham-controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health 2002;92(10):1642-7.
Cai 2000 {published data only}
  • Cai Y, Zhao C, Wong SU, Zhang L, Lim SK. Laser acupuncture for adolescent smokers - a randomized double-blind controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 2000;25(3-4):443-9.
Circo 1985 {published data only}
  • Circo A, Tosto A, Raciti S, Cardillo R, Gulizia M, Oliveri M, et al. First results of an anti-smoke outpatient unit: Comparison among three methods [Primi risultati di un ambulatori antifumo. Confronto fra tre metodice]. Rivista di Cardiologia Preventiva e Riabilitativa 1985;3(2):147-51.
Clavel 1985 {published data only}
  • Clavel F, Benhamou S. Tobacco withdrawal. Comparison of the efficacy of various methods. Intermediate results of a comparative study [Desintoxication tabagique. Comparaison de l'efficacite de differentes methodes. Resultats intermediaires d'une etude comparative]. Presse Medicale 1984;13(16):975-7.
  • Clavel F, Benhamou S, Company-Huertas A, Flamant R. Helping people to stop smoking: randomised comparison of groups being treated with acupuncture and nicotine gum with control group. British Medical Journal Clinical Research Edition 1985;291:1538-9.
Clavel 1992 {published and unpublished data}
  • Clavel F, Paoletti C. [Une étude de différents programmes de désintoxication tabagique portant sur près de 1000 volontaires recrutés dans la population générale : résultats à 1 mois]. Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique 1990;38:133-8.
  • Clavel F, Paoletti C, Benhamou S. A randomised 2x2 factorial design to evaluate different smoking cessation methods. Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique 1992;40:187-90.
  • Clavel-Chapelon F, Paoletti C, Benhamou S. Smoking cessation rates 4 years after treatment by nicotine gum and acupuncture. Preventive Medicine 1997;26:25-8.
Clavel 1992 +NG {published data only}
  • Clavel F, Paoletti C, Benhamou S. A randomised 2x2 factorial design to evaluate different smoking cessation methods. Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique 1992;40(3):187-90.
  • Clavel-Chapelon F, Paoletti C, Benhamou S. Smoking cessation rates 4 years after treatment by nicotine gum and acupuncture. Preventive Medicine 1997;26:25-8.
Cottraux 1983 {published data only}
  • Cottraux J, Schbath J, Messy P, Mollard E, Juenet C, Collet L. Predictive value of MMPI scales on smoking cessation programs outcomes. Acta Psychiatrica Belgiques 1986;86:463-9.
  • Cottraux JA, Harf R, Boissel JP, Schbath J, Bouvard M, Gillet J. Smoking cessation with behaviour therapy or acupuncture - a controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1983;21(4):417-24.
Docherty 2003 {unpublished data only}
  • Docherty G, Gordon D, McAlpine L. Laser and NRT smoking cessation programmes in areas of high social deprivation [Abstract]. Thorax 2003;58(Suppl 3):iii43.
Fritz 2013 {published data only}
  • Fritz DJ, Carney RM, Steinmeyer B, Ditson G, Hill N, Zee-Cheng J. The efficacy of auriculotherapy for smoking cessation: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 2013;26(1):61-70. [CRS-ID: 9400123000018145]
Georgiou 1999 {published data only}
Gilbey 1977 {published data only}
Gillams 1984 {published data only}
Han 2006 {published data only}
  • Han Y. Combining of acupuncture and auricular points applying for treatment of 42 cases of tobacco withdrawal syndrome. Journal of Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion 2006;22(11):16.
He 1997 {published data only}
Huang 2012 {published data only}
  • Huang Y. The Clinical Observation of Nicotine Dependence Treated with Smoke Three-Needles Combine Auricular Pressure Therapy. Masters dissertation, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine.
Kerr 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kerr CM, Lowe PB, Spielholz NI. Low level laser for the stimulation of acupoints for smoking cessation: A double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial and semi structured interviews. Journal of Chinese Medicine 2008;86:46-51.
Labadie 1983 {published data only}
  • Labadie JC, Dones JP, Gachie JP, Fréour P, Perchoc S, et al. [Désintoxication tabagique: acupuncture et traitement médical]. Gazette Medicale de France 1983;90:2741-7.
Lacroix 1977 {published data only}
Lagrue 1980 {published data only}
  • Lagrue G, Poupy JL, Grillot A, Ansquer JC. Antismoking acupuncture. Short-term results of a double-blind comparative study [Acupuncture anti-tabagique. Resultats a court terme d'une etude comparative menee a double insu]. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 1980;9:966.
