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Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation

  1. C Silagy,
  2. T Lancaster,
  3. L Stead Review Group Co-ordinator*,
  4. D Mant,
  5. G Fowler

Editorial Group: Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group

Published Online: 21 OCT 2002

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146


How to Cite

Silagy C, Lancaster T, Stead L, Mant D, Fowler G. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD000146. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146.

Author Information

  1. Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Primary Health Care, Oxford, UK

*L Stead, Review Group Co-ordinator, Department of Primary Health Care, Institute of Health Sciences, Old Road, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK. lindsay.stead@dphpc.ox.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Commented
  2. Published Online: 21 OCT 2002

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Abelin 1989{published data only}
  • Abelin T, Buehler A, Muller P, Vesanen K, Imhof PR. Controlled trial of transdermal nicotine patch in tobacco withdrawal. Lancet 1989 Jan 7;1(8628):7-10. [MedLine: 1989096132].
  • Abelin T, Ehrsam R, Buhler-Reichert A, Imhof PR, Muller P, Thommen A. Effectiveness of a transdermal nicotine system in smoking cessation studies. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1989;11:205-214. [MedLine: 1989260640].
Ahluwalia 1998{published data only}
  • Ahluwalia JS, McNagny SE, Clark WS. Smoking cessation among inner-city African Americans using the nicotine transdermal patch. J Gen Intern Med 1998;13:1-8. [MedLine: 1998122320].
Areechon 1988{published data only}
  • Areechon W, Punnotok J. Smoking cessation through the use of nicotine chewing gum: a double-blind trial in Thailand. Clin Ther 1988;10:183-6. [MedLine: 1990248996].
Blondal 1989{published data only}
  • Blondal T. Controlled trial of nicotine polacrilex gum with supportive measures. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:1818-21. [MedLine: 1989350342].
Blondal 1997{published data only}
  • Blondal T, Franzon M, Westin A. A double-blind randomized trial of nicotine nasal spray as an aid in smoking cessation. Eur Respir J 1997;10:1585-90. [MedLine: 1997373769].
Blondal 1999{published data only}
  • Blondal T, Gudmundsson LJ, Olafsdottir I, Gustavsson G, Westin A. Nicotine nasal spray with nicotine patch for smoking cessation: randomised trial with six year follow up. BMJ 1999;318:285-9. [MedLine: 1999122875].
  • Blondal T, Ludviksdottir D, Gudmundsson L, Olafsdottir I, Gustavsson G, Westin A. Efficacy of nicotine nasal spray added to transdermal nicotine patches in smoking cessation [Abstract]. Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Tobacco or Health; Aug 24-28; Beijing, China. 1997:48.
Bohadana 2000{published data only}
  • Bohadana A, Nilsson F, Rasmussen T, Martinet Y. Nicotine inhaler and nicotine patch as a combination therapy for smoking cessation - A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3128-3134. [MedLine: 20529086].
  • Bohandana AB, Nilsson F, Martinet Y. Nicotine inhaler and nicotine patch: a combination therapy for smoking cessation [abstract]. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 1999;1(2):189.
Bolin 1999{published data only}
  • Bolin LJ, Antonuccio DO, Follette WC, Krumpe P. Transdermal nicotine: the long and the short of it. Psychol Addict Behav 1999;13:152-156.
Bolliger 2000{published data only}
  • Bolliger CT, Zellweger JP, Danielsson T, van Biljon X, Robidou A, Westin A, et al. Smoking reduction with oral nicotine inhalers: double blind, randomised clinical trial of efficacy and safety. BMJ 2000;321(7257):329-333. [MedLine: 20384431].
Br Thor Society 1983{published data only}
  • Research Committee of the British Thoracic Society. Comparison of four methods of smoking withdrawal in patients with smoking related diseases. Report by a subcommittee of the Research Committee of the British Thoracic Society. Br Med J 1983 Feb 19;286(6365):595-7. [MedLine: 1983128388].
Buchkremer 1988{published data only}
  • Buchkremer G, Bents H, Horstmann M, Opitz K, Tolle R. Combination of behavioral smoking cessation with transdermal nicotine substitution. Addict Behav 1989;14:229-38. [MedLine: 1989269864].
  • Buchkremer G, Bents H, Minneker E, Opitz K. Long-term effects of a combination of transdermal nicotine administration with behavior therapy for smoking cessation [Langfristige Effekte einer Kombination von transdermaler Nikotinzufuhr mit Verhaltenstherapie zur Raucherentwohnung]. Nervenarzt 1988;59:488-90. [MedLine: 1989014909].
