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Antenatal dietary advice and supplementation to increase energy and protein intake

  1. Erika Ota1,*,
  2. Ruoyan Tobe-Gai2,
  3. Rintaro Mori3,
  4. Diane Farrar4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 12 SEP 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 22 DEC 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000032.pub2


How to Cite

Ota E, Tobe-Gai R, Mori R, Farrar D. Antenatal dietary advice and supplementation to increase energy and protein intake. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD000032. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000032.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Department of Global Health Policy, Tokyo, Japan

  2. 2

    School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China

  3. 3

    National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Health Policy, Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

  4. 4

    Bradford Institute for Health Research, Maternal and Child Health, Bradford, UK

*Erika Ota, Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0011, Japan. e-i@umin.ac.jp.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 12 SEP 2012

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Blackwell 1973 {published data only}
  • Adair LS, Pollitt E. Outcome of maternal nutritional supplementation: a comprehensive review of the Bacon Chow Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1985;41:948-78.
  • Adair LS, Pollitt E, Mueller WH. The Bacon Chow Study: effect of nutritional supplementation on maternal weight and skinfold thickness during pregnancy and lactation. British Journal of Nutrition 1984;51:357-69.
  • Blackwell RQ, Chow BF, Chinn KSK, Blackwell BN, Hsu SC. Prospective maternal nutrition study in Taiwan: rationale, study design, feasibility and preliminary findings. Nutrition Reports International 1973;7:517-32.
  • Joos SK, Pollitt E, Mueller WH, Albright DL. The Bacon Chow Study: maternal nutritional supplementation and infant behavioral development. Child Development 1983;54:669-76.
  • McDonald EC, Pollitt E, Mueller W, Hsueh AM, Sherwin R. The Bacon Chow study: maternal nutritional supplementation and birth weight of offspring. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981;34:2133-44.
  • Mueller WH, Pollitt E. The Bacon Chow study: effects of maternal nutritional supplementation on birth measurements of children, accounting for the size of a previous (unsupplemented) child. Early Human Development 1984;10:127-36.
  • Mueller WH, Pollitt E. The Bacon Chow Study: effects of nutrition supplementation on sibling-sibling anthropometric correlations. Human Biology 1982;54:455-68.
  • Pollitt E, Mueller W. Maternal nutrition supplementation during pregnancy interferes with physical resemblance of siblings at birth according to infant sex. Early Human Development 1982;7:251-6.
  • Wohlleb JC, Pollitt E, Mueller WH, Bigelow R. The Bacon Chow Study: maternal supplementation and infant growth. Early Human Development 1983;9:79-91.
Briley 2002 {published data only}
  • Briley C, Flanagan NL, Lewis NM. In-home prenatal nutrition intervention increased dietary iron intakes and reduced low birthweight in low-income African-American women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002;102(7):984-7.
Ceesay 1997 {published data only}
  • Ceesay SM, Saidykhan S, Prentice AM, Cole TJ, Day KC, Rowland MGM, et al. Effect on birth weight of a community-based supplementation programme for pregnant Gambian women: first year results. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 1992;51:77A.
  • Ceesay SN, Prentice AM, Cole TJ, Foord F, Weaver LT, Poskitt EME, et al. Effects on birth weight and perinatal mortality of maternal dietary supplements in rural Gambia: 5 year randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1997;315:786-90.
  • Hawkesworth S, Prentice AM, Fulford AJ, Moore SE. Dietary supplementation of rural Gambian women during pregnancy does not affect body composition in offspring at 11-17 years of age. Journal of Nutrition 2008;138(12):2468-73.
  • Hawkesworth S, Prentice AM, Fulford AJ, Moore SE. Maternal protein-energy supplementation does not affect adolescent blood pressure in The Gambia. International Journal of Epidemiology 2009;38(1):119-27.
  • Moore SE, Collinson AC, Prentice AM. Immune function in rural Gambian children is not related to season of birth, birth size, or maternal supplementation status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74:840-7.
Elwood 1981 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ben-Shlomo Y, Holly J, McCarthy A, Savage P, Davies D, Davey Smith G. Prenatal and postnatal milk supplementation and adult insulin-like growth factor I: long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2005;14(5):1336-9.