Lamontagne 1980 {published data only}
  • Lamontagne Y, Annable L, Gagnon MA. Acupuncture for smokers: lack of long-term therapeutic effect in a controlled study. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1980;5:787-90.
Leung 1991 {published data only}
Li 2009 {published data only}
  • Li Y, Shen T, Cao L, et al. Clinical research of the seed of cowherb auricular pressing in treating 70 cases of quitting smoking. Jilin Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2009;29(6):505-6.
Martin 1981a {published data only}
Martin 1981b {published data only}
Parker 1977a {published data only}
Parker 1977b {published data only}
Pickworth 1997 {published data only}
Scheuer 2005 {unpublished data only}
  • Scheuer E. Effectiveness of neuroelectric therapy in inducing smoking cessation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2005;7(4):648-9.
Steiner 1982 {published data only}
Tian 1996 {published data only}
  • Tian Z, Chu Y. Treating smoking addiction with the ear point seed pressing method. Journal of Chinese Medicine 1996;52:5-6.
Vandevenne 1985 {published data only}
  • Vandevenne A, Rempp M, Burghard G. Study of the specific contribution of acupuncture to tobacco detoxication [Etude de l'action spécifique de l'acupuncture dans la cure de sevrage tabagique]. Sem Hôpital Paris 1985;61:2155-60.
Vibes 1977 {published and unpublished data}
  • Vibes J. Clinical trial of the role of acupuncture in the fight against tobacco addiction [Essai therapeutique sur le role de l'acupuncture dans la lutte contre le tabagisme]. Acupuncture 1977;51:13-20.
Waite 1998 {published data only}
  • Waite NR, Clough JB. A single-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a simple acupuncture treatment in the cessation of smoking. British Journal of General Practice 1998;48:1487-90.
White 1998 {published data only}
White 2007 {published data only}
  • White AR, Moody RC, Campbell JL. Acupressure for smoking cessation--a pilot study. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine 2007;7:8.
Wing 2010 {published data only}
  • Wing YK, Lee A, Wong ELY, Leung PC, Zhang L, Pang ESY. Auricular acupressure for smoking cessation: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Medical Acupuncture 2010;22(4):265-71. [CRS-ID: 9400123000006044]
Wu 2007 {published data only}
  • Wu TP, Chen FP, Liu JY, Lin MH, Hwang SJ. A randomized controlled clinical trial of auricular acupuncture in smoking cessation. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA 2007;70(8):331-8.
Yeh 2009 {published data only}
  • Yeh ML, Chang CY, Chu NF, Chen HH. A six-week acupoint stimulation intervention for quitting smoking. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 2009;37(5):829-36.
Zhang 2013 {published data only}
  • Zhang AL, Di YM, Worsnop C, May BH, Xue CC. Ear acupressure for smoking cessation: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Forschende Komplementarmedizin (2006) 2013;20(4):290-4. [CRS-ID: 9400107000001963]
  • Zhang AL, Di YM, Worsnop C, May BH, da Costa C, Xue CCL. Ear acupressure for smoking cessation: A randomised controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013;2013:Article ID 637073. [CRS-ID: 9400107000001975]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Boureau 1978 {published data only}
  • Boureau F, Willer JC. Failure of naloxone to modify the anti-tobacco effect of acupuncture [Desintoxification tabagique par l'acupuncture: essai negative de blocage par la naloxone]. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 1978;7:1401.
Boutros 1998 {published data only}
Chen 2006 {published data only}
  • Chen HH, Yeh ML, Chao YH. Comparing effects of auricular acupressure with and without an Internet-assisted program on smoking cessation and self-efficacy of adolescents. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2006;12:147-52.
Fang 1983 {published data only}
  • Fang YA. [Clinical study on auricular acupuncture for treatment of smoking addiction] [Chinese]. Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion 1983;2:30-1.
He 2012 {published data only}
  • He Y-S, Wu Y-S, Ouyang, M-F, Li G-X, Li H-J, Xie H-E. Efficacy observation of depression in nicotine withdrawal treated with acupuncture. World Journal of Acupuncture-Moxibustion 2012;22(1):13-16, 61.