Campbell 1987{published data only}
  • Campbell IA, Lyons E, Prescott R. Do nicotine chewing-gum and postal encouragement add to doctors' advice. Practitioner 1987;231:114-7. [MedLine: 1988040892].
Campbell 1991{published data only}
  • Campbell IA, Prescott RJ, Tjeder-Burton SM. Smoking cessation in hospital patients given repeated advice plus nicotine or placebo chewing gum. Respir Med 1991;85:155-7. [MedLine: 1991360932].
Campbell 1996{published data only}
  • Burton S, Campbell IA, Prescott RJ. Nicotine patches versus placebo in 235 hospital patients [abstract 191]. Abstracts from the 8th World Conference on Tobacco or Health, Mar 30-Apr 3; Buenos Aires, Argentina. 1992.
  • Campbell IA, Prescott RJ, Tjeder-Burton SM. Transdermal nicotine plus support in patients attending hospital with smoking-related diseases: a placebo-controlled study. Respir Med 1996;90:47-51. [MedLine: 1997010265].
  • Campbell IA, Prescott RJ, Tjeder-Burton SM. Nicotine patches v placebo in 234 hospital patients. Thorax 1992;45:835-840.
CEASE 1999{published data only}
  • Tonnesen P, Paoletti P, Gustavsson G, Russell MA, Saracci R, Gulsvik A, et al. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates: Results from the European CEASE trial. Eur Respir J 1999;13:238-246. [MedLine: 1999163545].
Cinciripini 1996{published data only}
  • Cinciripini PM, Cinciripini LG, Wallfisch A, Haque W. Behavior therapy and the transdermal nicotine patch: Effects on cessation outcome, affect, and coping. J Consult Clin Psychol 1996;64(2):314-323.
Clavel-Chapel 1985{published data only}
  • Clavel F, Benhamou S, Company Huertas A, Flamant R. Helping people to stop smoking: randomised comparison of groups being treated with acupuncture and nicotine gum with control group. Br Med J 1985;291:1538-9. [MedLine: 1986052541].
Dale 1995{published data only}
  • Dale LC, Hurt RD, Offord KP, Lawson GM, Croghan IT, Schroeder DR. High-dose nicotine patch therapy - percentage of replacement and smoking cessation. JAMA 1995;274:1353-8. [MedLine: 1996042061].
  • Dale LC, Schroeder DR, Wolter TD, Croghan IT, Hurt RD, Offord KP. Weight change after smoking cessation using variable doses of transdermal nicotine replacement. J Gen Intern Med 1998;13:9-15.
Daughton 1991{published data only}
  • Daughton DM, Heatley SA, Prendergast JJ, Causey D, Knowles M, Rolf CN, et al. Effect of transdermal nicotine delivery as an adjunct to low-intervention smoking cessation therapy. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 1991;151:749-52. [MedLine: 1991189819].
  • Daughton DM, Heatley SA, Prendergast JJ, Causey D, Knowles M, Rolf CN, et al. Effects of transdermal nicotine as an adjunct in smoking cessation therapy. A double-blind randomized study controlled with placebo [Effetti del rilascio transdermico di nicotina come terapia di supporto per lo svezzamento dal fumo di sigaretta. Uno studio randomizzato in doppio cieco con controlli trattati con placebo]. Arch Monaldi 1992;47:17-29. [MedLine: 1993319403].
Daughton 1998{published data only}
  • Daughton D, Susman J, Sitorius M, Belenky S, Millatmal T, Nowak R, et al. Transdermal nicotine therapy and primary care. Importance of counseling, demographic, and participant selection factors on 1-year quit rates. The Nebraska Primary Practice Smoking Cessation Trial Group. Arch Fam Med 1998;7:425-30. [MedLine: 1998428472].
Davidson 1998{published data only}
  • Davidson M, Epstein M, Burt R, Schaefer C, Whitworth G, McDonald A. Efficacy and safety of an over-the-counter transdermal nicotine patch as an aid for smoking cessation. Arch Fam Med 1998;7:569-74. [MedLine: 1999037595].
Ehrsam 1991{published data only}
  • Abelin T, Ehrsam R, Imhof P Muller P, Howald H. Clinical experience with a transdermal nicotine system in healthy nicotine-dependent smokers. In: Wilhemsen L, editor(s). Smoking as a cardiovascular risk factor - new strategies for smoking cessation. Hogrefe & Huber, 1991:35-46.
  • Abelin T, Ehrsam R Buhler-Reichert A, Imhof PR, Muller P, Thommen A, et al. Effectiveness of a transdermal nicotine system in smoking cessation studies. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1989;11:205-214. [MedLine: 1989260640].
