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Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation

  1. Lindsay F Stead1,*,
  2. Rafael Perera1,
  3. Chris Bullen2,
  4. David Mant1,
  5. Tim Lancaster1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group

Published Online: 23 JAN 2008

Assessed as up-to-date: 31 OCT 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub3


How to Cite

Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D, Lancaster T. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD000146. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Oxford, Department of Primary Health Care, Oxford, UK

  2. 2

    University of Auckland, Clinical Trials Research Unit, Auckland, New Zealand

*Lindsay F Stead, Department of Primary Health Care, University of Oxford, Rosemary Rue Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK. lindsay.stead@dphpc.ox.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 23 JAN 2008

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (14 NOV 2012)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Abelin 1989 {published data only}
  • Abelin T, Buehler A, Muller P, Vesanen K, Imhof PR. Controlled trial of transdermal nicotine patch in tobacco withdrawal. Lancet 1989;1(8628):7-10.
  • Abelin T, Ehrsam R, Buhler-Reichert A, Imhof PR, Muller P, Thommen A. Effectiveness of a transdermal nicotine system in smoking cessation studies. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 1989;11:205-14.
  • Muller P, Abelin T, Ehrsam R, Imhof P, Howald H, Mauli D. The use of transdermal nicotine in smoking cessation. Lung 1990;168:445-53.
Ahluwalia 1998 {published data only}
  • Ahluwalia JS, McNagny SE, Clark WS. Smoking cessation among inner-city African Americans using the nicotine transdermal patch. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1998;13:1-8.
Ahluwalia 2006 {published data only}
Areechon 1988 {published data only}
Blondal 1989 {published data only}
  • Blondal T. Controlled trial of nicotine polacrilex gum with supportive measures. Archives of Internal Medicine 1989;149:1818-21.
Blondal 1997 {published data only}
  • Blondal T, Franzon M, Westin A. A double-blind randomized trial of nicotine nasal spray as an aid in smoking cessation. European Respiratory Journal 1997;10:1585-90.
  • Blondal T, Olafsdottir I, Gunnarsdottir R, Franzon M, Westin A. Controlled trial of nicotine nasal spray as an aid to stopping smoking [abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 1993;6(Suppl 17):631S.
Blondal 1999 {published data only}
  • Blondal T, Gudmundsson LJ, Olafsdottir I, Gustavsson G, Westin A. Nicotine nasal spray with nicotine patch for smoking cessation: randomised trial with six year follow up. BMJ 1999;318:285-9.
  • Blondal T, Ludviksdottir D, Gudmundsson L, Olafsdottir I, Gustavsson G, Westin A. Efficacy of nicotine nasal spray added to transdermal nicotine patches in smoking cessation [Abstract]. Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Tobacco or Health; Aug 24-28; Beijing, China. 1997:48.
Bohadana 2000 {published data only}
  • Bohadana A, Nilsson F, Rasmussen T, Martinet Y. Gender differences in quit rates following smoking cessation with combination nicotine therapy: influence of baseline smoking behavior. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2003;5(1):111-6.
  • Bohadana A, Nilsson F, Rasmussen T, Martinet Y. Nicotine inhaler and nicotine patch as a combination therapy for smoking cessation - A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2000;160:3128-34.
  • Bohandana AB, Nilsson F, Martinet Y. Nicotine inhaler and nicotine patch: a combination therapy for smoking cessation [abstract]. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 1999;1(2):189.
Bolin 1999 {published data only}
  • Bolin LJ, Antonuccio DO, Follette WC, Krumpe P. Transdermal nicotine: the long and the short of it. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 1999;13:152-6.
Br Thor Society 1983 {published data only}
  • Research Committee of the British Thoracic Society. Comparison of four methods of smoking withdrawal in patients with smoking related diseases. Report by a subcommittee of the Research Committee of the British Thoracic Society. British Medical Journal 1983;286(6365):595-7.
Buchkremer 1988 {published data only}
  • Buchkremer G, Bents H, Horstmann M, Opitz K, Tolle R. Combination of behavioral smoking cessation with transdermal nicotine substitution. Addictive Behaviors 1989;14:229-38.
  • Buchkremer G, Bents H, Minneker E, Opitz K. Long-term effects of a combination of transdermal nicotine administration with behavior therapy for smoking cessation [Langfristige Effekte einer Kombination von transdermaler Nikotinzufuhr mit Verhaltenstherapie zur Raucherentwohnung]. Nervenarzt 1988;59:488-90.
Campbell 1987 {published data only}
Campbell 1991 {published data only}
Campbell 1996 {published data only}
  • Burton S, Campbell IA, Prescott RJ. Nicotine patches versus placebo in 235 hospital patients [abstract 191]. Abstracts from the 8th World Conference on Tobacco or Health, Mar 30-Apr 3; Buenos Aires, Argentina. 1992.
  • Campbell IA, Prescott RJ, Tjeder-Burton SM. Transdermal nicotine plus support in patients attending hospital with smoking-related diseases: a placebo-controlled study. Respiratory Medicine 1996;90:47-51.
CEASE 1999 {published data only}
Cinciripini 1996 {published data only}
  • Cinciripini PM, Cinciripini LG, Wallfisch A, Haque W. Behavior therapy and the transdermal nicotine patch: Effects on cessation outcome, affect, and coping. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1996;64:314-23.
  • Cinciripini PM, Wetter DW, Fouladi RT, Blalock JA, Carter BL, Cinciripini LG, et al. The effects of depressed mood on smoking cessation: mediation by postcessation self-efficacy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2003;71:292-301.
Clavel 1985 {published data only}
  • Clavel F, .Benhamou S. Tobacco withdrawal. Comparison of the efficacy of various methods. Intermediate results of a comparative study [French] [Désintoxcation tabagique. Comparison de l'efficacité de differentes méthodes. Résultats intermédiaires d'une étude comparative]. Presse Médicale 1984;13:975-7.
  • Clavel F, Benhamou S, Company Huertas A, Flamant R. Helping people to stop smoking: randomised comparison of groups being treated with acupuncture and nicotine gum with control group. British Medical Journal 1985;291:1538-9.
Clavel-Chapelon 1992 {published data only}
  • Clavel-Chapelon F, Paoletti C, Benhamou S. A randomised 2 x 2 factorial design to evaluate different smoking cessation methods. Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique 1992;40:187-90.
Cooper 2005 {published data only}
  • Cooper TV, Klesges RC, Debon MW, Zbikowski SM, Johnson KC, Clemens LH. A placebo controlled randomized trial of the effects of phenylpropanolamine and nicotine gum on cessation rates and postcessation weight gain in women. Addictive Behaviors 2005;30:61-75.
  • Cooper TV, Montgomery GV, Debon MW, Zbikowski SM, Klesges RC, Johnson KC. The effects of PPA and nicotine gum on cessation rates and post cessation weight gain in women [POS3-46]. Abstract Book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 9th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA. 2003.
Croghan 2003 {published data only}
  • Croghan GA, Hurt RD, Croghan IT, Sloan J, Novotny P, Loprinzi C. Comparison of a 15 mg transdermal nicotine patch alone versus nicotine nasal spray alone versus both for smoking cessation. Journal of Addictive Diseases 1998;17:121.
  • Croghan GA, Sloan JA, Croghan IT, Novotny P, Hurt RD, DeKrey WL, et al. Comparison of nicotine patch alone versus nicotine nasal sparay alone versus a combination for treating smokers: A minimal intervention, randomized multicenter trial in a nonspecialized setting. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2003;5(2):181-7.
Dale 1995 {published data only}
  • Dale LC, Hurt RD, Offord KP, Lawson GM, Croghan IT, Schroeder DR. High-dose nicotine patch therapy - percentage of replacement and smoking cessation. JAMA 1995;274:1353-8.
  • Dale LC, Schroeder DR, Wolter TD, Croghan IT, Hurt RD, Offord KP. Weight change after smoking cessation using variable doses of transdermal nicotine replacement. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1998;13:9-15.
Daughton 1991 {published data only}
  • Daughton DM, Heatley SA, Prendergast JJ, Causey D, Knowles M, Rolf CN, et al. Effect of transdermal nicotine delivery as an adjunct to low-intervention smoking cessation therapy. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Archives of Internal Medicine 1991;151:749-52.
  • Daughton DM, Heatley SA, Prendergast JJ, Causey D, Knowles M, Rolf CN, et al. Effects of transdermal nicotine as an adjunct in smoking cessation therapy. A double-blind randomized study controlled with placebo [Italian] [Effetti del rilascio transdermico di nicotina come terapia di supporto per lo svezzamento dal fumo di sigaretta. Uno studio randomizzato in doppio cieco con controlli trattati con placebo.]. Archivio Monaldi 1992;47:17-29.