  • Ben-Shlomo Y, McCarthy A, Hughes R, Tilling K, Davies D, Smith GD. Immediate postnatal growth is associated with blood pressure in young adulthood: the Barry Caerphilly growth study. Hypertension 2008;52:638-44.
  • Elwood PC, Haley TJL, Hughes SJ, Sweetnam PM, Gray OP, Davies DP. Child growth (0-5 years), and the effect of entitlement to a milk supplement. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1981;56:831-5.
Girija 1984 {published and unpublished data}
Hunt 1976 {published data only}
  • Hunt IF, Jacob M, Ostergard NJ, Masri G, Clark VA, Coulson AH. Effect of nutrition education on the nutritional status of low-income pregnant women of Mexican descent. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1976;29:675-84.
Huybregts 2009 {published data only}
  • Huybregts L, Roberfroid D, Lanou H, Menten J, Meda N, Van Camp J, et al. Prenatal food supplementation fortified with multiple micronutrients increases birth length: a randomized controlled trial in rural Burkina Faso. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;90(6):1593-600.
Kafatos 1989 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kafatos AG, Vlachonikolis IG, Codrington CA. Nutrition during pregnancy: the effects of an educational intervention program in Greece. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50:970-9.
Kardjati 1988 {published data only}
  • Kardjati S, Kusin JA, De With C. Energy supplementation in the last trimester of pregnancy in East Java: I. Effect on birthweight. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1988;95:783-94.
  • Kardjati S, Kusin JA, Schofield WM, De With C. Energy supplementation in the last trimester of pregnancy in East Java, Indonesia: effect on maternal anthropometry. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990;52:987-94.
  • Kusin JA, Kardjati S, Houtkooper JM, Renqvist UH. Energy supplementation during pregnancy and postnatal growth. Lancet 1992;340:623-6.
  • Van Steenbergen WM, Kusin JA, Kardjati S, De With C. Energy supplementation in the last trimester of pregnancy in East Java, Indonesia: effect on breast-milk output. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50:274-9.
Mora 1978 {published data only}
  • Christiansen N, Mora JO, Navarro L, Herrera MG. Effects of nutritional supplementation during pregnancy upon birth weight: the influence of pre-supplementation on diet. Nutrition Reports International 1980;21:615-24.
  • Herrera MG, Mora JO, De Paredes B, Wagner M. Maternal weight/height and the effect of food supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation. A Nestlé Foundation workshop; 1979 April 26-27; Lausanne, Switzerland. Bern: Hans Huber, 1980:252-63.
  • Mora JO, Clement J, Christiansen N, Suescun J, Wagner M, Herrera MG. Nutritional supplementation and the outcome of pregnancy. III. Perinatal and neonatal mortality. Nutrition Reports International 1978;18:167-75.
  • Mora JO, De Navarro L, Clement J, Wagner M, De Paredes B, Herrera MG. The effect of nutritional supplementation on calorie and protein intake of pregnant women. Nutrition Reports International 1978;17:217-28.
  • Mora JO, De Paredes B, Wagner M, De Navarro L, Suescun J, Christiansen N, et al. Nutritional supplementation and the outcome of pregnancy. I. Birth weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1979;32:455-62.
  • Mora JO, Herrera MG, Suescun J, De Navarro L, Wagner M. The effects of nutritional supplementation on physical growth of children at risk of malnutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981;34:1885-92.
  • Mora JO, Sanchez R, De Paredes B, Herrera MG. Sex related effects of nutritional supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth. Early Human Development 1981;5:243-51.
  • Overholt C, Sellers SG, Mora JO, de Paredes B, Herrera MG. The effects of nutritional supplementation on the diets of low-income families at risk of malnutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982;36:1153-61.
  • Vuori L, Christiansen N, Clement J, Mora JO, Wagner M, Herrera MG. Nutritional supplementation and the outcome of pregnancy. II. Visual habituation at 15 days. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1979;32:463-9.
  • Vuori L, De Navarro L, Christiansen N, Mora JO, Herrera MG. Food supplementation of pregnant women at risk of malnutrition and their newborns' responsiveness to stimulation. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 1980;22:61-71.
  • Waber DP, Vuori-Christiansen L, Ortiz N, Clement JR, Christiansen NE, Mora JO, et al. Nutritional supplementation, maternal education, and cognitive development of infants at risk of malnutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981;34:807-13.
Ross 1985 {published data only}