Huang 2001 {published data only}
  • Huang W. [Smoking cessation with ear point vacaria seed pressure in 158 cases]. Journal of Guangxi Medical University 2001;18:430. [CRS-ID: 9400107000001966]
Hyun 2010 {published data only}
  • Hyun MK, Kang KW, Koo CM, Han SS, Kim AR, Jung SY, et al. A randomized controlled trial of whole-body acupuncture for tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2007;13(8):889. [CRS-ID: 9400123000004620]
  • Hyun MK, Lee MS, Kang K, Choi SM. Body acupuncture for nicotine withdrawal symptoms: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Evididence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine 2010;7:233-8.
Kang 2005 {published data only}
  • Kang H-C, Shin K-K, Kim K-K, Youn B-B. The effects of the acupuncture treatment for smoking cessation in high school student smokers. Yonsie Medical Journal 2005;46:206-12.
MacHovec 1978 {published data only}
  • MacHovec FJ, Man SC. Acupuncture and hypnosis compared: fifty-eight cases. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1978;21(1):45-7.
Man 1975 {published data only}
  • Man SC. A preliminary clinical study of smoking treated by stitch-auriculo-acupuncture. Proceedings of the Third World Symposium on Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine. New York, March 1975.
Sun 2000 {published data only}
  • Sun C. [Roles of psychological nursing played in the course of auricle point applying to help individuals giving up smoking] [Chinese]. Shanxi Nursing Journal 2000;14(2):69-70.
Tan 1987 {published data only}
Wang 2010 {published data only}
  • Wang YZ, Chen HH, Yeh ML, Lin SD. Auricular acupressure combined with multimedia instruction or alone for quitting smoking in young adults: A quasi-experimental study. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2010;47:1089-95.
Wang 2013 {published data only}
  • Wang W-H, Song Y-X. Clinical trial of acupuncture plus moxibustion for smoke cessation. Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion 2013;32(4):287-88.
Zhang 1989 {published data only}
  • Zhang J, Tan S, Yu J. [120 cases of quitting smoking by pressing seeds on body points and auricular points]. Modern Traditional Chinese Medicine 1989;4:28-9.
Zhou 2010 {published data only}
  • Zhou JH, Wang RF. Observation of therapeutic effect of electronic acupuncture combined with ear acupressure with magnetic balls. Journal of NanJing TCM University 2010;26(1):79-80.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Shahrokhi 2013 {published data only}
  • Shahrokhi S, Kian M, Eftekhari F, Baum A, Shirkhanloo H. The short and long term abstinence rate of smoking by acupuncture in the Iranian samples. Journal of Diabetes 2013;5(Suppl s1):70. [CRS-ID: 9400107000000605]

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Leung 2012 {published data only}
  • Leung L, Neufeld T, Marin S. Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation--a pilot study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012;12:11. [CRS-ID: 9400123000012549]

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Ashenden 1997
Brewington 1994
  • Brewington V, Smith M, Lipton D. Acupuncture as a detoxification treatment: an analysis of controlled research. Journal of Substance Abuse and Treatment 1994;11(4):289-307.
Castera 2002
  • Castera P, Nguyen J, Gerlier J-L, Robert S. Is acupuncture beneficial in tobacco cessation, and is its effect specific? A meta-analysis. [L'acupuncture est-elle bénéfique dans la sevrage tabagigue, son action est-elle spécifique? Une méta-analyse]. Acupuncture & Moxibustion 2002;1(3-4):76-85.
Chae 2004
  • Chae Y, Yang CH, Kwon YK, Kim MR, Pyun KH, Hahm DH. Acupuncture attenuates repeated nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization and c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of the rat. Neuroscience Letters 2004;358(2):87-90.
Cheng 1980
  • Cheng RS, Pomeranz B, Yu G. Electroacupuncture treatment of morphine-dependent mice reduces signs of withdrawal, without showing cross-tolerance. European Journal of Pharmacology 1980;68:477-81.
Cheng 2012
  • Cheng H-M, Chung Y-C, Chen H-H, Chang Y-H, Yeh M-L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acupoint stimulation on smoking cessation. The American journal of Chinese medicine 2012;40(3):429-42.
Choy 1978
  • Choy YM, Tso WW, Fung KP, Leung KC, Tsang YF, Lee CY, et al. Suppression of narcotic withdrawals and plasma ACTH by auricular electroacupuncture. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1978;82:305-9.
Choy 1983
Clavel 1997
Clement-Jones 1979
  • Clement-Jones V, McLoughlin L, Lowry PJ, Besser GM, Rees LH, Wen HL. Acupuncture in heroin addicts: changes in met-enkephalin and beta-endorphin in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Lancet 1979;2:380-3.