  • Ehrsam RE, Buhler A, Muller P, Mauli D, Schumacher PM, Howald H, Imhof PR. Weaning of young smokers using a transdermal nicotine patch [Entwohnung junger Raucher mit Hilfe eines transdermalen Nikotinpflasters]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1991;80:145-50. [MedLine: 1991180629].
Fagerstrom 1982{published data only}
  • Fagerstrom KO. A comparison of psychological and pharmacological treatment in smoking cessation. J Behav Med 1982;5:343-51. [MedLine: 1983033597].
  • Fagerstrom KO. Tolerance, withdrawal and dependence on tobacco and smoking termination. Int Rev Appl Psych 1983;32:29-52.
Fagerstrom 1984{published data only}
  • Fagerstrom KO. Effects of nicotine chewing gum and follow-up appointments in physician-based smoking cessation. Prev Med 1984;13:517-27. [MedLine: 1985140142].
Fee 1982{published data only}
  • Fee WM, Stewart MJ. A controlled trial of nicotine chewing gum in a smoking withdrawal clinic. Practitioner 1982;226:148-51. [MedLine: 1982197384].
Fiore 1994 (1){published data only}
  • Elan Pharmaceutical Research Corp. NDA 19-983 for Approval of PROSTEP: Study 90-03. 1992.
  • Fiore MC, Kenford SL, Jorenby DE, Wetter DW, Smith SS, Baker TB. Two studies of the clinical effectiveness of the nicotine patch with different counseling treatments. Chest 1994;105:524-33. [MedLine: 1994139415].
  • Kenford SL, Fiore MC, Jorenby DE, Smith SS, Wetter D, Baker TB. Predicting smoking cessation. Who will quit with and without the nicotine patch. JAMA 1994;271:589-94. [MedLine: 1994133388].
Fiore 1994 (2){published data only}
  • Fiore MC, Kenford SL, Jorenby DE, Wetter DW, Smith SS, Baker TB. Two studies of the clinical effectiveness of the nicotine patch with different counseling treatments. Chest 1994;105:524-33. [MedLine: 1994139415].
Fortmann 1995{published data only}
  • Fortmann SP, Killen JD. Nicotine gum and self-help behavioral treatment for smoking relapse prevention - resuIts from a trial using population-based recruitment. J Consult Clin Psychol 1995;63:460-8. [MedLine: 1995332518].
Garcia 1989{published data only}
  • Quilez Garcia C, Hernando Arizaleta L, Rubio Diaz A, Estruch Riba J, Fornes Ramis MV. Treatment for smoking with nicotine gum in primary care. A double blind trial [Tratamiento del tabaquismo, con chicle de nicotina, en atencion primaria. Estudio a doble ciego]. Rev Clin Esp 1993 Mar;192(4):157-61.
  • Quilez Garcia C, Hernando Arizaleta L, Rubio Diaz A, Granero Fernandez EJ, Vila Coll MA, Estruch Riba JSO. Double-blind study of the efficacy of nicotine chewing gum for smoking cessation in the primary care setting [Estudio doble ciego de la eficacia del chicle de nicotina en la deshabituacion tabaquica dentro del ambito de la atencion primaria]. Aten Primaria 1989;6:719-26. [MedLine: 1992002764].
Garvey 2000{published data only}
  • Doherty K, Militello FS, Kinnunen T, Garvey AJ. Nicotine gum dose and weight gain after smoking cessation. J Consult Clin Psychol 1996;64:799-807.
  • Garvey AJ, Kinnunen T, Nordstrom BL, Utman CH, Doherty K, Rosner B, Vokonas PS. Effects of nicotine gum dose by level of nicotine dependence. Nicotine Tob Res 2000;2(1):53-63.
  • Nordstrom BL, Kinnunen T, Utman CH, Garvey AJ. Long-term effects of nicotine gum on weight gain after smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res 1999;1(3):259-268.
Gilbert 1989{published data only}
  • Gilbert JR, Wilson DM, Best JA, Taylor DW, Lindsay EA, Singer J, Willms DG. Smoking cessation in primary care. A randomized controlled trial of nicotine-bearing chewing gum. J Fam Pract 1989;28:49-55. [MedLine: 1989110274].
Glover 1999{unpublished data only}
  • Glover E, Glover P, Franzon M, Sullivan R, Cerullo C. Safety and efficacy of a nicotine sublingual tablet for smoking cessation [abstract]. Smoke Free 21st Century, 2nd European Conference on Tobacco or Health; 1999 Feb 23-27; Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
  • Glover ED, Franzon M, Sullivan CR, Cerullo CL. A nicotine sublingual tablet for treating tobacco dependence [Abstract]. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 3rd Europe Conference, Paris September 2001 Abstract Book. 2001:48.
