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Thyrotropin-releasing hormone added to corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for preventing neonatal respiratory disease

  1. Caroline A Crowther1,2,*,
  2. Zarko Alfirevic3,
  3. Shanshan Han2,
  4. Ross R Haslam4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 21 NOV 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 17 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000019.pub3


How to Cite

Crowther CA, Alfirevic Z, Han S, Haslam RR. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone added to corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for preventing neonatal respiratory disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD000019. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000019.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Auckland, Liggins Institute, Auckland, New Zealand

  2. 2

    The University of Adelaide, ARCH: Australian Research Centre for Health of Women and Babies, The Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

  3. 3

    The University of Liverpool, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Liverpool, UK

  4. 4

    The University of Adelaide, Department of Perinatal Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

*Caroline A Crowther, caroline.crowther@adelaide.edu.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 21 NOV 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Abuhamad 1999 {published data only}
  • Abuhamad A, Green G, Heyl P, de Veciana M. The combined use of corticosteroids and thyrotropin releasing hormone in pregnancies with preterm rupture of membranes: a randomised double blind controlled trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1999;180(1 Pt 2):S96.
ACTOBAT 1995 {published and unpublished data}
  • Crowther C, Hiller J, Haslam R, Robinson J, the ACTOBAT Study Group. Australian Collaborative Trial of Betamethasone and TRH for the prevention of neonatal respiratory disease (ACTOBAT). International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 1994;46:59.
  • Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Haslam RR, Robinson JS, the ACTOBAT Study Group. Australian collaborative trial of antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone: Adverse effects at 12-month follow-up. Pediatrics 1997;99:311-7.
  • Hiller JE, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Robinson JS, the ACTOBAT Study Group. Australian collaborative trial af antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone (ACTOBAT): 12 month follow-up. 4th Annual Congress of the Perinatal Society of Australia & New Zealand; 1998 March 30-April 4; Alice Springs, Australia. Alice Springs, 1998:77.
  • The ACTOBAT Study Group. Australian collaborative trial of betamethasone and thyrotropin releasing hormone (ACTOBAT) for the prevention of neonatal respiratory disease. Lancet 1995;345:877-82.
Ballard 1992b {published and unpublished data}
  • Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Creasy RK, Padbury J, Polk DH, Bracken M, et al. Plasma thyroid hormones and prolactin in premature infants and their mothers after treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Pediatric Research 1992;32(6):673-8.
  • Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Creasy R, Gross I, Main D, Padbury JF, et al. Prenatal treatment with thyrotropin releasing hormone plus corticosteroid: absence of maternal, fetal or neonatal side effects. Clinical Research 1990;38:192A.
  • Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Creasy R, Gross I, Main D, Padbury JF, et al. Prenatal treatment with thyrotropin releasing hormone plus corticosteroid: absence of maternal, fetal or neonatal side effects. Pediatric Research 1991;29:202A.
  • Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Creasy R, Gross I, Padbury JF, TRH Study Group. Thyrotropin releasing hormone plus corticosteroids decreases chronic lung disease in very low birth weight infants. Pediatric Research 1991;29(4):1828A.
  • Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Creasy R, Padbury J, Polk DH, Bracken M, et al. Respiratory disease in very-low birthweight infants after prenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone and glucocorticoid. Lancet 1992;339:510-5.
Ballard 1998 {published data only}
  • Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Ning Y, Cnann A, Boardman C, Pinto-Martin J, et al. Plasma thyroid hormones in premature infants: effect of gestational age and antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone treatment. Pediatric Research 1998;44:642-9.
  • Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Boardman C, Cnaan A, Davis DJ, Hart MC, et al. Antenatal thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) for the prevention of chronic lung disease (CLD) in the preterm infant. Pediatric Research 1997;41:246A.
  • Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Cnaan A, Pinto-Martin J, Davis DJ, Padbury JF, et al. Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone to prevention lung disease in preterm infants. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;338:493-8.
Campos 1993 {published data only}
  • Campos G, Herrman F, Dorner M. Combined hormonal therapy for the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome and its consequences. Seminars in Perinatology 1993;17(4):267-74.
Carlan 1991 {published data only}
  • Carlan SJ, Parsons M, O'Brien WF, Krammer J. Pharmacologic pulmonary maturation in preterm premature rupture of membranes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1991;164:371.
Ceriani 1992 {published data only}
  • Althabe F, Fustihara C, Althabe O, Cernades JMC. Controlled trial of prenatal betamethasone plus TRH vs betamethasone plus placebo for prevention of RDS in preterm infants. Pediatric Research 1991;29:200A.
  • Ceriani Cernadas J, Fustihara C, Althabe F, Althabe O. Controlled trial of prenatal betamethasone (B) plus TRH for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Pediatric Research 1992;32:738.
Chile 1998 {published data only}
  • Collaborative Santiago Surfactant Group. Collaborative trial of prenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone and corticosteroids for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1998;178:33-9.
  • Maturana A, Torres J, Salinas R, Moya F, for the Collaborative Group. Controlled trial of prenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and betamethasone (B) for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Pediatric Research 1997;41:163A.
  • Reyes G, Gonzalez AR, Gomez G, Blasini I, Rivera CE. Comparative study of the effectiveness of thyroxine and steroids on reduction of neonatal morbidity: outcome at 20 months follow-up. Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal 2004;23(1):9-12.
  • Santiago R, Romaguera J. Steroids vs steroids and thyroxine to accelerate fetal maturation of patients in arrested preterm labor. Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal 1999;18:156.
Crowther 1995 {published data only}
  • Crowther C, Haslam R, Hiller J, McGee T, Ryall R, Robinson J. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone: Does two hundred micrograms provide effective stimulation to the preterm fetal pituitary gland compared with four hundred micrograms?. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995;173:719-23.
  • Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Hiller JE, McGee T, Robinson JS. Thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) and lung maturation: does 200mcg TRH provide effective stimulation to the preterm fetal pituitary gland compared with 400mcg TRH?. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 1991;36 Suppl:32.
Europe 1999 {unpublished data only}
  • Alfirevic Z, Boer K, Brocklehurst P, Buimer M, Elbourne D, Kok J, et al. Two trials of antenatal thyrotrophin-releasing hormone for fetal maturation: stopping before the due date. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1999;106:898-906.