Rush 1980 {published and unpublished data}
  • Jacobson HN. A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation. Pediatrics 1980;65:835-6.
  • Pereira M, Rush D, Campbell-Brown M, Rosso P, Winick M, Brasel JA, et al. Effects of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the placenta: report of a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982;36:229-34.
  • Rush D, Kristal A, Blanc W, Navarro C, Chauham P, Campbell-Brown M, et al. The effects of maternal cigarette smoking on placental morphology, histomorphometry, and biochemistry. American Journal of Perinatology 1986;3:263-72.
  • Rush D, Kristal A, Navarro C, Chauhan P, Blanc W, Naeye R, et al. The effects of dietary supplementation during pregnancy on placental morphology, pathology, and histomorphometry. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1984;39:863-71.
  • Rush D, Stein Z, Susser, M. The rationale for, and design of, a randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy. Nutrition Reports International 1973;7:547-53.
  • Rush D, Stein Z, Susser M. A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation in New York City. Pediatrics 1980;65:683-97.
  • Rush D, Stein Z, Susser M. Controlled trial of prenatal nutrition supplementation defended. Pediatrics 1980;66:656-8.
  • Rush D, Stein Z, Susser M. Diet in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplements. Birth Defects 1980;16:1-187.
  • Stein Z, Susser M, Rush D. Prenatal nutrition and birth weight: experiments and quasi-experiments in the past decade. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1978;21:287-97.
Sweeney 1985 {published data only}
Viegas 1982a {published data only}
  • Viegas OAC, Scott PH, Cole TJ, Mansfield HN, Wharton P, Wharton BA. Dietary protein energy supplementation of pregnant Asian mothers at Sorrento, Birmingham. I. Unselective during second and third trimesters. BMJ 1982;285:589-92.
Viegas 1982b {published data only}
  • Viegas OAC, Scott PH, Cole TJ, Eaton P, Needham PG, Wharton BA. Dietary protein energy supplementation of pregnant Asian mothers at Sorrento, Birmingham. II. Selective during third trimester only. BMJ 1982;285:592-5.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Aaltonen 2005 {published data only}
  • Aaltonen J, Ojala T, Laitinen K, Isolauri E. Programming of infants systolic blood pressure by accelerated foetal growth during early pregnancy. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2005;40(5):624.
  • Aaltonen J, Ojala T, Laitinen K, Pirainen TJ, Poussa TA, Isolauri E. Evidence of infant blood pressure programming by maternal nutrition during pregnancy: a prospective randomized controlled intervention study. Journal of Pediatrics 2008;152:79-84.
  • Aaltonen J, Ojala T, Laitinen K, Poussa T, Ozanne S, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding on infant metabolic programming: a prospective randomized controlled study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011;65(1):10-9.
  • Huurre A, Laitinen K, Rautava S, Korkeamaki M, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal atopy and probiotic supplementation during pregnancy on infant sensitization: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 2008;38(8):1342-8.
  • Isolauri E. The effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and breast feeding on the risk of allergic disease in child (NAMI). ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/) (accessed 6 Nov 2007).
  • Laitinen K,  Poussa T,  Isolauri E,  Nutrition, Allergy, Mucosal Immunology and Intestinal Microbiota Group. Probiotics and dietary counselling contribute to glucose regulation during and after pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Nutrition 2009;101:1679–87.
  • Luoto R, Laitinen K, Nermes M, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. British Journal of Nutrition 2010;103(12):1792-9.
  • Luoto R, Nermes M, Laitinen K, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2009 May 2-5; Baltimore, USA. 2009.
  • Piirainen T, Isolauri E, Lagstrom H, Laitinen K. Impact of dietary counselling on nutrient intake during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study. British Journal of Nutrition 2006;96:1095-104.
Adams 1978 {published data only}
Anderson 1995 {published data only}
Atton 1990 {published data only}
Badrawi 1993 {published data only}
  • Badrawi H, Hassanein MK, Badraoui MHH, Wafa YA, Shawky HA, Badrawi N. Pregnancy outcome in obese pregnant mothers. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 1992;20(Suppl 1):203.
  • Badrawi H, Hassanein MK, Badrroui MHH, Wafa YA, Shawky HA, Badrawi N. Pregnancy outcome in obese pregnant mothers. New Egypt Journal of Medicine 1993;8(6):1717-26.
Campbell 1975 {published data only}
Campbell 1983 {published data only}