  • Glover ED, Glover PN, Franzon M, Sullivan R, Sullivan P, Howell R, et al. A nicotine sublingual tablet for smoking cessation: 6-month data [Abstract]. Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Tobacco or Health; Aug 24-28 Beijing, China. 1997.
Goldstein 1989{published data only}
  • Goldstein MG, Niaura R, Follick MJ, Abrams DB. Effects of behavioral skills training and schedule of nicotine gum administration on smoking cessation. Am J Psychiatry 1989;146:56-60. [MedLine: 1989103669].
Gourlay 1995{published data only}
  • Gourlay SG, Forbes A, Marriner T, Pethica D, McNeil JJ. Double blind trial of repeated treatment with transdermal nicotine for relapsed smokers. BMJ 1995 Aug 5;311(7001):363-6. [MedLine: 1995367890].
Gross 1995{published data only}
  • Gross J, Johnson J, Sigler L, Stitzer ML. Dose effects of nicotine gum. Addict Behav 1995;20:371-81.
Hall 1985{published data only}
  • Hall SM, Tunstall C, Rugg D, Jones R, Benowitz N. Nicotine gum and behavioral treatment in smoking cessation. J Consult Clin Psychol 1985;53:256-8. [MedLine: 1985208607].
Hall 1987{published data only}
  • Hall SM, Tunstall CD, Ginsberg D, Benowitz NL, Jones RT. Nicotine gum and behavioral treatment: a placebo controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 1987;55:603-5. [MedLine: 1987309091].
Hall 1996{published data only}
  • Hall SM, Munoz RF, Reus VI, Sees KL, Duncan C, Humfleet GL, Hartz DT. Mood management and nicotine gum in smoking treatment - a therapeutic contact and placebo-controlled study. J Consult Clin Psychol 1996;64:1003-9. [MedLine: 1997074081].
Harackiewicz 1988{published data only}
  • Harackiewicz JM, Blair LW, Sansone C, Epstein JA, Stuchell RN. Nicotine gum and self-help manuals in smoking cessation: an evaluation in a medical context. Addict Behav 1988;13:319-30. [MedLine: 1989190055].
Hays 1999{unpublished data only}
  • Hays JT, Croghan GA, Offord KP, Hurt RD, Schroeder DR, Wolter TD, Nides MA, Davidson M. Over-the-Counter Nicotine Patch Therapy for smoking cessation: Results from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and open label trials. Am J Public Health 1999;89:1701-7. [MedLine: 20020966].
  • Hays JT, Croghan GA, Offord KP, Wolter TD, Nides MA, Davidson M. Over-the-Counter (OTC) transdermal nicotine patch therapy [abstract]. J Addict Dis 1997;16:136.
  • Hays JT, Croghan IT, Offord KP, Hurt RD, Schroeder DR, Wolter TD, et al. Over the counter 22mg nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation: results from randomized double-blind placebo-controlled and open label trials. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 5th Annual Meeting; 1999 March 5-7; San Diego (CA)
Herrera 1995{published data only}
  • Herrera N, Franco R, Herrera L, Partidas A, Rolando R, Fagerstrom KO. Nicotine gum, 2 and 4 mg, for nicotine dependence. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial within a behavior modification support program. Chest 1995;108:447-51. [MedLine: 1995361586].
Hilleman 1994{published data only}
  • Hilleman DE, Mohiuddin SM, Delcore MG. Comparison of fixed-dose transdermal nicotine, tapered-dose transdermal nicotine, and buspirone in smoking cessation. J Clin Pharmacol 1994;34(3):222-224.
Hjalmarson 1984{published data only}
  • Hjalmarson AI. Effect of nicotine chewing gum in smoking cessation. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. JAMA 1984;252:2835-8. [MedLine: 1985034152].
Hjalmarson 1994{published data only}
  • Hjalmarson AI, Franzon M, Westin A, Wiklund O. Effect of nicotine nasal spray on smoking cessation. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:2567-72. [MedLine: 1995070640].
Hjalmarson 1997{published data only}
  • Hjalmarson A, Nilsson F, Sjostrom L, Wiklund O. The nicotine inhaler in smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:1721-8. [MedLine: 1997393798].
Huber 1988{published data only}
  • Huber D. Combined and separate treatment effects of nicotine chewing gum and self-control method. Pharmacopsychiatry 1988;21:461-2. [MedLine: 1989221248].
