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Energy and protein intake in pregnancy

  1. Michael S Kramer1,*,
  2. Ritsuko Kakuma2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 20 OCT 2003

Assessed as up-to-date: 11 FEB 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000032


How to Cite

Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Energy and protein intake in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD000032. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000032.

Author Information

  1. 1

    McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Departments of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

  2. 2

    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Health Systems Research and Consulting Unit, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

*Michael S Kramer, Departments of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, 2300 Tupper Street, Les Tourelles, Montreal, Quebec, H3H 1P3, Canada. michael.kramer@mcgill.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 20 OCT 2003

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (12 SEP 2012)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Atton 1990 {published data only}
Badrawi 1993 {published and unpublished data}
  • Badrawi H, Hassanein MK, Badroui MHH, Wafa YA, Shawky HA, Badrawi N. Pregnancy outcome in obese pregnant mothers. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 1993;20(Suppl 1):203.
  • Badrawi H, Hassanein MK, Badroui MHH, Wafa YA, Shawky HA, Badrawi N. Pregnancy outcome in obese pregnant mothers. New Egyptian Journal of Medicine 1993;6:1717-26.
Blackwell 1973 {published data only}
  • Adair LS, Pollitt E. Outcome of maternal nutritional supplementation: a comprehensive review of the Bacon Chow Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1985;41:948-78.
  • Adair LS, Pollitt E, Mueller WH. The Bacon Chow Study: effect of nutritional supplementation on maternal weight and skinfold thickness during pregnancy and lactation. British Journal of Nutrition 1984;51:357-69.
  • Blackwell RQ, Chow BF, Chinn KSK, Blackwell BN, Hsu SC. Prospective maternal nutrition study in Taiwan: rationale, study design, feasibility and preliminary findings. Nutrition Reports International 1973;7:517-32.
  • Joos SK, Pollitt E, Mueller WH, Albright DL. The Bacon Chow Study: maternal nutritional supplementation and infant behavioral development. Child Development 1983;54:669-76.
  • McDonald EC, Pollitt E, Mueller W, Hsueh AM, Sherwin R. The Bacon Chow study: maternal nutritional supplementation and birth weight of offspring. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981;34:2133-44.
  • Mueller WH, Pollitt E. The Bacon Chow study: effects of maternal nutritional supplementation on birth measurements of children, accounting for the size of a previous (unsupplemented) child. Early Human Development 1984;10:127-36.
  • Mueller WH, Pollitt E. The Bacon Chow Study: effects of nutrition supplementation on sibling-sibling anthropometric correlations. Human Biology 1982;54:455-68.
  • Pollitt E, Mueller W. Maternal nutrition supplementation during pregnancy interferes with physical resemblance of siblings at birth according to infant sex. Early Human Development 1982;7:251-6.
  • Wohlleb JC, Pollitt E, Mueller WH, Bigelow R. The Bacon Chow Study: maternal supplementation and infant growth. Early Human Development 1983;9:79-91.
Briley 2002 {published data only}
  • Briley C, Flanagan NL, Lewis NM. In-home prenatal nutrition intervention increased dietary iron intakes and reduced low birthweight in low-income African-American women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002;102(7):984-7.
Campbell 1975 {published and unpublished data}
Campbell 1983 {published and unpublished data}
  • Campbell DM. Dietary restriction in obesity and its effect on neonatal outcome. In: Campbell DM, Gillmer MDG editor(s). Nutrition in pregnancy. Proceedings of 10th Study Group of the RCOG. London: RCOG, 1983:243-50.
Campbell Brown 1983 {published data only}
  • Campbell Brown M. Protein energy supplements in primigravid women at risk of low birthweight. In:. In: Campbell DM, Gillmer MDG editor(s). Nutrition in pregnancy. Proceedings of the 10th Study Group of the RCOG. London: RCOG, 1983:85-98.
Ceesay 1997 {published data only}
  • Ceesay SM, Saidykhan S, Prentice AM, Cole TJ, Day KC, Rowland MGM, et al. Effect on birth weight of a community-based supplementation programme for pregnant Gambian women: first year results. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 1992;51:77A.
  • Ceesay SN, Prentice AM, Cole TJ, Foord F, Weaver LT, Poskitt EME, et al. Effects on birth weight and perinatal mortality of maternal dietary supplements in rural Gambia: 5 year randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1997;315:786-90.