Daughton 1998 {published data only}
  • Daughton D, Susman J, Sitorius M, Belenky S, Millatmal T, Nowak R, et al. Transdermal nicotine therapy and primary care. Importance of counseling, demographic, and participant selection factors on 1-year quit rates. The Nebraska Primary Practice Smoking Cessation Trial Group. Archives of Family Medicine 1998;7:425-30.
Dautzenberg 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Dautzenberg B, Peiffer G, Toulouse F, Yvinec MJ, Jacob N, Kienzler JL. Randomized trial assessment of nicotinell lozenge 1mg, a new oral nicotine replacement therapy. Abstract Book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 3rd European Conference, Paris. 2001:55.
  • Dautzenberg B, Ruff F, Vaucher M, Maillon P, Jacob N, Kienzler JL, et al. First demonstration of the good efficacy/safety ratio of Nicotinell® 1mg Lozenge (NL 1mg), a new form of nicotine substitution, by randomised clinical trial. European Respiratory Journal 2001;18 Suppl 33:12s.
Davidson 1998 {published data only}
  • Davidson M, Epstein M, Burt R, Schaefer C, Whitworth G, McDonald A. Efficacy and safety of an over-the-counter transdermal nicotine patch as an aid for smoking cessation. Archives of Family Medicine 1998;7:569-74.
Ehrsam 1991 {published data only}
  • Abelin T, Ehrsam R, Imhof P Muller P, Howald H. Clinical experience with a transdermal nicotine system in healthy nicotine-dependent smokers. In: Wilhemsen L editor(s). Smoking as a cardiovascular risk factor - new strategies for smoking cessation. Hogrefe & Huber, 1991:35-46.
  • Abelin T, Ehrsam R. Buhler-Reichert A, Imhof PR, Muller P, Thommen A, et al. Effectiveness of a transdermal nicotine system in smoking cessation studies. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 1989;11:205-14.
  • Ehrsam RE, Buhler A, Muller P, Mauli D, Schumacher PM, Howald H, et al. Weaning of young smokers using a transdermal nicotine patch [German] [Entwohnung junger Raucher mit Hilfe eines transdermalen Nikotinpflasters]. Schweizerische Rundschau fur Medizin Praxis 1991;80:145-50.
  • Muller P, Abelin T, Ehrsam R, Imhof P, Howald H, Mauli D. The use of transdermal nicotine in smoking cessation. Lung 1990;168:445-53.
Fagerstrom 1982 {published data only}
Fagerstrom 1984 {published data only}
Fee 1982 {published data only}
Fiore 1994A {published data only}
  • Elan Pharmaceutical Research Corp. NDA 19-983 for Approval of PROSTEP. Study 90-03 1992.
  • Fiore MC, Kenford SL, Jorenby DE, Wetter DW, Smith SS, Baker TB. Two studies of the clinical effectiveness of the nicotine patch with different counseling treatments. Chest 1994;105:524-33.
  • Kenford SL, Fiore MC, Jorenby DE, Smith SS, Wetter D, Baker TB. Predicting smoking cessation. Who will quit with and without the nicotine patch. JAMA 1994;271:589-94.
Fiore 1994B {published data only}
Fortmann 1995 {published data only}
  • Fortmann SP, Killen JD. Nicotine gum and self-help behavioral treatment for smoking relapse prevention - resuIts from a trial using population-based recruitment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1995;63:460-8.
Garcia 1989 {published data only}
  • Quilez Garcia C, Hernando Arizaleta L, Rubio Diaz A, Estruch Riba J, Fornes Ramis MV. Treatment for smoking with nicotine gum in primary care. A double blind trial [Spanish] [Tratamiento del tabaquismo, con chicle de nicotina, en atencion primaria. Estudio a doble ciego]. Revista Clinica Espanol 1993;192(4):157-61.
  • Quilez Garcia C, Hernando Arizaleta L, Rubio Diaz A, Granero Fernandez EJ, Vila Coll MA, Estruch Riba JSO. Double-blind study of the efficacy of nicotine chewing gum for smoking cessation in the primary care setting [Spanish] [Estudio doble ciego de la eficacia del chicle de nicotina en la deshabituacion tabaquica dentro del ambito de la atencion primaria]. Atencion Primaria 1989;6:719-26.
Garvey 2000 {published data only}
  • Doherty K, Militello FS, Kinnunen T, Garvey AJ. Nicotine gum dose and weight gain after smoking cessation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1996;64:799-807.
  • Garvey AJ, Kinnunen T, Nordstrom BL, Utman CH, Doherty K, Rosner B, et al. Effects of nicotine gum dose by level of nicotine dependence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2000;2:53-63.
  • Nordstrom BL, Kinnunen T, Utman CH, Garvey AJ. Long-term effects of nicotine gum on weight gain after smoking cessation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 1999;1:259-68.
Gilbert 1989 {published data only}
  • Gilbert JR, Wilson DM, Best JA, Taylor DW, Lindsay EA, Singer J, et al. Smoking cessation in primary care. A randomized controlled trial of nicotine-bearing chewing gum. Journal of Family Practice 1989;28:49-55.
Glavas 2003a {published data only}
  • Glavas D, Rumboldt M, Rumboldt Z. Smoking cessation with nicotine replacement therapy among health care workers: randomized double-blind study. Croatian Medical Journal 2003;44:219-24.
Glavas 2003b {published data only}
  • Glavas D, Rumboldt Z. Smoking cessation using the transdermal nicotine system [Croatian] [Odvikavanje od pusenja transdermalnim nikotinskim sustavom]. Lijecnicki Vjesnik 2003;125(1-2):8-12.
Glover 2002 {published data only}
  • Glover E, Glover P, Franzon M, Sullivan R, Cerullo C. Safety and efficacy of a nicotine sublingual tablet for smoking cessation [abstract]. Smoke Free 21st Century, 2nd European Conference on Tobacco or Health; Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. 1999.
  • Glover ED, Franzon M, Sullivan CR, Cerullo CL. A nicotine sublingual tablet for treating tobacco dependence [Abstract]. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 3rd Europe Conference, Paris September 2001 Abstract Book. 2001:48.
  • Glover ED, Glover PN, Franzon M, Sullivan CR, Cerullo CC, Howell RM, et al. A comparison of a nicotine sublingual tablet and placebo for smoking cessation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2002;4:441-50.
  • Glover ED, Glover PN, Franzon M, Sullivan R, Sullivan P, Howell R, et al. A nicotine sublingual tablet for smoking cessation: 6-month data [Abstract]. Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Tobacco or Health; Aug 24-28 Beijing, China. 1997.
Goldstein 1989 {published data only}
  • Goldstein MG, Niaura R, Follick MJ, Abrams DB. Effects of behavioral skills training and schedule of nicotine gum administration on smoking cessation. American Journal of Psychiatry 1989;146:56-60.
Gourlay 1995 {published data only}
  • Gourlay SG, Forbes A, Marriner T, Pethica D, McNeil JJ. Double blind trial of repeated treatment with transdermal nicotine for relapsed smokers. BMJ 1995;311(7001):363-6.
Gross 1995 {published data only}
Hall 1985 {published data only}
Hall 1987 {published data only}
  • Hall SM, Tunstall CD, Ginsberg D, Benowitz NL, Jones RT. Nicotine gum and behavioral treatment: a placebo controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1987;55:603-5.
Hall 1996 {published data only}
  • Hall SM, Munoz RF, Reus VI, Sees KL, Duncan C, Humfleet GL, et al. Mood management and nicotine gum in smoking treatment - a therapeutic contact and placebo-controlled study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1996;64:1003-9.
Hand 2002 {published data only}
Harackiewicz 1988 {published data only}
  • Harackiewicz JM, Blair LW, Sansone C, Epstein JA, Stuchell RN. Nicotine gum and self-help manuals in smoking cessation: an evaluation in a medical context. Addictive Behaviors 1988;13:319-30.
Hays 1999 {published data only}
  • Hays JT, Croghan GA, Offord KP, Hurt RD, Schroeder DR, Wolter TD, et al. Over-the-counter nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation: Results from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and open label trials. American Journal of Public Health 1999;89:1701-7.
  • Hays JT, Croghan GA, Offord KP, Wolter TD, Nides MA, Davidson M. Over-the-Counter (OTC) transdermal nicotine patch therapy [abstract]. Journal of Addictive Diseases 1997;16:136.