Hughes 1989{published data only}
  • Hughes JR, Gust SW, Keenan RM, Fenwick JW, Healey ML. Nicotine vs placebo gum in general medical practice. JAMA 1989;261:1300-5. [MedLine: 1989125857].
Hughes 1990{published data only}
  • Hughes JR, Gust SW, Keenan RM, Fenwick JW. Effect of dose on nicotine's reinforcing, withdrawal-suppression and self-reported effects. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990;252:1175-83. [MedLine: 1990204279].
Hughes 1999{published and unpublished data}
  • Hughes JR, Lesmes GR, Hatsukami DK, Richmond RL, Lichtenstein E, Jorenby DE, et al. Are higher doses of nicotine replacement more effective for smoking cessation?. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 1999;1(2):169-174.
Hurt 1990{published data only}
  • Elan Pharmaceutical Research Corp. NDA 19-983 for Approval of PROSTEP: Study 88-02. 1992.
  • Hurt RD, Lauger GG, Offord KP, Kottke TE, Dale LC. Nicotine-replacement therapy with use of a transdermal nicotine patch-a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 1990;65:1529-37. [MedLine: 1991073903].
Hurt 1994{published data only}
  • Hurt RD, Dale LC, Fredrickson PA, et al. Nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation combined with physician advice and nurse follow-up: One-year outcome and percentage of nicotine replacement. JAMA 1994;271:595-600. [MedLine: 1994133389].
ICRF 1994{published data only}
  • Imperial Cancer Research Fund. Randomised trial of nicotine patches in general practice: results at one year. Imperial Cancer Research Fund General Practice Research Group. BMJ 1994;308:1476-7. [MedLine: 1994290169].
  • Imperial Cancer Research Fund. Effectiveness of a nicotine patch in helping people stop smoking: results of a randomised trial in general practice. Imperial Cancer Research Fund General Practice Research Group. BMJ 1993;306:1304-8. [MedLine: 1993299146].
Jamrozik 1984{published data only}
  • Jamrozik K, Fowler G, Vessey M, Wald N. Placebo controlled trial of nicotine chewing gum in general practice. Br Med J 1984;289:794-7. [MedLine: 1985001188].
Jarvik 1984{published data only}
  • Jarvik ME, Schneider NG. Degree of addiction and effectiveness of nicotine gum therapy for smoking. Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:790-1. [MedLine: 1984228815].
Jarvis 1982{published data only}
  • Jarvis MJ, Raw M, Russell MAH, Feyerabend C. Randomised controlled trial of nicotine chewing-gum. Br Med J 1982;285:537-40. [MedLine: 1982258177].
Jensen 1991{published data only}
  • Jensen EJ, Schmidt E, Pedersen B, Dahl R. The effect of nicotine, silver acetate, and placebo chewing gum on the cessation of smoking. The influence of smoking type and nicotine dependence. Int J Addict 1991;26:1223-31. [MedLine: 1992077800].
Jorenby 1995{published data only}
  • Jorenby DE, Smith SS, Fiore MC, Hurt RD, Offord KP, Crogham IT, et al. Varying nicotine patch dose and type of smoking cessation counseling. JAMA 1995;274:1347-52. [MedLine: 1996042060].
Jorenby 1999{published data only}
  • Jamerson BD, Nides M, Jorenby DE, Donahue R, Garrett P, Johnston JA, Fiore MC, Rennard SI, Leischow SJ. Late-term smoking cessation despite initial failure: an evaluation of bupropion sustained release, nicotine patch, combination therapy, and placebo. Clin Ther 2001;23(5):744-752.
  • Jorenby DE, Leischow SJ, Nides MA, Rennard SI, Johnston JA, Hughes AR, et al. A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med 1999;340:685-91. [MedLine: 99150066].
Joseph 1996{published data only}
  • Joseph AM, Antonnucio DO. Lack of efficacy of transdermal nicotine in smoking cessation. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1157-8. [MedLine: 1999426607].
  • Joseph AM, Norman SM, Ferry LH, Prochazka AV, Westman EC, Steele BG, et al. The safety of transdermal nicotine as an aid to smoking cessation in patients with cardiac disease. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1792-8. [MedLine: 1997081205].
Killen 1984{published data only}
  • Killen JD, Maccoby N, Taylor CB. Nicotine gum and self-regulation training in smoking relapse prevention. Behav Ther 1984;15:234-48.
Killen 1990{published data only}
  • Fortmann SP, Killen JD, Telch MJ, Newman B. Minimal contact treatment for smoking cessation. A placebo controlled trial of nicotine polacrilex and self-directed relapse prevention: initial results of the Stanford Stop Smoking Project. JAMA 1988;260:1575-80. [MedLine: 1988317171].