  • Hawkesworth S, Prentice AM, Fulford AJ, Moore SE. Dietary supplementation of rural Gambian women during pregnancy does not affect body composition in offspring at 11-17 years of age. Journal of Nutrition 2008;138(12):2468-73.
  • Hawkesworth S, Prentice AM, Fulford AJ, Moore SE. Maternal protein-energy supplementation does not affect adolescent blood pressure in The Gambia. International Journal of Epidemiology 2009;38(1):119-27.
  • Moore SE, Collinson AC, Prentice AM. Immune function in rural Gambian children is not related to season of birth, birth size, or maternal supplementation status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74:840-7.
Elwood 1981 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ben-Shlomo Y, Holly J, McCarthy A, Savage P, Davies D, Davey Smith G. Prenatal and postnatal milk supplementation and adult insulin-like growth factor I: long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2005;14(5):1336-9.
  • Ben-Shlomo Y, McCarthy A, Hughes R, Tilling K, Davies D, Smith GD. Immediate postnatal growth is associated with blood pressure in young adulthood: the Barry Caerphilly growth study. Hypertension 2008;52:638-44.
  • Elwood PC, Haley TJL, Hughes SJ, Sweetnam PM, Gray OP, Davies DP. Child growth (0-5 years), and the effect of entitlement to a milk supplement. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1981;56:831-5.
Girija 1984 {published and unpublished data}
Hankin 1962 {published data only}
  • Hankin ME, Symonds EM. Body weight, diet and pre-eclamptic toxaemia of pregnancy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1962;4:156-60.
Hunt 1976 {published data only}
  • Hunt IF, Jacob M, Ostergard NJ, Masri G, Clark VA, Coulson AH. Effect of nutrition education on the nutritional status of low-income pregnant women of Mexican descent. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1976;29:675-84.
Iyengar 1967 {published data only}
  • Iyengar L. Effects of dietary supplements late in pregnancy on the expectant mother and her newborn. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1967;55:85-9.
Kafatos 1989 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kafatos AG, Vlachonikolis IG, Codrington CA. Nutrition during pregnancy: the effects of an educational intervention program in Greece. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50:970-9.
Kardjati 1988 {published data only}
  • Kardjati S, Kusin JA, De With C. Energy supplementation in the last trimester of pregnancy in East Java: I. Effect on birthweight. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1988;95:783-94.
  • Kardjati S, Kusin JA, Schofield WM, De With C. Energy supplementation in the last trimester of pregnancy in East Java, Indonesia: effect on maternal anthropometry. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990;52:987-94.
  • Kusin JA, Kardjati S, Houtkooper JM, Renqvist UH. Energy supplementation during pregnancy and postnatal growth. Lancet 1992;340:623-6.
  • Van Steenbergen WM, Kusin JA, Kardjati S, De With C. Energy supplementation in the last trimester of pregnancy in East Java, Indonesia: effect on breast-milk output. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50:274-9.
Mardones 1988 {published and unpublished data}
  • Mardones-Santander F, Rosso P, Stekel A, Ahumada E, Llaguno S, Pizzaro F, et al. Effect of a milk-based food supplement on maternal nutritional status and fetal growth in underweight Chilean women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988;47:413-9.
Mora 1978 {published data only}
  • Christiansen N, Mora JO, Navarro L, Herrera MG. Effects of nutritional supplementation during pregnancy upon birth weight: the influence of pre-supplementation on diet. Nutrition Reports International 1980;21:615-24.
  • Herrera MG, Mora JO, De Paredes B, Wagner M. Maternal weight/height and the effect of food supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation. A Nestlé Foundation workshop; 1979 April 26-27; Lausanne, Switzerland. Bern: Hans Huber, 1980:252-63.
  • Mora JO, Clement J, Christiansen N, Suescun J, Wagner M, Herrera MG. Nutritional supplementation and the outcome of pregnancy. III. Perinatal and neonatal mortality. Nutrition Reports International 1978;18:167-75.
  • Mora JO, De Navarro L, Clement J, Wagner M, De Paredes B, Herrera MG. The effect of nutritional supplementation on calorie and protein intake of pregnant women. Nutrition Reports International 1978;17:217-28.
  • Mora JO, De Paredes B, Wagner M, De Navarro L, Suescun J, Christiansen N, et al. Nutritional supplementation and the outcome of pregnancy. I. Birth weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1979;32:455-62.