  • Hays JT, Croghan IT, Offord KP, Hurt RD, Schroeder DR, Wolter TD, et al. Over the counter 22mg nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation: results from randomized double-blind placebo-controlled and open label trials. Abstract Book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 5th Annual Meeting, San Diego (CA) 1999.
Herrera 1995 {published data only}
  • Herrera N, Franco R, Herrera L, Partidas A, Rolando R, Fagerstrom KO. Nicotine gum, 2 and 4 mg, for nicotine dependence. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial within a behavior modification support program. Chest 1995;108:447-51.
Hilleman 1994 {published data only}
  • Hilleman DE, Mohiuddin SM, Delcore MG. Comparison of fixed-dose transdermal nicotine, tapered-dose transdermal nicotine, and buspirone in smoking cessation. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1994;34(3):222-4.
Hjalmarson 1984 {published data only}
  • Hjalmarson AI. Effect of nicotine chewing gum in smoking cessation. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. JAMA 1984;252:2835-8.
Hjalmarson 1994 {published data only}
  • Hjalmarson AI, Franzon M, Westin A, Wiklund O. Effect of nicotine nasal spray on smoking cessation. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Archives of Internal Medicine 1994;154:2567-72.
Hjalmarson 1997 {published data only}
  • Hjalmarson A, Nilsson F, Sjostrom L, Wiklund O. The nicotine inhaler in smoking cessation. Archives of Internal Medicine 1997;157:1721-8.
Huber 1988 {published data only}
Hughes 1989 {published data only}
  • Hughes JR, Gust SW, Keenan R, Fenwick JW, Skoog K, Higgins ST. Long-term use of nicotine vs placebo gum. Archives of Internal Medicine 1991;151:1993-8.
  • Hughes JR, Gust SW, Keenan RM, Fenwick JW, Healey ML. Nicotine vs placebo gum in general medical practice. JAMA 1989;261:1300-5.
Hughes 1990 {published data only}
  • Hughes JR, Gust SW, Keenan RM, Fenwick JW. Effect of dose on nicotine's reinforcing, withdrawal-suppression and self-reported effects. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1990;252:1175-83.
Hughes 1991 {published data only}
Hughes 1999 {published data only}
  • Hughes JR, Lesmes GR, Hatsukami DK, Richmond RL, Lichtenstein E, Jorenby DE, et al. Are higher doses of nicotine replacement more effective for smoking cessation?. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 1999;1:169-74.
Hughes 2003 {published data only}
  • Hughes JR, Novy P, Hatsukami DK, Jensen J, Callas PW. Efficacy of nicotine patch in smokers with a history of alcoholism. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research 2003;27:946-54.
Hurt 1990 {published data only}
  • Elan Pharmaceutical Research Corp. NDA 19-983 for Approval of PROSTEP. Study 88-02 1992.
  • Hurt RD, Lauger GG, Offord KP, Kottke TE, Dale LC. Nicotine-replacement therapy with use of a transdermal nicotine patch-a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1990;65:1529-37.
Hurt 1994 {published data only}
  • Hurt RD, Dale LC, Fredrickson PA, Caldwell CC, Lee GA, Offord KP, et al. Nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation combined with physician advice and nurse follow-up: One-year outcome and percentage of nicotine replacement. JAMA 1994;271:595-600.
ICRF 1994 {published data only}
  • David SP, Munafo MR, Murphy MF, Walton RT, Johnstone EC. The serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and treatment response to nicotine patch: follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2007;9(2):225-231.
  • Imperial Cancer Research Fund General Practice research Group. Randomised trial of nicotine patches in general practice: results at one year.. BMJ 1994;308:1476-7.
  • Imperial Cancer Research Fund General Practice Research Group. Effectiveness of a nicotine patch in helping people stop smoking: results of a randomised trial in general practice.. BMJ 1993;306:1304-8.
  • Johnstone EC, Yudkin Pl, Hey K, Roberts SJ, Welch SJ, Murphy MF, et al. Genetic variation in dopaminergic pathways and short-term effectiveness of the nicotine patch. Pharmacogenetics 2004;14(2):83-90.
  • Yudkin P, Hey K, Roberts S, Welch S, Murphy M, Walton R. Abstinence from smoking eight years after participation in randomised controlled trial of nicotine patch. BMJ 2003;327(7405):28-29.
  • Yudkin P, Munafo M, Hey K, Roberts S, Welch S, Johnstone E, et al. Effectiveness of nicotine patches in relation to genotype in women versus men: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2004;328(7446):989-90.
Jamrozik 1984 {published data only}
  • Jamrozik K, Fowler G, Vessey M, Wald N. Placebo controlled trial of nicotine chewing gum in general practice. British Medical Journal 1984;289:794-7.
Jarvis 1982 {published data only}
  • Jarvis MJ, Raw M, Russell MAH, Feyerabend C. Randomised controlled trial of nicotine chewing-gum. British Medical Journal 1982;285:537-40.
Jensen 1991 {published data only}
  • Jensen EJ, Schmidt E, Pedersen B, Dahl R. Effect of nicotine, silver acetate, and ordinary chewing gum in combination with group counselling on smoking cessation. Thorax 1990;45:831-4.
  • Jensen EJ, Schmidt E, Pedersen B, Dahl R. Effect on smoking cessation of silver acetate, nicotine and ordinary chewing gum. Influence of smoking history. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1991;104:470-4.
  • Jensen EJ, Schmidt E, Pedersen B, Dahl R. The effect of nicotine, silver acetate, and placebo chewing gum on the cessation of smoking. The influence of smoking type and nicotine dependence. International Journal of the Addictions 1991;26:1223-31.
Jorenby 1995 {published data only}
  • Jorenby DE, Smith SS, Fiore MC, Hurt RD, Offord KP, Crogham IT, et al. Varying nicotine patch dose and type of smoking cessation counseling. JAMA 1995;274:1347-52.
Jorenby 1999 {published data only}
  • Durcan MJ, White J, Jorenby DE, Fiore MC, Rennard SI, Leischow SJ, et al. Impact of prior nicotine replacement therapy on smoking cessation efficacy. American Journal of Health Behaviors 2002;26:213-20.
  • Jamerson BD, Nides M, Jorenby DE, Donahue R, Garrett P, Johnston JA, et al. Late-term smoking cessation despite initial failure: an evaluation of bupropion sustained release, nicotine patch, combination therapy, and placebo. Clinical Therapeutics 2001;23:744-52.
  • Jorenby DE, Leischow SJ, Nides MA, Rennard SI, Johnston JA, Hughes AR, et al. A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;340:685-91.
Joseph 1996 {published data only}
Kalman 2006 {published data only}
  • Kalman D, Denison H, Penk W, Peer J, Kresman D, Monti P. Early findings from a treatment study of heavy smokers in alcohol recovery (PO2 34). Abstract Book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 7th Annual Meeting March 23-23 Seattle, Washington. 2001:61.
  • Kalman D, Kahler CW, Garvey AJ, Monti PM. High-dose nicotine patch therapy for smokers with a history of alcohol dependence: 36-week outcomes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2006;30:213-7.
  • Kalman D, Kahler CW, Tirch D, Kaschub C, Penk W, Monti PM. Twelve-week outcomes from an investigation of high-dose nicotine patch therapy for heavy smokers with a past history of alcohol dependence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2004;18:78-82.
  • Kalman D, Tirch D, Penk W, Denison H. An investigation of predictors of nicotine abstinence in a smoking cessation treatment study of smokers with a past history of alcohol dependence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2002;16:346-9.
  • Kalman D, Tirch D, Penk W, Kaschub C. Preliminary findings from a treatment study of heavy smokers in alcohol recovery: end of treatment outcomes (PO2 38). Abstract Book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 8th Annual Meeting February 20-23 Savannah, Georgia. 2002:58.
Killen 1984 {published data only}
Killen 1990 {published data only}
  • Fortmann SP, Killen JD, Telch MJ, Newman B. Minimal contact treatment for smoking cessation. A placebo controlled trial of nicotine polacrilex and self-directed relapse prevention: initial results of the Stanford Stop Smoking Project. JAMA 1988;260:1575-80.
  • Killen JD, Fortmann SP, Newman B, Varady A. Evaluation of a treatment approach combining nicotine gum with self-guided behavioral treatments for smoking relapse prevention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1990;58:85-92.
Killen 1997 {published data only}
Killen 1999 {published data only}
  • Killen JD, Fortmann SP, Davis L, Strausberg L, Varady A. Do heavy smokers benefit from higher dose nicotine patch therapy?. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 1999;7:226-33.
Kornitzer 1987 {published data only}
Kornitzer 1995 {published data only}
  • Kornitzer M, Boutsen M, Dramaix M, Thijs J, Gustavsson G. Combined use of nicotine patch and gum in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Preventive Medicine 1995;24:41-7.