  • Killen JD, Fortmann SP, Newman B, Varady A. Evaluation of a treatment approach combining nicotine gum with self-guided behavioral treatments for smoking relapse prevention. J Consult Clin Psychol 1990;58:85-92. [MedLine: 1990203397].
Killen 1997{published data only}
  • Killen JD, Fortmann SP, Davis L, Varady A. Nicotine patch and self-help video for cigarette smoking cessation. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997;65:663-72. [MedLine: 1997400683].
Killen 1997 (Video){published data only}
  • Killen JD, Fortmann SP, Davis L, Varady A. Nicotine patch and self-help video for cigarette smoking cessation. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997;65:663-72. [MedLine: 1997400683].
Killen 1999{published data only}
  • Killen JD, Fortmann SP, Davis L, Strausberg L, Varady A. Do heavy smokers benefit from higher dose nicotine patch therapy?. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 1999;7:226-33. [MedLine: 1999401730].
Kornitzer 1987{published data only}
  • Kornitzer M, Kittel F, Dramaix M, Bourdoux P. A double blind study of 2 mg versus 4 mg nicotine-gum in an industrial setting. J Psychosom Res 1987;31:171-6. [MedLine: 1987225834].
Kornitzer 1995{published data only}
  • Kornitzer M, Boutsen M, Dramaix M, Thijs J, Gustavsson G. Combined use of nicotine patch and gum in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Prev Med 1995;24:41-7. [MedLine: 1995258472].
Leischow 1996{published data only}
  • Leischow SJ, Nilsson F, Franzon M, Hill A, Otte P, Merikle EP. Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler as an adjunct to smoking cessation. Am J Health Behav 1996;20:364-71.
Leischow 1999{published data only}
  • Leischow SJ, Muramoto ML, Cook GN, Merikle EP, Castellini SM, Otte PS. OTC nicotine patch: effectiveness alone and with brief physician intervention. Am J Health Behav 1999;23:61-9.
Lewis 1998{published data only}
  • Lewis SF, Piasecki TM, Fiore MC, Anderson JE, Baker TB. Transdermal nicotine replacement for hospitalized patients: A randomized clinical trial. Prev Med 1998;27(2):296-303. [MedLine: 1998240165].
Llivina 1988{published data only}
  • Salvador Llivina T, Marin Tuya D, Gonzalez Quintana J, Iniesta Torres C, Castellvi Barrera E, Muriana Saez C, Agusti Vidal A. Treatment of smoking: efficacy of the use of nicotine chewing gum. Double-blind study [Tratamiento del tabaquismo: eficacia de la utilizacion del chicle de nicotina. Estudio a doble ciego]. Med Clin Barc 1988;90:646-50. [MedLine: 1988287625].
Malcolm 1980{published data only}
  • Malcolm RE, Sillett RW, Turner JA, Ball KP. The use of nicotine chewing gum as an aid to stopping smoking. Psychopharmacol Ser 1980;70:295-6. [MedLine: 1981077782].
Marshall 1985{published data only}
  • Marshall A, Raw M. Nicotine chewing gum in general practice: effect of follow up appointments. Br Med J 1985;290:1397-8. [MedLine: 1985200674].
McGovern 1992{published data only}
  • McGovern PG, Lando HA. An assessment of nicotine gum as an adjunct to Freedom from Smoking cessation clinics. Addict Behav 1992;17:137-47. [MedLine: 1992264209].
Mori 1992{published data only}
  • Mori T, Shimao T, Yulchiro G, Namiki M, Hyachi T. A clinical trial of nicotine chewing gum for smoking cessation [abstract 428]. 8th World Conference on Tobacco or Health; 1992 Mar 30-Apr 3; Buenos Aires, Argentina
Nakamura 1990{published data only}
  • Nakamura M, Saito J, Oshima A, Miyamoto M, Matushita A, Endo S. Effect of nicotine chewing gun in smoking cessation classes. Durston B, Jamrozik K, editor(s). The Global War. Proceedings of the 7th World Conference on Tobacco and Health; 1990 Apr 1-5; Perth, Western Australia. Perth: Health Department of Western Australia, 1990:665-667.
Nebot 1992{published data only}
  • Nebot M, Cabezas C. Does nurse counseling or offer of nicotine gum improve the effectiveness of physician smoking-cessation advice?. Fam Pract Res J 1992;12:263-70. [MedLine: 1993034369].