  • Mora JO, Herrera MG, Suescun J, De Navarro L, Wagner M. The effects of nutritional supplementation on physical growth of children at risk of malnutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981;34:1885-92.
  • Mora JO, Sanchez R, De Paredes B, Herrera MG. Sex related effects of nutritional supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth. Early Human Development 1981;5:243-51.
  • Overholt C, Sellers SG, Mora JO, de Paredes B, Herrera MG. The effects of nutritional supplementation on the diets of low-income families at risk of malnutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982;36:1153-61.
  • Vuori L, Christiansen N, Clement J, Mora JO, Wagner M, Herrera MG. Nutritional supplementation and the outcome of pregnancy. II. Visual habituation at 15 days. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1979;32:463-9.
  • Vuori L, De Navarro L, Christiansen N, Mora JO, Herrera MG. Food supplementation of pregnant women at risk of malnutrition and their newborns' responsiveness to stimulation. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 1980;22:61-71.
  • Waber DP, Vuori-Christiansen L, Ortiz N, Clement JR, Christiansen NE, Mora JO, et al. Nutritional supplementation, maternal education, and cognitive development of infants at risk of malnutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981;34:807-13.
Ross 1938 {published data only}
  • Ross RA, Perlzweig WA, Taylor HM, McBryde A, Yates A, Kondritzer AA, et al. A study of certain dietary factors of possible etiologic significance in toxemias of pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1938;35:426-40.
Ross 1985 {published data only}
Rush 1980 {published and unpublished data}
  • Jacobson HN. A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation. Pediatrics 1980;65:835-6.
  • Pereira M, Rush D, Campbell-Brown M, Rosso P, Winick M, Brasel JA, et al. Effects of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the placenta: report of a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982;36:229-34.
  • Rush D, Kristal A, Blanc W, Navarro C, Chauham P, Campbell-Brown M, et al. The effects of maternal cigarette smoking on placental morphology, histomorphometry, and biochemistry. American Journal of Perinatology 1986;3:263-72.
  • Rush D, Kristal A, Navarro C, Chauhan P, Blanc W, Naeye R, et al. The effects of dietary supplementation during pregnancy on placental morphology, pathology, and histomorphometry. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1984;39:863-71.
  • Rush D, Stein Z, Susser, M. The rationale for, and design of, a randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy. Nutrition Reports International 1973;7:547-53.
  • Rush D, Stein Z, Susser M. A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation in New York City. Pediatrics 1980;65:683-97.
  • Rush D, Stein Z, Susser M. Controlled trial of prenatal nutrition supplementation defended. Pediatrics 1980;66:656-8.
  • Rush D, Stein Z, Susser M. Diet in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplements. Birth Defects 1980;16:1-187.
  • Stein Z, Susser M, Rush D. Prenatal nutrition and birth weight: experiments and quasi-experiments in the past decade. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1978;21:287-97.
Sweeney 1985 {published data only}
Viegas 1982a {published data only}
  • Viegas OAC, Scott PH, Cole TJ, Mansfield HN, Wharton P, Wharton BA. Dietary protein energy supplementation of pregnant Asian mothers at Sorrento, Birmingham. I. Unselective during second and third trimesters. BMJ 1982;285:589-92.
Viegas 1982b {published data only}
  • Viegas OAC, Scott PH, Cole TJ, Eaton P, Needham PG, Wharton BA. Dietary protein energy supplementation of pregnant Asian mothers at Sorrento, Birmingham. II. Selective during third trimester only. BMJ 1982;285:592-5.
Wolff 2008 {published data only}
  • Wolff S, Legarth J, Vangsgaard K, Toubro S, Astrup A. A randomized trial of the effects of dietary counseling on gestational weight gain and glucose metabolism in obese pregnant women. International Journal of Obesity 2008;32:495-501.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Aaltonen 2005 {published data only}
  • Aaltonen J, Ojala T, Laitinen K, Isolauri E. Programming of infants systolic blood pressure by accelerated foetal growth during early pregnancy. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2005;40(5):624.
  • Aaltonen J, Ojala T, Laitinen K, Pirainen TJ, Poussa TA, Isolauri E. Evidence of infant blood pressure programming by maternal nutrition during pregnancy: a prospective randomized controlled intervention study. Journal of Pediatrics 2008;152:79-84.