  • Kornitzer M, Boutsen M, Thijs J, Gustavsson G. Efficiency and safety of combined use of nicotine patches and nicotine gum in smoking cessation: a placebo controlled double-blind trial [abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 1993;6(Suppl 17):630S.
Kralikova 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kralikova E, Kozak J, Rasmussen T, Cort N. The clinical benefits of NRT-supported smoking reduction. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2002;4:243.
Leischow 1996 {published data only}
  • Leischow SJ, Nilsson F, Franzon M, Hill A, Otte P, Merikle EP. Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler as an adjunct to smoking cessation. American Journal of Health Behavior 1996;20:364-71.
Leischow 1999 {published data only}
  • Leischow SJ, Muramoto ML, Cook GN, Merikle EP, Castellini SM, Otte PS. OTC nicotine patch: effectiveness alone and with brief physician intervention. American Journal of Health Behavior 1999;23:61-9.
Leischow 2004 {published data only}
  • Leischow SJ, Ranger-Moore J, Muramoto ML, Matthews E. Effectiveness of the nicotine inhaler for smoking cessation in an OTC setting. American Journal of Health Behavior 2004;28:291-301.
  • Leischow SJ, Ranger-Moore J, Muramoto ML, Matthews E. The safety and effectiveness of the nicotine inhaler for smoking cessation in an over-the-counter setting (POS4-78). Abstract Book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 9th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA. 2003:100.
Lerman 2004 {published data only}
  • Lerman C, Jepson C, Wileyto EP, Epstein LH, Rukstalis M, Patterson F, et al. Role of functional genetic variation in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) in response to bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco dependence: results of two randomized clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;31(1):231-42.
  • Lerman C, Kaufmann V, Rukstalis M, Patterson F, Perkins K, Audrain McGovern J, et al. Individualizing nicotine replacement therapy for the treatment of tobacco dependence: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2004;140:426-33.
  • Lerman C, Tyndale R, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, Shields PG, Pinto A, et al. Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts efficacy of transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2006;79:600-8.
  • Lerman C, Wileyto EP, Patterson F, Rukstalis M, Audrain-McGovern J, Restine S, et al. The functional mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) Asn40Asp variant predicts short-term response to nicotine replacement therapy in a clinical trial. Pharmacogenomics Journal 2004;4(3):184-92.
  • Malaiyandi V, Lerman C, Benowitz NL, Jepson C, Patterson F, Tyndale RF. Impact of CYP2A6 genotype on pretreatment smoking behaviour and nicotine levels from and usage of nicotine replacement therapy. Molecular Psychiatry 2006;11(4):400-409.
  • Patterson F, Jepson C, Kaufmann V, Rukstalis M, Audrain-McGovern J, Kucharski S, et al. Predictors of attendance in a randomized clinical trial of nicotine replacement therapy with behavioral counseling. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2003;72:123-31.
Lewis 1998 {published data only}
Llivina 1988 {published data only}
  • Salvador Llivina T, Marin Tuya D, Gonzalez Quintana J, Iniesta Torres C, Castellvi Barrera E, Muriana Saez C, et al. Treatment of smoking: efficacy of the use of nicotine chewing gum. Double-blind study [Spanish] [Tratamiento del tabaquismo: eficacia de la utilizacion del chicle de nicotina. Estudio a doble ciego]. Medicina Clinica Barcelona 1988;90:646-50.
Malcolm 1980 {published data only}
Marshall 1985 {published data only}
  • Marshall A, Raw M. Nicotine chewing gum in general practice: effect of follow up appointments. British Medical Journal 1985;290:1397-8.
McGovern 1992 {published data only}
Molyneux 2003 {published data only}
  • Molyneux A, Lewis S, Leivers U, Anderton A, Antoniak M, Brackenridge A, et al. Clinical trial comparing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) plus brief counselling, brief counselling alone, and minimal intervention on smoking cessation in hospital inpatients. Thorax 2003;58(6):484-8.
Moolchan 2005 {published data only}
  • Franken FH, Pickworth WB, Epstein DH, Moolchan ET. Smoking rates and topography predict adolescent smoking cessation following treatment with nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2006;15:154-7.
  • Moolchan ET, Robinson ML, Ernst M, Cadet JL, Pickworth WB, Heishman SJ, et al. Safety and efficacy of the nicotine patch and gum for the treatment of adolescent tobacco addiction. Pediatrics 2005;115(4):e407-e414.
  • Robinson ML, Schroeder JR, Moolchan ET. Adolescent smokers screened for a nicotine replacement treatment trial: Correlates of eligibility and enrollment. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2006;8:447-54.
Mori 1992 {unpublished data only}
  • Mori T, Shimao T, Yulchiro G, Namiki M, Hyachi T. A clinical trial of nicotine chewing gum for smoking cessation [abstract 428]. 8th World Conference on Tobacco or Health; Buenos Aires, Argentina 1992.
Nakamura 1990 {unpublished data only}
  • Nakamura M, Saito J, Oshima A, Miyamoto M, Matushita A, Endo S. Effect of nicotine chewing gun in smoking cessation classes. The Global War. Proceedings of the 7th World Conference on Tobacco and Health; Perth, Western Australia. Perth: Health Department of Western Australia, 1990:665-7.
Nebot 1992 {published data only}
  • Nebot M, Cabezas C. Does nurse counseling or offer of nicotine gum improve the effectiveness of physician smoking-cessation advice?. Family Practice Research Journal 1992;12:263-70.
Niaura 1994 {published data only}
Niaura 1999 {published data only}
Ockene 1991 {published data only}
  • Ockene JK, Kristeller J, Goldberg R, Amick TL, Pekow PS, Hosmer D, et al. Increasing the efficacy of physician-delivered smoking interventions: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1991;6:1-8.
  • Ockene JK, Kristeller J, Pbert L, Hebert JR, Luippold R, Goldberg RJ, et al. The physician-delivered smoking intervention project: can short-term interventions produce long-term effects for a general outpatient population?. Health Psychology 1994;13:278-81.
Oncken 2007 {published data only}
  • Oncken C, Cooney J, Feinn R, Lando H, Kranzler HR. Transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation in postmenopausal women. Addictive Behaviors 2007;32:296-309.
  • Oncken C, Cooney J, Lando H, Feinn R, Kranzler H. Transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation in postmenopausal women (POS1-045). Abstract Book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 11th Annual Meeting, Prague. 2005.
Otero 2006 {published data only}
  • Otero UB, Perez CA, Szklo M, Esteves GA, dePinho MM, Szklo AS, et al. Randomized clinical trial: effectiveness of the cognitive-behavioral approach and the use of nicotine replacement transdermal patches for smoking cessation among adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [Portugese] [Ensaio clinico randomizado: efetividade da abordagem cognitivo-comportamental e uso de adesivos transdermicos de reposicao de nicotina, na cessacao de fumar, em adultos residentes no Municipio do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil]. Cadernos de Saude Publica 2006;22:439-49.
Page 1986 {published data only}
Paoletti 1996 {published data only}
  • Paoletti P, Fornai E, Maggiorelli F, Puntoni R, Viegi G, Carrozzi L, et al. Importance of baseline cotinine plasma values in smoking cessation: results from a double blind study with nicotine patch. European Respiratory Journal 1996;9:643-51.
Perng 1998 {published data only}
  • Perng RP, Hsieh WC, Chen YM, Lu CC, Chiang SJ. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of transdermal nicotine patch for smoking cessation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1999;159(3SS):A735.
  • Perng RP, Hsieh WC, Chen YM, Lu CC, Chiang SJ. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of transdermal nicotine patch for smoking cessation. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 1998;97:547-51.
Piper 2007 {published data only}
  • Piper ME, Federman EB, Bolt DM, Smith SS, Fiore MC, Baker TB. Mediators of bupropion treatment effects (PA5-6). Abstract Book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 12th Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL. 2006:27.
  • Piper ME, Federman EB, McCarthy DE, Bolt DM, Smith SS, Fiore MC, et al. Efficacy of bupropion alone and in combination with nicotine gum. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2007;9:947-54.
  • Piper ME, Federman EB, Smith SS, Fiore MC, Baker TB. Efficacy of bupropion SR alone and combined with 4-mg gum (PA2-2). Abstract Book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 10th Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ. 2004:18.
Pirie 1992 {published data only}
Prapavessis 2007 {published data only}
  • Prapavessis H, Cameron L, Baldi JC, Robinson S, Borrie K, Harper T, et al. The effects of exercise and nicotine replacement therapy on smoking rates in women. Addictive Behaviors 2007;32:1416-32.