  • Campbell DM. Dietary restriction in obesity and its effect on neonatal outcome. Nutrition in pregnancy. Proceedings of 10th Study Group of the RCOG; 1983; London, UK. London: RCOG, 1983:243-50.
Campbell Brown 1983 {published data only}
  • Campbell Brown M. Protein energy supplements in primigravid women at risk of low birthweight.. In: Campbell DM, Gillmer MDG editor(s). Nutrition in pregnancy. Proceedings of the 10th Study Group of the RCOG. London: RCOG, 1983:85-98.
Clapp 1997 {published data only}
  • Clapp JF. Diet, exercise, and feto-placental growth. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 1997;260:101-8.
  • Clapp JF. Effects of dietary carbohydrate on the glucose and insulin response to mixed caloric intake and exercise in both nonpregnant and pregnant women. Diabetes Care 1998;21(Suppl 2):B107-B112.
Dirige 1987 {published data only}
  • Dirige OV, McNutt SW, Hamatake CK, McGee RI, Manayan CA. The effect of nutrition education on the nutritional status of pregnant Filipino women in Hawaii. Nutrition Research 1987;7:197-209.
Ebbs 1941 {published data only}
  • Ebbs JH, Scott WA, Tisdall FF, Moyle WJ, Bell M. Nutrition in pregnancy. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1942;46:1-6.
  • Ebbs JH, Tisdall FF, Scott WA. The influence of prenatal diet on the mother and child. Journal of Nutrition 1941;22:515-6.
Eneroth 2010 {published data only}
  • Eneroth H, El Arifeen S, Persson LA, Lonnerdal B, Hossain MB, Stephensen CB, et al. Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation has limited impact on micronutrient status of Bangladeshi infants compared with standard iron and folic acid supplementation. Journal of Nutrition 2010;140(3):618-24.
Fard 2004 {published data only}
  • Fard NM, Mehrabian F, Sarraf-zadegan N, Sajadi F. Fat-modified diets during pregnancy and lactation and serum lipids after birth. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2004;71:683-7.
Fung 2010 {published data only}
  • Fung EB, Ritchie LD, Walker BH, Gildengorin G, Crawford PB. Randomized, controlled trial to examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in WIC. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2010;42(3 Suppl):S22-29.
Guelinckx 2010 {published data only}
  • Guelinckx I, Devlieger R, Mullie P, Vansant G. Effect of lifestyle intervention on dietary habits, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in obese pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;91(2):373-80.
Hankin 1962 {published data only}
  • Hankin ME, Symonds EM. Body weight, diet and pre-eclamptic toxaemia of pregnancy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1962;4:156-60.
Iyengar 1967 {published data only}
  • Iyengar L. Effects of dietary supplements late in pregnancy on the expectant mother and her newborn. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1967;55:85-9.
Kaseb 2002 {published data only}
  • Kaseb F, Kimiagar M, Ghafarpoor M, Valaii N. Effect of traditional food supplementation during pregnancy on maternal weight gain and birthweight. International Journal for Vitamin & Nutrition Research 2002;72(6):389-93.
Kinra 2008 {published data only}
  • Kinra S, Rameshwar Sarma KV, Ghafoorunissa, Mendu VV, Ravikumar R, et al. Effect of integration of supplemental nutrition with public health programmes in pregnancy and early childhood on cardiovascular risk in rural Indian adolescents: long term follow-up of hyderabad nutrition trial. BMJ 2008;337:a605.
Lechtig 1975 {published data only}
  • Behrman JR, Calderon MC, Preston SH, Hoddinott J, Martorell R, Stein AD. Nutritional supplementation in girls influences the growth of their children: prospective study in Guatemala. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;90(5):1372-9.
  • Conlisk AJ, Barnhart HX, Martorell R, Grajeda R, Stein AD. Maternal and child nutritional supplementation are inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose concentration in young Guatemalan adults. Journal of Nutrition 2004;134(4):890-7.
  • Delgado H, Martorell R, Brineman E, Klein RE. Nutrition and length of gestation. Nutrition Research 1982;2:117-26.
  • Delgado HL, Martorell R, Klein RE. Nutrition, lactation, and birth interval components in rural Guatemala. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982;35:1468-76.
  • Hoddinott J, Maluccio JA, Behrman JR, Flores R, Martorell R. Effect of a nutrition intervention during early childhood on economic productivity in Guatemalan adults. Lancet 2008;371(9610):411-6.
  • Lechtig A, Habicht JP, Delgado H, Klein RE, Yarbrough C, Martorell R. Effect of food supplementation during pregnancy on birthweight. Pediatrics 1975;56:508-20.
  • Lechtig A, Klein RE, Daza CH, Read MS, Kahn SG. Effects of maternal nutrition on infant health: implications for action. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 1979;29:1-26.
