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Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation

  1. Lindsay F Stead1,*,
  2. Rafael Perera1,
  3. Chris Bullen2,
  4. David Mant1,
  5. Jamie Hartmann-Boyce1,
  6. Kate Cahill1,
  7. Tim Lancaster1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group

Published Online: 14 NOV 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 19 SEP 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub4


How to Cite

Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D, Hartmann-Boyce J, Cahill K, Lancaster T. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD000146. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Oxford, Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford, UK

  2. 2

    University of Auckland, National Institute for Health Innovation, Auckland, New Zealand

*Lindsay F Stead, Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK. lindsay.stead@phc.ox.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 14 NOV 2012

SEARCH

[Figure 1]
Figure 1. Risk of bias summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study.
[Figure 2]
Figure 2. Forest plot of comparison: 1 Any type of NRT versus placebo/ no NRT control, outcome: 1.1 Smoking cessation at 6+ months follow up.
[Figure 3]
Figure 3. Funnel plot of comparison: 1 Any type of NRT versus placebo/ no NRT control, outcome: 1.1 Smoking cessation at 6+ months follow up.
[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Any type of NRT versus placebo/ no NRT control, Outcome 1 Smoking cessation at 6+ months follow up.
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 Subgroup: Definition of abstinence, Outcome 1 Nicotine gum. Smoking cessation.
[Analysis 2.2]
Analysis 2.2. Comparison 2 Subgroup: Definition of abstinence, Outcome 2 Nicotine patch: Smoking cessation.
[Analysis 3.1]
Analysis 3.1. Comparison 3 Subgroup: Level of behavioural support, Outcome 1 Nicotine gum. Smoking cessation.
[Analysis 3.2]
Analysis 3.2. Comparison 3 Subgroup: Level of behavioural support, Outcome 2 Nicotine patch. Smoking cessation.
[Analysis 3.3]
Analysis 3.3. Comparison 3 Subgroup: Level of behavioural support, Outcome 3 Long versus short support.
[Analysis 4.1]
Analysis 4.1. Comparison 4 Subgroup: Recruitment /treatment setting, Outcome 1 Community volunteer (treatment provided in medical setting).
[Analysis 4.2]
Analysis 4.2. Comparison 4 Subgroup: Recruitment /treatment setting, Outcome 2 Smoking clinic.
[Analysis 4.3]
Analysis 4.3. Comparison 4 Subgroup: Recruitment /treatment setting, Outcome 3 Primary care.
[Analysis 4.4]
Analysis 4.4. Comparison 4 Subgroup: Recruitment /treatment setting, Outcome 4 Hospitals.
[Analysis 4.5]
Analysis 4.5. Comparison 4 Subgroup: Recruitment /treatment setting, Outcome 5 Antenatal clinic.
[Analysis 4.6]
Analysis 4.6. Comparison 4 Subgroup: Recruitment /treatment setting, Outcome 6 Community volunteer (treatment provided in 'over-the-counter' setting).
[Analysis 5.1]
Analysis 5.1. Comparison 5 Nicotine gum: 4mg versus 2mg dose, Outcome 1 Smoking Cessation.
[Analysis 6.1]
Analysis 6.1. Comparison 6 Nicotine gum: Fixed versus ad lib dose schedule, Outcome 1 Smoking cessation.
[Analysis 7.1]
Analysis 7.1. Comparison 7 Nicotine patch: High versus standard dose patches, Outcome 1 Smoking cessation at maximum follow up.
[Analysis 8.1]
Analysis 8.1. Comparison 8 Nicotine patch: 16hr or 24hr use, subgroups & direct comparison, Outcome 1 Smoking Cessation.
[Analysis 9.1]
Analysis 9.1. Comparison 9 Nicotine patch: Duration of therapy, subgroups & direct comparison, Outcome 1 Smoking Cessation: Indirect comparison.
[Analysis 9.2]
Analysis 9.2. Comparison 9 Nicotine patch: Duration of therapy, subgroups & direct comparison, Outcome 2 Smoking Cessation: Direct comparisons.
[Analysis 10.1]
Analysis 10.1. Comparison 10 Nicotine patch: Effect of weaning/tapering dose at end of treatment, Outcome 1 Smoking Cessation: Indirect comparison.
[Analysis 10.2]
Analysis 10.2. Comparison 10 Nicotine patch: Effect of weaning/tapering dose at end of treatment, Outcome 2 Smoking Cessation: Direct comparison.
[Analysis 11.1]
Analysis 11.1. Comparison 11 Combinations of different types of NRT compared to a single type, Outcome 1 Long-term smoking cessation.
[Analysis 12.1]
Analysis 12.1. Comparison 12 Direct comparisons between NRT types, Outcome 1 Smoking cessation.
[Analysis 13.1]
Analysis 13.1. Comparison 13 Purchased NRT without support versus physician support, Outcome 1 Smoking cessation using physician prescribed NRT versus NRT without support (all NRT purchased).
[Analysis 14.1]
Analysis 14.1. Comparison 14 Pre-cessation initiation of NRT versus post quit day only, Outcome 1 Smoking cessation.
[Analysis 15.1]
Analysis 15.1. Comparison 15 NRT in pregnancy, Outcome 1 Smoking cessation.
[Analysis 16.1]
Analysis 16.1. Comparison 16 NRT and bupropion; direct comparisons and combinations, Outcome 1 NRT versus bupropion.
[Analysis 16.2]
Analysis 16.2. Comparison 16 NRT and bupropion; direct comparisons and combinations, Outcome 2 Combination therapy versus bupropion alone.
[Analysis 16.3]
Analysis 16.3. Comparison 16 NRT and bupropion; direct comparisons and combinations, Outcome 3 Combination therapy versus placebo.
[Analysis 17.1]
Analysis 17.1. Comparison 17 Palpitations in NRT vs placebo users, Outcome 1 Palpitations/chest pains.