Puska 1979 {published data only}
Puska 1995 {published data only}
  • Puska P, Korhonen HJ, Vartiainen E, Urjanheimo EL, Gustavsson G, Westin A. Combined use of nicotine patch and gum compared with gum alone in smoking cessation: a clinical trial in North Karelia. Tobacco Control 1995;4:231-5.
Richmond 1993 {published data only}
  • Richmond R, Heather N. General Practitioner interventions for smoking cessation: past results and future prospects. Behaviour Change 1990;7:110-9.
  • Richmond RL, Makinson RJ, Giugni AA, Webster IW. General Practitioner smoking interventions in Australia: results of studies over the past ten years. The Global War, Proceedings of the 7th World Conference on Tobacco and Health. Perth, Western Australia. Perth: Health Department of Western Australia, 1990:657-60.
  • Richmond RL, Makinson RJ, Kehoe LA, Giugni AA, Webster IW. One-year evaluation of three smoking cessation interventions administered by general practitioners. Addictive Behaviors 1993;18:187-99.
Richmond 1994 {published data only}
Rose 1994 {published data only}
  • Rose JE, Behm FM, Westman EC, Levin ED, Stein RM, Ripka GV. Mecamylamine combined with nicotine skin patch facilitates smoking cessation beyond nicotine patch treatment alone. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1994;56:86-99.
  • Rose JE, Westman EC, Behm FM. Nicotine/mecamylamine combination treatment for smoking cessation [published erratum appears in Drug Development Research 1997;40:215]. Drug Development Research 1996;38:243-256.
Rose 1998 {published data only}
Rose 2006 {published data only}
Roto 1987 {published data only}
  • Roto P, Ojala A, Sundman K, Jokinen K, Peltomakl R. Nicotine gum and withdrawal from smoking. Suomen Laakarllehtl 1987;36:3445-8.
Russell 1983 {published data only}
  • Russell MA, Merriman R, Stapleton J, Taylor W. Effect of nicotine chewing gum as an adjunct to general practitioner's advice against smoking. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.) 1983;287:1782-5.
Sachs 1993 {published data only}
  • Sachs DPL, Sawe U, Leischow SJ. Effectiveness of a 16-hour transdermal nicotine patch in a medical practice setting, without intensive group counseling. Archives of Internal Medicine 1993;153:1881-90.
Schneider 1985A {published data only}
  • Jarvik ME, Schneider NG. Degree of addiction and effectiveness of nicotine gum therapy for smoking. American Journal of Psychiatry 1984;141:790-1.
  • Schneider NG, Jarvik ME. Nicotine gum vs. placebo gum: comparisons of withdrawal symptoms and success rates. NIDA Research Monograph 1985;53:83-101.
  • Schneider NG, Jarvik ME, Forsythe AB, Read LL, Elliott ML, Schweiger A. Nicotine gum in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Addictive Behaviors 1983;8:253-61.
Schneider 1985B {published data only}
  • Schneider NG, Jarvik ME. Nicotine gum vs. placebo gum: comparisons of withdrawal symptoms and success rates. NIDA Research Monograph 1985;53:83-101.
  • Schneider NG, Jarvik ME, Forsythe AB, Read LL, Elliott ML, Schweiger A. Nicotine gum in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Addictive Behaviors 1983;8:253-61.
Schneider 1995 {published data only}
  • Schneider NG, Olmstead R, Mody FV, Doan K, Franzon M, Jarvik ME, et al. Efficacy of a nicotine nasal spray in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Addiction 1995;90:1671-82.
Schneider 1996 {published data only}
  • Schneider NG, Olmstead R, Nilsson F, Mody FV, Franzon M, Doan K. Efficacy of a nicotine inhaler in smoking cessation: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Addiction 1996;91:1293-306.
  • Schneider NG, Olmstead R, Nilsson F, Mody FV, Franzon M, Doan K. Efficacy of a nicotine inhaler in smoking cessation: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial [abstract]. Addiction 1997;92:630.
Schuurmans 2004 {published data only}
  • Schuurmans MM, Diacon AH, van Biljon X, Bolliger CT. Effect of pre-treatment with nicotine patch on withdrawal symptoms and abstinence rates in smokers subsequently quitting with the nicotine patch: a randomized controlled trial. Addiction 2004;99:634-40.
  • Schuurmans MM, Diacon AH, van Biljon X, Westin A, Landfeldt B, Bolliger CT. Effect of pre-treatment with nicotine patch on withdrawal symptoms in smokers subsequently quitting with the nicotine patch: a double-blind randomised controlled trial [https://www.ersnetsecure.org/public/prg_congres.abstract?ww_i_presentation=6711). European Respiratory Society Annual Congress, Stockholm. 2002.
Segnan 1991 {published data only}
  • Segnan N, Ponti A, Battista RN, Senore C, Rosso S, Shapiro SH, et al. A randomized trial of smoking cessation interventions in general practice in Italy. Cancer Causes and Control 1991;2:239-46.
  • Senore C, Battista RN, Ponti A, Segnan N, Shapiro SH, Rosso S, et al. Comparing participants and nonparticipants in a smoking cessation trial: Selection factors associated with general practitioner recruitment activity. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1999;52:83-9.
  • Senore C, Battista RN, Shapiro SH, Segnan N, Ponti A, Rosso S, et al. Predictors of smoking cessation following physicians' counseling. Preventive Medicine 1998;27:412-21.
Shiffman 2002 (2mg) {published data only}
Shiffman 2002 (4mg) {published data only}
Sonderskov 1997 {published data only}
  • Sonderskov J, Olsen J, Meillier L, Overvad OK, Sabroe S. [The effect of transdermal nicotine patches in smoking cessation. A randomized trial in pharmacy customers in Denmark] [Danish]. Ugeskrift for Laeger 1999;161:593-7.
  • Sonderskov J, Olsen J, Sabroe S, Meillier L, Overvad K. Nicotine patches in smoking cessation: A randomized trial among over- the-counter customers in Denmark. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997;145:309-18.
Stapleton 1995 {published data only}
  • Russell MAH, Stapleton JA, Feyerabend C, Wiseman SM, Gustavsson G, Sawe Uet al. Targeting heavy smokers in general practice: randomised controlled trial of transdermal nicotine patches. BMJ 1993;306(6888):1308-12.
  • Stapleton JA, Russell MAH, Feyerabend C, Wiseman SM, Gustavsson G, Sawe U, et al. Dose effects and predictors of outcome in a randomized trial of transdermal nicotine patches in general practice. Addiction 1995;90:31-42.
Sutherland 1992 {published data only}
  • Stapleton JA, Sutherland G, Russell MAH. How much does relapse after one year erode effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments? Long term follow up of randomised trial of nicotine nasal spray. BMJ 1998;316(7134):830-1.
  • Sutherland G, Stapleton JA, Russell MAH, Jarvis MJ, Hajek P, Belcher M, et al. Randomised controlled trial of nasal nicotine spray in smoking cessation. Lancet 1992;340:324-9.
TNSG 1991 {published data only}
  • Daughton DM, Fortmann SP, Glover ED, Hatsukami DK, Heatley SA, Lichtenstein E, et al. The smoking cessation efficacy of varying doses of nicotine patch delivery systems 4 to 5 years post-quit day. Preventive Medicine 1999;28:113-8.
  • Swan GE, Jack LM, Ward MM. Subgroups of smokers with different success rates after use of transdermal nicotine. Addiction 1997;92:207-17.
  • Transdermal Nicotine Study Group. Transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation. Six-month results from two multicenter controlled clinical trials. Transdermal Nicotine Study Group. JAMA 1991;266:3133-8.
Tonnesen 1988 {published data only}
  • Tonnesen P, Fryd V, Hansen M, Helsted J, Gunnersen AB, Forchammer H, et al. Effect of nicotine chewing gum in combination with group counseling on the cessation of smoking. New England Journal of Medicine 1988;318:15-8.
Tonnesen 1991 {published data only}
  • Mikkelsen KL, Tonnesen P, Norregaard J. Three-year outcome of two- and three-year sustained abstainers from a smoking cessation study with nicotine patches. Journal of Smoking-Related Disorders 1994;5:95-100.
  • Norregaard J, Tonnesen P, Petersen L. Predictors and reasons for relapse in smoking cessation with nicotine and placebo patches. Preventive Medicine 1993;22:261-71.
  • Tonnesen P, Norregaard J, Sawe U. Two-year outcome in a smoking cessation trial with a nicotine patch. Journal of Smoking-Related Disorders 1992;3:241-5.