  • Lechtig A, Yarbrough C, Delgado H, Martorell R, Klein RE, Behar M. Effect of moderate maternal malnutrition on the placenta. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1975;123:191-201.
  • Merchant K, Martorell R, Haas J. Maternal and fetal responses to the stresses of lactation concurrent with pregnancy and of short recuperative intervals. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990;52:280-8.
  • Rasmussen KM, Habicht JP. Maternal supplementation differentially affects the mother and newborn. Journal of Nutrition 2010;140(2):402-6.
  • Stein AD, Barnhart HX, Hickey M, Ramakrishnan U, Schroeder DG, Martorell R. Prospective study of protein-energy supplementation early in life and of growth in the subsequent generation in Guatemala. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78:162-7.
  • Stein AD, Wang M, Ramirez-Zea M, Flores R, Grajeda R, Melgar P, et al. Exposure to a nutrition supplementation intervention in early childhood and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adulthood: evidence from Guatemala. American Journal of Epidemiology 2006;164(12):1160-70.
  • Webb AL, Conlisk AJ, Barnhart HX, Martorell R, Grajeda R, Stein AD. Maternal and childhood nutrition and later blood pressure levels in young Guatemalan adults. International Journal of Epidemiology 2005;34(4):898-904.
Luke 2001 {published data only}
  • Luke B, Misiunas R, Anderson E, Hediger M, Burpee B, Gogliotti S, et al. Prenatal program to improve neonatal and early childhood outcomes in twins [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001; Vol. 185, issue 6 Suppl:S105.
Mardones 1988 {published and unpublished data}
  • Mardones-Santander F, Rosso P, Stekel A, Ahumada E, Llaguno S, Pizzaro F, et al. Effect of a milk-based food supplement on maternal nutritional status and fetal growth in underweight Chilean women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988;47:413-9.
Metcoff 1985 {published and unpublished data}
  • Metcoff J, Costiloe P, Crosby WM, Dutta S, Sandstead H, Milne D, et al. Effects of WIC supplement on maternal nutritional status between 19 and 36 weeks pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1983;37:703.
  • Metcoff J, Costiloe P, Crosby WM, Dutta S, Sandstead H, Milne D, et al. Interaction between birth weight and smoking altered by WIC supplementation during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1983;37:710.
  • Metcoff J, Costiloe P, Crosby WM, Dutta S, Sandstead HH, Milne D, et al. Effect of food supplementation (WIC) during pregnancy on birth weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1985;41:933-47.
Moses 2006 {published data only}
  • Moses RG, Barker M, Winter M, Petocz P, Brand-Miller JC. Can a low-glycemic index diet reduce the need for insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized trial. Diabetes Care 2009;32(6):996-1000.
  • Moses RG, Luebcke M, Davis WS, Coleman KJ, Tapsell LC, Petocz P, et al. Effect of a low-glycemic-index diet during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;84(4):807-12.
  • Moses RG, Luebke M, Petocz P, Brand-Miller JC. Maternal diet and infant size 2 y after the completion of a study of a low-glycemic-index diet in pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;86(6):1806.
Qureshi 1973 {published data only}
  • Qureshi S, Rao NP, Madhavi V, Mathur YC, Reddi YR. Effect of maternal nutrition supplementation on the birth weight of the newborn. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 1973;10:541-4.
Ross 1938 {published data only}
  • Ross RA, Perlzweig WA, Taylor HM, McBryde A, Yates A, Kondritzer AA, et al. A study of certain dietary factors of possible etiologic significance in toxemias of pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1938;35:426-40.
Tompkins 1954 {published data only}
Tontisirin 1986 {published data only}
  • Tontisirin K, Booranasubkajorn U, Hongsumarn A, Thewtong D. Formulation and evaluation of supplementary foods for Thai pregnant women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1986;43:931-9.
Wolff 2008 {published data only}
  • Wolff S, Legarth J, Vangsgaard K, Toubro S, Astrup A. A randomized trial of the effects of dietary counseling on gestational weight gain and glucose metabolism in obese pregnant women. International Journal of Obesity 2008;32(3):495-501.
Woods 1995 {published data only}
  • Woods LL, Gaboury CL. Importance of baseline diet in modulating renal reserve in pregnant women [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1995;6(3):688.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Hawkesworth 2011 {published data only}