Niaura 1994{published data only}
  • Niaura R, Goldstein MG, Abrams DB. Matching high and low-dependence smokers to self-help treatment with or without nicotine replacement. Prev Med 1994;23:70-7. [MedLine: 1994286480].
Niaura 1999{published data only}
  • Niaura R, Abrams DB, Shadel WG, Rohsenow DJ, Monti PM, Sirota AD. Cue exposure treatment for smoking relapse prevention: A controlled clinical trial. Addiction 1999;94(5):685-696.
Ockene 1991{published data only}
  • Ockene JK, Kristeller J, Goldberg R, Amick TL, Pekow PS, Hosmer D, et al. Increasing the efficacy of physician-delivered smoking interventions: a randomized clinical trial. J Gen Intern Med 1991;6:1-8. [MedLine: 1991154925].
  • Ockene JK, Kristeller J, Pbert L, Hebert JR, Luippold R, Goldberg RJ, et al. The physician-delivered smoking intervention project: can short-term interventions produce long-term effects for a general outpatient population?. Health Psychol 1994;13:278-81. [MedLine: 1994333279].
Page 1986{published data only}
  • Page AR, Walters DJ, Schlegel RP, Best JA. Smoking cessation in family practice: the effects of advice and nicotine chewing gum prescription. Addict Behav 1986;11:443-6. [MedLine: 1987123829].
Paoletti 1996{published data only}
  • Paoletti P, Fornai E, Maggiorelli F, Puntoni R, Viegi G, Carrozzi L, et al. Importance of baseline cotinine plasma values in smoking cessation: results from a double blind study with nicotine patch. Eur Respir J 1996;9:643-651. [MedLine: 1996326840].
Perng 1998{published data only}
  • Perng RP, Hsieh WC, Chen YM, Lu CC, Chiang SJ. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of transdermal nicotine patch for smoking cessation. J Formos Med Assoc 1998;97:547-51. [MedLine: 1998419202].
  • Perng RP, Hsieh WC, Chen YM, Lu CC, Chiang SJ. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of transdermal nicotine patch for smoking cessation. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 1999;159(3SS):A735.
Pirie 1992{published data only}
  • Pirie PL, McBride CM, Hellerstedt WL, Jeffery RW, Hatsukami DK, Allen S, Lando HA. Smoking cessation in women concerned about weight. Am J Public Health 1992;82:1238-43. [MedLine: 1992367829].
Puska 1979{published data only}
  • Puska P, Bjorkqvist S, Koskela K. Nicotine-containing chewing gum in smoking cessation: a double blind trial with half year follow-up. Addict Behav 1979;4:141-6. [MedLine: 1979252470].
Puska 1995{published data only}
  • Puska P, Korhonen HJ, Vartiainen E, Urjanheimo EL, Gustavsson G, Westin A. Combined use of nicotine patch and gum compared with gum alone in smoking cessation: a clinical trial in North Karelia. Tob Control 1995;4:231-5.
Richmond 1990{published data only}
  • Richmond R, Heather N. General Practitioner interventions for smoking cessation: past results and future prospects. Behav Change 1990;7:110-9.
  • Richmond RL, Makinson RJ, Giugni AA, Webster IW. General Practitioner smoking interventions in Australia: results of studies over the past ten years. Durston B, Jamrozik K, editor(s). The Global War, Proceedings of the 7th World Conference on Tobacco and Health. 1990 Apr 1-5: Perth, WA. Perth: Health Department of Western Australia, 1990:657-660.
Richmond 1994{published data only}
  • Richmond RL, Harris K, de Almeida Neto A. The transdermal nicotine patch: results of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Med J Aust 1994;161:130-5. [MedLine: 1994301249].
  • Richmond RL, Kehoe L, Neto ACD, de Almeida Neto A. Effectiveness of a 24-hour transdermal nicotine patch in conjunction with a cognitive behavioural programme: One year outcome. Addiction 1997;92:27-31. [MedLine: 1997213466].
Roto 1987{published data only}
  • Roto P, Ojala A, Sundman K, Jokinen K, Peltomakl R. Nicotine gum and withdrawal from smoking. Suomen Laakarllehtl 1987;36:3445-3448.
Russell 1983{published data only}
  • Russell MA, Merriman R, Stapleton J, Taylor W. Effect of nicotine chewing gum as an adjunct to general practitioner's advice against smoking. Br Med J Clin Res Ed 1983;287:1782-5. [MedLine: 1984054295].
Sachs 1993{published data only}
  • Sachs DPL, Sawe U, Leischow SJ. Effectiveness of a 16-hour transdermal nicotine patch in a medical practice setting, without intensive group counseling. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1881-90. [MedLine: 1994071554].