  • Huurre A, Laitinen K, Rautava S, Korkeamaki M, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal atopy and probiotic supplementation during pregnancy on infant sensitization: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 2008;38(8):1342-8.
  • Isolauri E. The effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and breast feeding on the risk of allergic disease in child (NAMI). ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/) (accessed 6 Nov 2007).
  • Piirainen T, Isolauri E, Lagstrom H, Laitinen K. Impact of dietary counselling on nutrient intake during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study. British Journal of Nutrition 2006;96:1095-104.
Adams 1978 {published data only}
Anderson 1995 {published data only}
Clapp 1997 {published data only}
  • Clapp JF. Diet, exercise, and feto-placental growth. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 1997;260:101-8.
  • Clapp JF. Effects of dietary carbohydrate on the glucose and insulin response to mixed caloric intake and exercise in both nonpregnant and pregnant women. Diabetes Care 1998;21(Suppl 2):B107-B112.
Dirige 1987 {published data only}
  • Dirige OV, McNutt SW, Hamatake CK, McGee RI, Manayan CA. The effect of nutrition education on the nutritional status of pregnant Filipino women in Hawaii. Nutrition Research 1987;7:197-209.
Ebbs 1941 {published data only}
  • Ebbs JH, Scott WA, Tisdall FF, Moyle WJ, Bell M. Nutrition in pregnancy. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1942;46:1-6.
  • Ebbs JH, Tisdall FF, Scott WA. The influence of prenatal diet on the mother and child. Journal of Nutrition 1941;22:515-26.
Fard 2004 {published data only}
  • Fard NM, Mehrabian F, Sarraf-zadegan N, Sajadi F. Fat-modified diets during pregnancy and lactation and serum lipids after birth. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2004;71:683-7.
Kaseb 2002 {published data only}
  • Kaseb F, Kimiagar M, Ghafarpoor M, Valaii N. Effect of traditional food supplementation during pregnancy on maternal weight gain and birthweight. International Journal for Vitamin & Nutrition Research 2002;72(6):389-93.
Kinra 2008 {published data only}
  • Kinra S, Rameshwar Sarma KV, Ghafoorunissa, Mendu VV, Ravikumar R, Mohan V, et al. Effect of integration of supplemental nutrition with public health programmes in pregnancy and early childhood on cardiovascular risk in rural Indian adolescents: long term follow-up of hyderabad nutrition trial. BMJ 2008;337:a605.
Lechtig 1975 {published data only}
  • Conlisk AJ, Barnhart HX, Martorell R, Grajeda R, Stein AD. Maternal and child nutritional supplementation are inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose concentration in young Guatemalan adults. Journal of Nutrition 2004;134(4):890-7.
  • Delgado H, Martorell R, Brineman E, Klein RE. Nutrition and length of gestation. Nutrition Research 1982;2:117-26.
  • Delgado HL, Martorell R, Klein RE. Nutrition, lactation, and birth interval components in rural Guatemala. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982;35:1468-76.
  • Hoddinott J, Maluccio JA, Behrman JR, Flores R, Martorell R. Effect of a nutrition intervention during early childhood on economic productivity in Guatemalan adults. Lancet 2008;371(9610):411-6.
  • Lechtig A, Habicht JP, Delgado H, Klein RE, Yarbrough C, Martorell R. Effect of food supplementation during pregnancy on birthweight. Pediatrics 1975;56:508-20.
  • Lechtig A, Klein RE, Daza CH, Read MS, Kahn SG. Effects of maternal nutrition on infant health: implications for action. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 1979;29:1-26.
  • Lechtig A, Yarbrough C, Delgado H, Martorell R, Klein RE, Behar M. Effect of moderate maternal malnutrition on the placenta. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1975;123:191-201.
  • Merchant K, Martorell R, Haas J. Maternal and fetal responses to the stresses of lactation concurrent with pregnancy and of short recuperative intervals. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990;52:280-8.
  • Stein AD, Barnhart HX, Hickey M, Ramakrishnan U, Schroeder DG, Martorell R. Prospective study of protein-energy supplementation early in life and of growth in the subsequent generation in Guatemala. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78:162-7.
  • Stein AD, Wang M, Ramirez-Zea M, Flores R, Grajeda R, Melgar P, et al. Exposure to a nutrition supplementation intervention in early childhood and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adulthood: evidence from Guatemala. American Journal of Epidemiology 2006;164(12):1160-70.
  • Webb AL, Conlisk AJ, Barnhart HX, Martorell R, Grajeda R, Stein AD. Maternal and childhood nutrition and later blood pressure levels in young Guatemalan adults. International Journal of Epidemiology 2005;34(4):898-904.