  • Alfirevic Z, Elbourne D, Brocklehurst P, Truesdale A, Neilson J. Randomised controlled trial of antenatal administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) to women at risk of premature delivery. Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine 1996;1(1):10.
  • Briet JM, van Sonderen L, Buimer M, Boer K, Kok JH. Neurodevelopmental outcome of children treated with antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Pediatrics 2002;110(2 Pt 1):249-53.
  • Brocklehurst P. Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone for fetal maturity: two concurrent randomised controlled trials (The Antenatal TRH Trial and the Thyroneth Trial). British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1998;105:81.
Jikihara 1990 {published and unpublished data}
  • Jikihara H, Sawada Y, Imai S, Morishige K, Taniguchi T, Nohara A, et al. Maternal administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone for prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Proceedings of 6th Congress of the Federation of the Asia-Oceania Perinatal Societies; 1990 Oct 22-26; Perth, Western Australia. 1990:87.
Kim 2000 {published data only}
  • Kim EA, Park SJ, Yoon HS, Kim KS, Won HS, Lee IS, et al. Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone to prevent respiratory distress syndrome in Korean preterm. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2000 May 12-16; Boston, MA, USA. 2000.
  • Kim EA, Park SJ, Yoon HS, Kim KS, Won HS, Lee IS, et al. Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone to prevent respiratory distress syndrome in Korean preterm. Pediatric Research 2000;47:407A.
Knight 1994 {published and unpublished data}
  • Knight DB, Liggins GC, Wealthall SR. A randomised controlled trial of the effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone with betamethasone in mothers likely to deliver prematurely on neonatal outcome. Proceedings of the Australian Perinatal Society; 1992; Queensland, Australia. 1992:A9.
  • Knight DB, Liggins GC, Wealthall SR. A randomized, controlled trial of antepartum thyrotropin-releasing hormone and betamethasone in the prevention of respiratory disease in preterm infants. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1994;171:11-6.
  • Knight DB, Wealthall SR, Liggins GC, Howie RN. A randomised double blind controlled trial of antepartum TRH with betamethasone in the prevention of neonatal respiratory disease. New Zealand Medical Journal 1989;102:195.
  • Liggins GC, Knight DB, Wealthall SR, Howie RN. A randomized double-blind trial of antepartum TRH and steroids in the prevention of neonatal respiratory disease. Clinical reproductive medicine - the Liggins years; 1988 July 29-30; Auckland, New Zealand. 1988.
Morales 1989 {published data only}
  • Morales WJ, O'Brien WF, Angel JL, Knuppel RA, Sawai S. Fetal lung maturation: the combined use of corticosteroids and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1989;73:111-6.
Voto 1998 {published data only}
  • Voto L, Lede R, Scaglia H, Zylberstein C, Zapasterio J, Orti J, et al. Effects of maternal administration of betamethasone, with and without TRH, on serum PRL, TSH and iodothyronine levels in Rh-isoimmunized fetuses: a randomized clinical trial. Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine 1998;3:447-51.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Devlieger 1997 {published data only}
  • Devlieger R, Vanderlinden S, de Zegher F, Van Assche FA, Spitz B. Effect of antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone on uterine contractility, blood pressure, and maternal heart rate. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;177(2):431-3.
  • Spitz B, Devlieger R, Van Assche FA. Antenatal TRH-treatment: effects on uterine contractions, blood pressure and maternal heart rate. 10th World Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1996 August 4-8; Seattle, Washington, USA. 1996:191.
Dola 1997 {published data only}
  • Dola C, Nageotte P, Rumney P, Towers C, Asrat T, Freeman R, et al. The effects of antenatal treatment with betamethasone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in patients with preterm premature rupture of the membrane (PPROM). American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;176:549.
  • Jackson D, Nageotte M, Towers C, Asrat T, Freeman R, Gardner K, et al. Thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) versus betamethasone or placebo in preterm premature ruptured membranes: a prospective randomised study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1991;170:383.
Roti 1990 {published data only}
  • Roti E, Gardini E, Minelli R, Bianconi L, Alboni A, Braverman LE. Thyrotropin releasing hormone does not stimulate prolactin release in the preterm human fetus. Acta Endocrinologica 1990;122(4):462-6.
Torres 1994 {published data only}
Torres 1995 {published data only}
  • Torres J, Foradori A, Salinas R, Poblete JP, Maturana A, Roman A, et al. Dose related response of the fetal pituitary-thyroid axis to maternal administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Pediatric Research 1995;2:241A.
Yoder 1997 {published data only}
  • Yoder BA. Trial to compare antenatal steroids alone, TRH alone, steroids + TRH and placebo in infants <32 weeks' gestation. Personal communication 1997.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Pearlman 1997 {unpublished data only}
  • Pearlman SA. Trial to compare steroids vs steroids + TRH to mothers at 23-28 weeks with PROM. Personal communication March 6 1997.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ballard 1992a
  • Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Creasy RK, Padbury J, Polk DH, Bracken M, et al. Plasma thyroid hormones and prolactin in premature infants and their mothers after treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Pediatric Research 1992;32(6):673-8.
Crowther 2011
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Jackson 1982
Li 2012
  • Li Z, Zeki R, Hilder L, Sullivan EA. Australia's Mothers and Babies 2010. Perinatal statistics series no. 27. Cat. no. PER 57. Canberra: AIHW National Perinatal Epidemiology and Statistics Unit, 2012.
Liggins 1972
  • Liggins GC, Howie RN. A controlled trial of antepartum glucocorticoid treatment for prevention of the respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. Pediatrics 1972;50:515-25.
Liggins 1988
  • Liggins GC, Schellenberg JC, Manzai M, Kitterman JA, Lee CC. Synergisms of cortisol and thyrotropin releasing hormone in lung maturation in fetal sheep. Journal of Applied Physiology 1988;65:1880-4.
Moore 2012
  • Moore T, Hennessy EM, Myles J, Johnson SJ, Draper ES, Costeloe KL, et al. Neurological and developmental outcome in extremely preterm children born in England in 1995 and 2006: the EPICure studies. British Medical Journal 2012;345:e7961.
Nassar 2001
  • Nassar N, Sullivan EA. Australia's Mothers and Babies 1999. Vol. AIHW Cat. No. PER 19 (Perinatal Statistics Series no. 11). Sydney: Australian Institiute of Health and Welfare, National Perinatal Statistics Unit, 2001.
RevMan 2012
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.2. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2012.
Roberts 2006
Roti 1981
  • Roti E, Gnudi A, Braverman L, Robuschi G, Emanuele R, Bandini P, et al. Human cord blood concentrations of thyrotropin, thyroglobulin and iodothyronines after maternal administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1981;53:813-7.
Saigal 2008
Schellenberg 1988
  • Schellenberg JC, Liggins GC, Manzai M, Kitterman JA, Lee C. Synergistic hormonal effects on lung maturation in fetal sheep. Journal of Applied Physiology 1988;65:94-100.
Serenius 2013
  • Serenius F, Källén K, Blennow M, Ewald U, Fellman V, Holmström G, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely preterm infants at 2.5 years after active perinatal care in Sweden. JAMA 2013;309(17):1810-20.
Stevens 2007
  • Stevens TP, Blennow M, Myers EH, Soll R. Early surfactant administration with brief ventilation vs. selective surfactant and continued mechanical ventilation for preterm infants with or at risk for respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003063.pub3]