  • Tonnesen P, Norregaard J, Simonsen K, Sawe U. A double-blind trial of a 16-hour transdermal nicotine patch in smoking cessation. New England Journal of Medicine 1991;325:311-5.
  • Tonnesen P, Norregaard J, Simonsen K, Sawe U. A double-blind trial of nicotine patches in smoking cessation [Danish] [En dobbeltblind undersogelse af nikotinplaster ved rygeafvaenning]. Ugeskrift for Laeger 1992;154:251-4.
Tonnesen 1993 {published data only}
  • Tonnesen P, Norregaard J, Mikkelsen K, Jorgensen S, Nilsson F. A double-blind trial of a nicotine inhaler for smoking cessation. JAMA 1993;269:1268-71.
Tonnesen 2000 {published data only}
Tonnesen 2006 {published data only}
Villa 1999 {published data only}
  • Villa RS, Alvarez ABD, Hermida JRF. Effectiveness of a multicomponent program to quit smoking with and without nicotine chewing gum [Spanish] [Eficacia de un programa multicomponente para dejar de fumar con y sin chicle de nicotina]. Psicologia Conductual 1999;7:107-18.
Wallstrom 2000 {published data only}
  • Pharmacia, Upjohn. Nicorette Nicotine Microtab Monograph. Chester: Adis International, 1998:Adis International, 1998.
  • Wallstrom M, Nilsson F, Hirsch JM. A double-blind placebo controlled clinical evaluation of a nicotine sublingual tablet in smoking cessation [abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 1997; Vol. 10, issue Suppl 25:440S.
  • Wallstrom M, Nilsson F, Hirsch JM. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of a nicotine sublingual tablet in smoking cessation. Addiction 2000;95(8):1161-71.
Westman 1993 {published data only}
  • Westman EC, Levin ED, Rose JE. The nicotine patch in smoking cessation. A randomized trial with telephone counseling. Archives of Internal Medicine 1993;153:1917-23.
Wisborg 2000 {published data only}
Wong 1999 {published data only}
Zelman 1992 {published data only}
  • Zelman DC, Brandon TH, Jorenby DE, Baker TB. Measures of affect and nicotine dependence predict differential response to smoking cessation treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1992;60:943-52.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Allen 2005 {published data only}
  • Allen SS, Hatsukami D, Brintnell DM, Bade T. Effect of nicotine replacement therapy on post-cessation weight gain and nutrient intake: A randomized controlled trial of postmenopausal female smokers. Addictive Behaviors 2005;30:1273-80.
  • Allen SS, Hatsukami DK, Bade T, Center B. Transdermal nicotine use in postmenopausal women: does the treatment efficacy differ in women using and not using hormone replacement therapy?. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2004;6(5):777-88.
Aubin 2006 {published data only}
  • Aubin HJ, Luthringer R, Demazieres A, Dupont C, Lagrue G. Comparison of the effects of a 24-hour nicotine patch and a 16-hour nicotine patch on smoking urges and sleep. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2006;8:193-201.
Batra 2005 {published data only}
  • Batra A, Klingler K, Landfeldt B, Friederich HM, Westin A, Danielsson T. Smoking reduction treatment with 4-mg nicotine gum: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2005;78:689-96.
  • Landfeldt B, Batra A, Friederich HM, Klingler K, Westin A. Smoking reduction with a 4 mg nicotine gum - final results from a placebo-controlled trial over 13 months. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 5th European Meeting November 20-22 2003 Padua: Abstract book. 2003.
Bolliger 2000 {published data only}
  • Bolliger CT. Practical experiences in smoking reduction and cessation. Addiction 2000;95(1 S1):S19-S24.
  • Bolliger CT, Zellweger JP, Danielsson T, van Biljon X, Robidou A, Westin A, et al. Influence of long-term smoking reduction on health risk markers and quality of life. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2002;4:433-9.
  • Bolliger CT, Zellweger JP, Danielsson T, van Biljon X, Robidou A, Westin A, et al. Smoking reduction with oral nicotine inhalers: double blind, randomised clinical trial of efficacy and safety. BMJ 2000;321(7257):329-333.
Bolliger 2007 {published data only}
Brantmark 1973 {published data only}
Carpenter 2003 {published data only}
Chou 2004 {published data only}
  • Chou KR, Chen R, Lee JF, Ku CH, Lu RB. The effectiveness of nicotine-patch therapy for smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2004;41:321-30.
Christen 1984 {published data only}
  • Christen AG, Drook C, McDonald JL, Stookey G, Olson B. Efficacy of nicotine chewing gum in facilitating smoking cessation. Journal of the American Dental Association 1984;108:594-7.
Cohen 1989a {published data only}
  • Cohen SJ, Stookey GK, Katz BP, Drook CA, Christen AG. Helping smokers quit: a randomized controlled trial with private practice dentists. Journal of the American Dental Association 1989;118:41-5.
Cohen 1989b {published data only}
  • Cohen SJ, Stookey GK, Katz BP, Drook CA, Smith DM. Encouraging primary care physicians to help smokers quit. A randomised, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 1989;110:648-52.
Croghan 2007 {published data only}
  • Clark MM, Hurt RD, Croghan I, Patten CA, Novotny P, Sloan JA, et al. The prevalence of weight concerns in a smoking abstinence clinical trial (POS2-84). Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 12th Annual Meeting February 15-18, Orlando, Florida. 2006.
  • Croghan IT, Hurt RD, Croghan GA, Sloan JA. Comparing nicotine inhaler, bupropion and nicotine inhaler plus bupropion in treating tobacco dependence [abstract]. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2005;7(4):680-1.
  • Croghan IT, Hurt RD, Dakhil SR, Croghan GA, Sloan JA, Novotny PJ, et al. Randomized comparison of a nicotine inhaler and bupropion for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2007;82:186-95.
Dey 1999 {published data only}
  • Dey P, Foy R, Woodman M, Fullard B, Gibbs A. Should smoking cessation cost a packet? A pilot randomized controlled trial of the cost-effectiveness of distributing nicotine therapy free of charge. British Journal of General Practice 1999;49:127-8.
Elan Pharm 88-02 {published data only}
  • Elan Pharmaceutical Research Corp. NDA 19-983 for Approval of PROSTEP. Study 88-02 1992.
Elan Pharm 90-03 {published data only}
  • Elan Pharmaceutical Research Corp. NDA 19-983 for Approval of PROSTEP. Study 90-03 1992.
Etter 2004 {published data only}
  • Dar R, Stronguin F, Etter JF. Assigned versus perceived placebo effects in nicotine replacement therapy for smoking reduction in Swiss smokers. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 2005;73:350-3.
  • Etter JF, Laszlo E, Perneger TV. Postintervention effect of nicotine replacement therapy on smoking reduction in smokers who are unwilling to quit: Randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2004;24(2):174-9.
  • Etter JF, Laszlo E, Zellweger JP, Perrot C, Perneger TV. Nicotine replacement to reduce cigarette consumption in smokers who are unwilling to quit: a randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2002;22:487-95.
Fagerstrom 1993 {published data only}
  • Fagerstrom KO, Schneider NG, Lunell E. Effectiveness of nicotine patch and nicotine gum as individual versus combined treatments for tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1993;111:271-7.
Fagerstrom 1997 {published data only}
  • Fagerstrom KO, Tejding R, Westin A, Lunell E. Aiding reduction of smoking with nicotine replacement medications: hope for the recalcitrant smoker?. Tobacco Control 1997;6:311-6.
Fagerstrom 2000 {published data only}
  • Fagerstrom KO, Hughes JR, Rasmussen T, Callas PW. Randomised trial investigating effect of a novel nicotine delivery device (Eclipse) and a nicotine oral inhaler on smoking behaviour, nicotine and carbon monoxide exposure, and motivation to quit. Tobacco Control 2000;9:327-33.
Finland unpublished {unpublished data only}
  • Anon. Combination NRT; Improving efficacy in smoking cessation. McNeil Consumer Healthcare booklet, 2007. Short term outcomes reported on p17.
Foulds 1993 {published data only}
  • Foulds J, Stapleton J, Hayward M, Russell MA, Feyerabend C, Fleming T, et al. Transdermal nicotine patches with low-intensity support to aid smoking cessation in outpatients in a general hospital. A placebo-controlled trial. Archives of Family Medicine 1993;2:417-23.
Glover 1992 {published data only}
  • Glover ED, Glover PN, Sullivan CR, Sullivan P, Nilsson F, Sawe U. Nicotine inhaler versus placebo in smoking cessation [abstract 237]. Abstracts from the 8th World Conference on Tobacco or Health, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 1992.