Luke 2001 {published data only}
  • Luke B, Misiunas R, Anderson E, Hediger M, Burpee B, Gogliotti S, et al. Prenatal program to improve neonatal and early childhood outcomes in twins [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001; Vol. 185, issue 6 Suppl:S105.
Metcoff 1985 {published and unpublished data}
  • Metcoff J, Costiloe P, Crosby WM, Dutta S, Sandstead H, Milne D, et al. Effects of WIC supplement on maternal nutritional status between 19 and 36 weeks pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1983;37:703.
  • Metcoff J, Costiloe P, Crosby WM, Dutta S, Sandstead H, Milne D, et al. Interaction between birth weight and smoking altered by WIC supplementation during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1983;37:710.
  • Metcoff J, Costiloe P, Crosby WM, Dutta S, Sandstead HH, Milne D, et al. Effect of food supplementation (WIC) during pregnancy on birth weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1985;41:933-47.
Moses 2006 {published data only}
  • Moses RG, Luebcke M, Davis WS, Coleman KJ, Tapsell LC, Petocz P, et al. Effect of a low-glycemic-index diet during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;84(4):807-12.
Qureshi 1973 {published data only}
  • Qureshi S, Rao NP, Madhavi V, Mathur YC, Reddi YR. Effect of maternal nutrition supplementation on the birth weight of the newborn. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 1973;10:541-4.
Tompkins 1954 {published data only}
Tontisirin 1986 {published data only}
  • Tontisirin K, Booranasubkajorn U, Hongsumarn A, Thewtong D. Formulation and evaluation of supplementary foods for Thai pregnant women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1986;43:931-39.
Woods 1995 {published data only}
  • Woods LL, Gaboury CL. Importance of baseline diet in modulating renal reserve in pregnant women [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1995;6(3):688.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Barker 1998
  • Barker DJP. Mothers, babies and health in later life. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1998.
Gates 2005
  • Gates S. Methodological Guidelines. In: The Editorial Team. Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group. About The Cochrane Collaboration (Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs)) 2005, Issue 1.
Haider 2006
Higgins 2005
  • Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.4 [updated March 2005]. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2005. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Higgins 2008
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.1 [updated September 2008]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
IOM 1990
  • Institute of Medicine. Nutrition in pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990:137-75.
Kramer 1987
Moore 2001
  • Moore SE, Collinson AC, Prentice AM. Immune function in rural Gambian children is not related to season of birth, birth size, or maternal supplementation status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74:840-7.
Prentice 1983
  • Prentice AM, Whitehead RG, Watkinson M, Lamb WH, Cole TJ. Prenatal dietary supplementation of African women and birth weight. Lancet 1983;i:489-92.
RevMan 2003
  • The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 4.2 for Windows. Oxford, England: The Cochrane Collaboration, 2003.
RevMan 2008
  • The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.0. Copenhagen, The Nordic Cochrane Centre: The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008.
Rush 1989
  • Rush D. Effects of changes in protein and calorie intake during pregnancy on the growth of the human fetus. In: Chalmers I, Enkin MW, Keirse MJNC editor(s). Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989:255-80.
Rush 2001
  • Rush D. Maternal nutrition and perinatal survival. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 2001;19 Suppl:S217-S264.
Stein 1975
  • Stein Z, Susser M, Saenger G, Marolla F. Famine and human development: the dutch hunger winter of 1944-45. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
CDSR 1996a
  • Kramer MS. Energy/protein restriction for high weight-for-height or weight gain during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1996, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000080]
CDSR 1996b
  • Kramer MS. High protein supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1996, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000105]
CDSR 1996c
  • Kramer MS. Isocaloric balanced protein supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1996, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000118]
CDSR 1996d