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Crowther 1991
  • Crowther CA Grant AM. Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone prior to preterm delivery. In: Chalmers I (ed) Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. Version 1.2. Disc Issue 6 1991.
Crowther 1995
  • Crowther CA, Alfirevic Z. Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prior to preterm delivery [revised 28 April 1994]. In: Enkin MW, Keirse MJNC, Renfrew MJ, Neilson JP, Crowther C (eds.) Pregnancy and Childbirth Module. In: The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Database [database on disk and CDROM]. The Cochrane Collaboration; Issue 2, Oxford: Update Software; 1995.
Crowther 1997
  • Crowther CA, Alfirevic Z, Haslam RR. Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prior to preterm delivery. In: Neilson JP, Crowther CA, Hodnett ED, Hofmeyr GJ, Keirse MJNC (eds.) Pregnancy and Childbirth Module of The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, [updated 03 June 1997]. Available in The Cochrane Library [database on disk and CDROM]. The Cochrane Collaboration; Issue 3. Oxford: Update Software; 1997. Updated quarterly.
Crowther 1999
  • Crowther CA, Alfirevic Z, Haslam RR. Prenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone for preterm birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1999, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000019]
Crowther 2004
  • Crowther CA, Alfirevic Z, Han S, Haslam RR. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone added to corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for preventing neonatal respiratory disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000019.pub2]
Grant 1989
  • Grant AM. Antenatal TRH for prevention of neonatal respiratory disease. In: Chalmers I (ed) Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. Version 1.00. Disc Issue 1 1989.