Hajek 1999 {published data only}
  • Hajek P, West R, Foulds J, Nilsson F, Burrows S, Meadow A. Randomized comparative trial of nicotine polacrilex, a transdermal patch, nasal spray, and an inhaler. Archives of Internal Medicine 1999;159:2033-8.
  • West R, Hajek P, Foulds J, Nilsson F, May S, Meadows A. A comparison of the abuse liability and dependence potential of nicotine patch, gum, spray and inhaler. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;149:198-202.
Hanson 2003 {published data only}
Haustein 2003 {published data only}
  • Haustein KO, Batra A, Landfeldt B, Westin A. The effect of short-term or long-term reduction on smoking cessation; results from a placebo controlled smoking reduction study with the nicotine gum. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2003;5:278.
  • Pfizer. Summary of Clinical Efficacy. Application for licensing of Nicorette Inhalator/Gum for smoking reduction leading to cessation. Company data NICORE-1013-273-SU.
Hotham 2006 {published data only}
Hughes 1989b {published data only}
  • Hughes JR, Gulliver SB, Amori G, Mireault GC, Fenwick JF. Effect of instructions and nicotine on smoking cessation, withdrawal symptoms and self-administration of nicotine gum. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1989;99:486-91.
Hurt 1995 {published data only}
  • Hurt RD, Dale LC, Offord KP, Croghan IT, Hays JT, Gomez Dahl L. Nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation in recovering alcoholics. Addiction 1995;90(11):1541-6.
Hurt 2003 {published data only}
  • Hurt RD, Krook JE, Croghan IT, Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, Novotny PJ, et al. Nicotine patch therapy based on smoking rate followed by bupropion for prevention of relapse to smoking. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2003;21(5):914-20.
Jarvik 1984 {published data only}
Kapur 2001 {published data only}
  • Kapur B, Hackman R, Selby P, Klein J, Koren G. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy. Current Therapeutic Research Clinical and Experimental 2001;62:274-8.
Korberly 1999 {unpublished data only}
  • Korberly B, Gustavsson G, Kruse E. Over-the-counter efficacy of a 15 mg daytime nicotine patch for smoking cessation: a randomized multicenter trial. Abstract book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 4th European Conference October 3-5 Santander, Spain. 2002:23.
  • Korberly BH, Maguire MK. An open label multicenter trial to evaluate and compare the efficacy of nicotrol 15mg as part of an OTC intervention package or as a prescription as an aid in smoking cessation. Abstract Book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Fifth Annual Meeting, San Diego CA. 1999.
Kozak 1995 {published data only}
  • Kozak J, Fagerstrom KO, Sawe U. High-dose treatment with the nicotine patch. International Journal of Smoking Cessation 1995;4(2):26-8.
Krumpe 1989 {published data only}
  • Krumpe P, Malani N, Adler J. Efficacy of transdermal nicotine administration as an adjunct for smoking cessation in heavily nicotine addicted smokers. Annual Review of Respiratory Disease 1989;139:A337.
Kupecz 1996 {published data only}
  • Kupecz D, Prochazka A. A comparison of nicotine delivery systems in a multimodality smoking cessation program. Nurse Practitioner 1996;21(2):73,77-8,81.
Landfeldt 1998 {unpublished data only}
  • Landfeldt B, Kruse E, Westin A, Mattson K, Lojander J. Nicotine replacement treatment in heavy smokers: nicotine nasal spray combined with nicotine patch in a double-blind controlled study (abstract). European Respiratory Journal 1998;12(Suppl 28):154S.
Leischow 1996b {published data only}
  • Leischow SJ, Hill A, Cook G. The effects of transdermal nicotine for the treatment of hispanic smokers. American Journal of Health Behavior 1996;20:304-11.
Levin 1994 {published data only}
  • Levin ED, Westman EC, Stein RM, Carnahan E, Sanchez M, Herman S, et al. Nicotine skin patch treatment increases abstinence, decreases withdrawal symptoms, and attenuates rewarding effects of smoking. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1994;14:41-9.
Lin 1996 {published data only}
Marsh 2005 {published data only}
  • Marsh HS, Dresler CM, Choi JH, Targett DA, Gamble ML, Strahs KR. Safety profile of a nicotine lozenge compared with that of nicotine gum in adult smokers with underlying medical conditions: A 12-week, randomized, open-label study. Clinical Therapeutics 2005;27(10):1571-87.
McCarthy 2006 {published data only}
Meier 1990 {published data only}
  • Meier Lammermann E, Mayer M, Boleski PL. Combination of transdermal nicotine substitution and behavioural group therapy in smoking cessation. European Respiratory Journal 1990;3(Suppl 10):168S.
Merz 1993 {published data only}
  • Merz PG, Keller Stanislawski B, Huber T, Woodcock BG, Rietbrock N. Transdermal nicotine in smoking cessation and involvement of non- specific influences. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Therapy and Toxicology 1993;31:476-82.
Millie 1989 {published data only}
  • Millie A, Berriau T, Paget D, Philardeau V, Postal MJ, Dautzenberg B, et al. Can weight gain during weaning from smoking be limited using nicotine gum? [French] [Peut-on limiter la prise de poids chez les fumeurs lors du sevrage tabagique en utilisant la gomme a la nicotine?]. Revue de Pneumonologie Clinique 1989;45:243-9.
Minneker 1989 {published data only}
  • Minneker E, Buchkremer G, Block M. The effect of different dosages of a transdermal nicotine substitution system on the success rate of smoking cessation therapy. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 1989;11:219-22.
Molander 2000 {published data only}
  • Molander L, Lunell E, Fagerstrom KO. Reduction of tobacco withdrawal symptoms with a sublingual nicotine tablet: a placebo controlled study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2000;2:187-91.
Mooney 2005 {published data only}
  • Mooney M, Babb D, Jensen J, Hatsukami D. Interventions to increase use of nicotine gum: A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2005;7(4):565-79.
Mulligan 1990 {published data only}
  • Mulligan SC, Masterson JG, Devane JG, Kelly JG. Clinical and pharmacokinetic properties of a transdermal nicotine patch. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1990;47:331-7.
Okuyemi 2007 {published data only}
  • Okuyemi KS, James AS, Mayo MS, Nollen N, Catley D, Choi WS, et al. Pathways to health: a cluster randomized trial of nicotine gum and motivational interviewing for smoking cessation in low-income housing. Health Education & Behavior 2007;34:43-54.
Pomerleau 2003 {published data only}
  • Lerman C, Audrain J, Patterson F, Kaufmann V, Rukstalis M, Wileyto EP, et al. Differential response to nicotine replacement therapies in obese and non-obese women (PA2-6). Abstract Book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 9th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA. 2003.
  • Pomerleau OF, Pomerleau CS, Marks JL, Snedecor SM, Mehringer AM, Namenek-Brouwer RJ, et al. Prolonged nicotine patch use in quitters with past abstinence-induced depressed mood. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2003;24(1):13-18.
Rennard 2006 {published data only}
  • Rennard SI, Glover E, Leischow S, Daughton DM, Glover P, Muramoto M. Efficacy of nicotine inhaler in smoking reduction. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2002;4:380.
  • Rennard SI, Glover ED, Leischow S, Daughton DM, Glover PN, Muramoto M, et al. Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in smoking reduction: A double-blind, randomized trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2006;8:555-64.
Roddy 2006 {published data only}
  • Roddy E, Romilly N, Challenger A, Lewis S, Britton J. Use of nicotine replacement therapy in socioeconomically deprived young smokers: a community-based pilot randomised controlled trial. Tobacco Control 2006;15:373-6.
Rose 1990 {published data only}
  • Rose JE, Levin ED, Behm FM, Adivi C, Schur C. Transdermal nicotine facilitates smoking cessation. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1990;47:323-30.
Sachs 1995 {published data only}
  • Sachs DPL. Effectiveness of the 4-mg dose of nicotine polacrilex for the initial treatment of high-dependent smokers. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995;155:1973-80.
Shiffman 2000a {published data only}
  • Shiffman S, Khayrallah M, Nowak R. Efficacy of the nicotine patch for relief of craving and withdrawal 7-10 weeks after cessation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2000;2:371-8.
Shiffman 2000b {published data only}
Shiffman 2002a {published data only}
  • Shiffman S, Dresler CM, Gorsline J, Dimarino ME. The efficacy of nicotine patch in an over-the-counter environment: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (PO130). Abstract book, 11th World Conference on Tobacco or Health, 6-11 August, Chicago, Illinois. 2000; Vol. 1.
  • Shiffman S, Gorsline J, Gorodetzky CW. Efficacy of over-the-counter nicotine patch. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2002;4:477-83.