  • Hawkesworth S, Walker CG, Sawo Y, Fulford AJ, Jarjou LM, Goldberg GR, et al. Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular disease risk in The Gambia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011;94(6 Suppl):1853S-60S.
Kinra 2011 {published data only}
  • Kinra S, Sarma KV, Hards M, Smith GD, Ben-Shlomo Y. Is relative leg length a biomarker of childhood nutrition? Long-term follow-up of the Hyderabad Nutrition Trial. International Journal of Epidemiology 2011;40(4):1022-9.
Walsh 2012 {published data only}
  • Walsh J, Mahony R, Foley M, McAuliffe F. ROLO study: a randomized control trial of low glycemic index diet to prevent macrosomia in euglycemic women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012;206(Suppl 1):S4.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Moore 2011 {published data only}
  • Moore S. Investigating the effects of pre-natal and infancy nutritional supplementation on infant immune development in The Gambia: the early nutrition and immune development (ENID) trial. Current Clinical Trials (http://www.current-trials.com) (accessed 8 July 2011) 2011.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Aaltonen 2011
  • Aaltonen J, Ojala T, Laitinen K, Poussa T, Ozanne S, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding on infant metabolic programming: a prospective randomized controlled study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011;65(1):10-9.
Ashworth 1998
  • Ashworth A. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation on mortality and morbidity in infants and young children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition  1998;52(1):S34-41.
Barker 1998
  • Barker DJP. Mothers, Babies and Health in Later Life. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1998.
Barker 2002
  • Barker DJP,  Eriksson JG,  Forsén T,  Osmond C . Fetal origins of adult disease: strength of effects and biological basis. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002;31:1235–9.
Behrman 2009
  • Behrman JR, Calderon MC, Preston SH, Hoddinott J, Martorell R, Stein AD. Nutritional supplementation in girls influences the growth of their children: prospective study in Guatemala. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;90(5):1372-9.
Chen 2009
de Onis 1998
  • de Onis M, Villar J, Gülmezoglu M. Nutritional intervention to prevent intrauterine growth retardation: evidence from randomized controlled trials. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;52(1):S83–S93.
Egger 1997
  • Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997;135(7109):629-34.
Eriksson 2001
Garlick 2000
  • Garlick PJ, Reeds PJ. Proteins. Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 10th Edition. UK: Churchill Livingstone, 2000:77.
Gates 2005
  • Gates S. Methodological Guidelines. In: The Editorial Team. Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group. About The Cochrane Collaboration (Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs)) 2005, Issue 1.
Grieve 1979
  • Grieve JFK, Campbell Brown BM, Johnsotone FD. Dieting in pregnancy: a study of the effect of a high protein low carhobydrate diet on birthweight on an obstetric population. In: Sutherland MW, Stowers JM editor(s). Carbohydrate Metabolism in Pregnancy and the Newborn 1978. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1979:518-33.
Guyatt 2008
  • Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Vist GE, Falck-Ytter Y, Schunemann HJ. GRADE Working Group. Rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations: What is "quality of evidence" and why is it important to clinicians?. BMJ 2008;336(7651):995-8.
Harbord 2006
Haslehurst 2006
Heslehurst 2008
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Imdad 2011
  • Imdad A,  Yakoob MY,  Bhutta ZA. The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths. BMC Public Health 2011;11(Suppl3):S4.
IOM 1990
  • Institute of Medicine. Nutrition in Pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990:137-75.
Kardjati 1983
  • Kardjati S, Kusin JA, de With C. Food consumption of rural women in East Java. Nutrition Reports International 1983;28:1341-9.
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
CDSR 1996a
  • Kramer MS. Energy/protein restriction for high weight-for-height or weight gain during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1996, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000080]
CDSR 1996b
  • Kramer MS. High protein supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1996, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000105]
CDSR 1996c
  • Kramer MS. Isocaloric balanced protein supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1996, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000118]
CDSR 1996d
Kramer 2003
  • Kramer MS,  Kakuma R. Energy and protein intake in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000032]