Cummings 2009
Fonnebo 2007
  • Fonnebo V, Grimsgaard S, Walach H, Ritenbaugh C, Norheim AJ, MacPherson H, et al. Researching complementary and alternative treatments--the gatekeepers are not at home. BMC medical research methodology 2007;7:7-7.
Fuller 1982
Han 1993
Higgins 2003
Hui 2005
  • Hui KK, Liu J, Marina O, Napadow V, Haselgrove C, Kwong KK, et al. The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI. NeuroImage 2005;27(3):479-96.
Jiang 1994
  • Jiang A, Cui M. Analysis of therapeutic effects of acupuncture on abstinence from smoking. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1994;14(1):56-63.
Jobst 1995
  • Jobst KA. A critical analysis of acupuncture in pulmonary disease: efficacy and safety of the acupuncture needle. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1995;1(1):57-85.
Klawansky 1995
  • Klawansky S, Yeung A, Berkey C, Shah N, Phan H, Chalmers TC. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cranial electrostimulation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1995;183:478-85.
Law 1995
  • Law M, Tang JL. An analysis of the effectiveness of interventions intended to help people stop smoking. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995;155:1933-41.
Lewith 1995
  • Lewith GT. The treatment of tobacco addiction. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 1995;3:142-5.
Liang 2010
  • Liang J, Ping XJ, Li YJ, Ma YY, Wu LZ, Han JS, et al. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference in rats is inhibited by electroacupuncture at 2 Hz: role of enkephalin in the nucleus accumbens. Neuropharmacology 2010;58(1):233-40.
Lund 2009
  • Lund I, Naslund J, Lundeberg T. Minimal acupuncture is not a valid placebo control in randomised controlled trials of acupuncture: a physiologist's perspective. Chinese Medicine 2009;4:1.
Lundeberg 2008
Ng 1975
  • Ng LKY, Douthitt TC, Thoa NB, Albert CA. Modification of morphine-withdrawal syndrome in rats following transauricular stimulation: an experimental paradigm for auricular acupuncture. Biological Psychiatry 1975;10:575-80.
Patterson 1993
  • Patterson MA, Patterson L, Flood NV, Winston JR, Paterson SI. Electrostimulation in drug and alcohol detoxification: significance of stimulation criteria in clinical success. Addiction Research 1993;1:130-44.
Sakurai 2000
Schwartz 1988
Smith 1988
Tahiri 2012
  • Tahiri M, Mottillo S, Joseph L, Pilote L, Eisenberg MJ. Alternative smoking cessation aids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Medicine 2012;125(6):576-84.
Ter Riet 1990
  • Ter Riet G, Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. A meta-analysis of studies into the effect of acupuncture on addiction. Brirish Journal of General Practice 1990;40:379-82.
Vincent 1987
  • Vincent CA, Richardson PH. Acupuncture for some common disorders: a review of evaluative research. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1987;37:77-81.
Wen 1973
  • Wen HL, Cheung SYC. Treatment of drug addiction by acupuncture and electrical stimulation. Asian Medical Journal 1973;9:138-41.
White 2001
  • White AR, Filshie J, Cummings TM. Clinical trials of acupuncture: consensus recommendations for optimal treatment, sham controls and blinding. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 2001;9(4):237-45.
White 2009
Yoon 2004
  • Yoon SS, Kwon YK, Kim MR, Shim I, Kim KJ, Lee MH, Lee YS, Golden GT, Yang CH. Acupuncture-mediated inhibition of ethanol-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens through the GABA(B) receptor. Neuroscience Letters 2004;369(3):234-8.
Yoon 2010
  • Yoon SS, Kim H, Choi KH, Lee BH, Lee YK, Lim SC, et al. Acupuncture suppresses morphine self-administration through the GABA receptors. Brain Research Bulletin 2010;81(6):625-30.
Yoshimoto 2006
  • Yoshimoto K, Fukuda F, Hori M, Kato B, Kato H, Hattori H, et al. Acupuncture stimulates the release of serotonin, but not dopamine, in the rat nucleus accumbens. Tohoku J Exp Med 2006;208(4):321-6.
Zhang 1992
  • Zhang X. Acupuncture and moxibustion in smoking abstinence: a five year review with analysis of reports on the treatment of 15,866 cases. International Journal of Clinical Acupuncture 1992;3(2):149-54.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
White 1997
  • White AR, Rampes H, Ernst E. Acupuncture for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1997, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000009]
White 2002
White 2011