Shiffman 2002b {published data only}
Shiffman 2006 {published data only}
  • Ferguson SG, Shiffman S, Gwaltney CJ. Does reducing withdrawal severity mediate nicotine patch efficacy? A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006;74:1153-61.
  • Shiffman S, Ferguson SG, Gwaltney CJ. Immediate hedonic response to smoking lapses: Relationship to smoking relapse, and effects of nicotine replacement therapy. Psychopharmacology 2006;184(3-4):608-18.
  • Shiffman S, Ferguson SG, Gwaltney CJ, Balabanis MH, Shadel WG. Reduction of abstinence-induced withdrawal and craving using high-dose nicotine replacement therapy. Psychopharmacology 2006;184(3-4):637-44.
  • Shiffman S, Scharf DM, Shadel WG, Gwaltney CJ, Dang Q, Paton SM, et al. Analyzing milestones in smoking cessation: illustration in a nicotine patch trial in adult smokers. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 2006;74:276-85.
  • Waters AJ, Shiffman S, Sayette MA, Paty JA, Gwaltney CJ, Balabanis MH. Attentional bias predicts outcome in smoking cessation. Health Psychology 2003;22:378-87.
  • Waters AJ, Shiffman S, Sayette MA, Paty JA, Gwaltney CJ, Balabanis MH. Cue-provoked craving and nicotine replacement therapy in smoking cessation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2004;72(6):1136-43.
Sutherland 1999 {published data only}
  • Anon. Combination NRT; Improving efficacy in smoking cessation. McNeil Consumer Healthcare booklet. Short term outcomes reported on p18.
  • Sutherland G. A placebo-controlled double-blind combination trial of nicotine spray and patch [abstract]. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 1999;1:186.
Sutherland 2005 {published data only}
  • Sutherland G, Stapleton JA, Russell MA. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of nicotine nasal spray in general practice. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2005;7(4):686.
Sutton 1987 {published data only}
Sutton 1988 {published data only}
Thorsteinsson 2001 {published data only}
  • Thorsteinsson HS, Gillin JC, Patten CA, Golshan S, Sutton LD, Drummond S, et al. The effects of transdermal nicotine therapy for smoking cessation on depressive symptoms in patients with major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001;24(4):350-8.
Tzivoni 1998 {published data only}
  • Tzivoni D, Keren A, Meyler S, Khoury Z, Lerer T, Brunel P. Cardiovascular safety of transdermal nicotine patches in patients with coronary artery disease who try to quit smoking. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 1998;12:239-44.
Uyar 2005 {unpublished data only}
  • Uyar M, Bayram N, Filiz A, Elbek O, Topçu A, Dikensoy O, et al. Comparison of nicotine patch and bupropion in treating tobacco dependence. European Respiratory Journal 2005;26(Suppl 49):388s.
Velicer 2006 {published data only}
  • Velicer WF, Friedman RH, Fava JL, Gulliver SB, Keller S, Sun X, et al. Evaluating nicotine replacement therapy and stage-based therapies in a population-based effectiveness trial. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 2006;74:1162-72.
  • Velicer WF, Keller S, Friedman RH, Fava JL, Gulliver SB, Ward RM, et al. Comparing participants and nonparticipants recruited for an effectiveness study of nicotine replacement therapy. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2005;29:181-91.
Vial 2002 {published data only}
  • Vial RJ, Jones TE, Ruffin RE, Gilbert AL. Smoking cessation program using nicotine patches linking hospital to the community. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research 2002;32(1):57-62.
Warner 2005 {published data only}
Wennike 2003 {published data only}
Wiseman 2005 {published data only}
  • Wiseman EJ, Williams DK, McMillan DE. Effectiveness of payment for reduced carbon monoxide levels and noncontingent payments on smoking behaviors in cocaine-abusing outpatients wearing nicotine or placebo patches. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2005;13(2):102-10.
Working Group 1994 {published data only}
  • Working Group for the Study of Transdermal Nicotine. Nicotine replacement therapy for patients with coronary artery disease. Working Group for the Study of Transdermal Nicotine in Patients with Coronary artery disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 1994;154:989-95.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Garvey 2006 {unpublished data only}
  • Garvey AJ, Hoskinson RA, Wadler BM, Kinnunen T, Sachs DPL. Individualising nicotine patch dose to match smokers' usual nicotine intake levels (PA9-4). Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 12th Annual Meeting February 15-18, Orlando, Florida. 2006:32.
  • Mustonen TK, Spencer SM, Hoskinson RA, Sachs DPL, Garvey AJ. The influence of gender, race, and menthol content on tobacco exposure measures. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2005;7:581-90.
Hoch 2006 {published data only}
  • Hoch E, Wittchen HU. Population health perspective on smoking cessation: A randomized controlled trial of different methods in primary health care (RPOS 3-71). Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 12th Annual Meeting February 15-18, Orlando, Florida. 2006.
  • Sonntag H, Hoch E, Jahn B, Spiegel B, Pfister H, Wittchen HU. Smoking cessation in primary care: implementation effectiveness and optimized allocation. Suchtmedizin in Forschung und Praxis 2003;5(2):137-41.
Pollak 2007 {published data only}
  • Pollak KI, Oncken CA, Lipkus IM, Lyna P, Swamy GK, Pletsch PK, et al. Nicotine replacement and behavioral therapy for smoking cessation in pregnancy. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007;33:297-305.
Vikhireva 2003 {published data only}
  • Vikhireva O, Shalnova S, Deev A. Nicotine replacement therapy in Russia: old wine in new skins? Randomized parallel study of nicotine gum/inhaler in smoking cessation/reduction. Abstract book. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. Fifth European Conference. November 20-22nd, Padua, Italy. 2003.
  • Vikhireva O, Shalnova S, Deev A, Levshin V, Radkevich N, Kalinina A. NRT-assisted cessation in Russia: individual and population level benefits. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 11th Annual Meeting, 20-23 March 2005; Prague, Czech Republic. 2005.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Coleman 2007 {published data only}
  • Coleman T, Thornton J, Britton J, Lewis S, Watts K, Coughtrie MWH, et al. Protocol for the Smoking, Nicotine and Pregnancy (SNAP) trial: Double-blind, placebo-randomised, controlled trial of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy. Bmc Health Services Research 2007;7:2.

Additional references

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Altman 2002
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Altman 2004
Benowitz 2000
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Cahill 2007
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Cepeda-Benito 2004
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CONSORT 1996
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Cummings 2005
D'Orlando 2004
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Deeks 2005
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Dempsey 2002
Durcan 2002
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Egger 1997
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Etter 2006
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Fagerstrom 2002
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Fagerstrom 2003
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Fiore 1992
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Fiore 2000
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Franzon 2002
Greenland 1998
Henningfield 2005
Higgins 2003
Hughes 1995
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Hughes 2001
Hughes 2004a
Hughes 2004b
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Hughes 2005
Hughes 2007
Hyland 2005
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Ikinci 2006
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Italy ISS 2004
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Joseph 2003
Lancaster 2000
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Le Foll 2005
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McClure 2006
Meine 2005
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Mooney 2004
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Munafo 2004a
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Munafo 2004b
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NZ NACHD 2002
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Palmer 1992
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Park 2002
Perkins 2004
Pierce 2002
Schneider 2004
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Shiffman 2003
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Shiffman 2005
Simes 1986
Stead 2002
Stead 2007
Stewart 1993
Sweeney 2001
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TNWG 1994
  • Transdermal Nicotine Working Group. Nicotine replacement therapy for patients with coronary artery disease. Working Group for the Study of Transdermal Nicotine in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 1994;154:989-95.
Wallstrom 1999
Walsh 2000
Walsh 2001
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Walsh 2007
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West 2000
West 2001
West 2007
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Woolacott 2002
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Zwar 2004
  • Zwar N, Richmond R, Borland R, Stillman S, Cunningham N, Litt J. Smoking cessation guidelines for Australian General Practice. Guideline Development Group, 2004.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Silagy 1994a
Silagy 1994b
  • Silagy C, Mant D, Fowler G, Lancaster T. The effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapies in smoking cessation. Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials 1994;Doc No:113.
Silagy 1996
  • Silagy C, Lancaster T, Stead L, Mant D, Fowler G. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1996, Issue 2. [Art. No.: CD000146. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub3]
Silagy 2001
  • Silagy C, Lancaster T, Stead L, Mant D, Fowler G. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146]
Silagy 2002
  • Silagy C, Lancaster T, Stead L, Mant D, Fowler G. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146]
Silagy 2004
  • Silagy C, Lancaster T, Stead L, Mant D, Fowler G. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub2]