Schneider 1985{published data only}
  • Schneider NG, Jarvik ME. Nicotine gum vs. placebo gum: comparisons of withdrawal symptoms and success rates. NIDA Res Monogr 1985;53:83-101. [MedLine: 1986065415].
  • Schneider NG, Jarvik ME, Forsythe AB, Read LL, Elliott ML, Schweiger A. Nicotine gum in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Addict Behav 1983;8:253-61. [MedLine: 1984124498].
Schneider 1995{published data only}
  • Schneider NG, Olmstead R, Mody FV, Doan K, Franzon M, Jarvik ME, et al. Efficacy of a nicotine nasal spray in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Addiction 1995;90:1671-82. [MedLine: 1996127660].
Schneider 1996{published data only}
  • Schneider NG, Olmstead R, Nilsson F, Mody FV, Franzon M, Doan K. Efficacy of a nicotine inhaler in smoking cessation: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Addiction 1996;91:1293-1306. [MedLine: 1997007091].
  • Schneider NG, Olmstead R, Nilsson F, Mody FV, Franzon M, Doan K. Efficacy of a nicotine inhaler in smoking cessation: A double- blind, placebo-controlled trial [abstract]. Addiction 1997;92:630.
Segnan 1991{published data only}
  • Segnan N, Ponti A, Battista RN, Senore C, Rosso S, Shapiro SH, Aimar D. A randomized trial of smoking cessation interventions in general practice in Italy. Cancer Causes Control 1991;2:239-46. [MedLine: 1991338418].
Shiffman 2002A{published data only}
  • Dresler CM, Shiffman S, Strahs KR. Safety profile of the new nicotine polacrilex lozenge (PO1 36). Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 8th Annual Meeting February 20-23 Savannah, Georgia. 2002.
  • Shiffman S, Dresler CM, Hajek P, Gilburt SJ, Targett DA, Strahs KR. Efficacy of a nicotine lozenge for smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1267-1276. [MedLine: 22035013].
Shiffman 2002B{published data only}
  • Dresler CM, Shiffman S, Strahs KR. Safety profile of the new nicotine polacrilex lozenge (PO1 36). Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 8th Annual Meeting February 20-23 Savannah, Georgia. 2002.
  • Shiffman S, Dresler CM, Hajek P, Gilburt SJ, Targett DA, Strahs KR. Efficacy of a nicotine lozenge for smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1267-1276. [MedLine: 22035013].
Sonderskov 1997{published data only}
  • Sonderskov J, Olsen J, Meillier L, Overvad OK, Sabroe S. [The effect of transdermal nicotine patches in smoking cessation. A randomized trial in pharmacy customers in Denmark. Ugeskr Laeger 1999;161:593-7.
  • Sonderskov J, Olsen J, Sabroe S, Meillier L, Overvad K. Nicotine patches in smoking cessation: A randomized trial among over- the-counter customers in Denmark. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:309-18. [MedLine: 1997188680].
Stapleton 1995{published data only}
  • Russell MAH, Stapleton JA, Feyerabend C, Wiseman SM, Gustavsson G, Sawe U, Connor P. Targeting heavy smokers in general practice: randomised controlled trial of transdermal nicotine patches. BMJ 1993;306(6888):1308-1312.
  • Stapleton JA, Russell MAH, Feyerabend C, Wiseman SM, Gustavsson G, Sawe U, Wiseman D. Dose effects and predictors of outcome in a randomized trial of transdermal nicotine patches in general practice. Addiction 1995;90:31-42. [MedLine: 1995195597].
Sutherland 1992{published data only}
  • Stapleton JA, Sutherland G, Russell MAH. How much does relapse after one year erode effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments? Long term follow up of randomised trial of nicotine nasal spray. BMJ 1998;316(7134):830-1.
  • Sutherland G, Stapleton JA, Russell MAH, Jarvis MJ, Hajek P, Belcher M, Feyerabend C. Randomised controlled trial of nasal nicotine spray in smoking cessation. Lancet 1992;340:324-9. [MedLine: 1992356687].
Sutton 1987{published data only}
  • Sutton S, Hallett R. Randomized trial of brief individual treatment for smoking using nicotine chewing gum in a workplace setting. Am J Public Health 1987;77:1210-1. [MedLine: 1987296451].
Sutton 1988{published data only}
  • Sutton S, Hallett R. Smoking intervention in the workplace using videotapes and nicotine chewing gum. Prev Med 1988;17:48-59. [MedLine: 1988203500].
TNSG 1991{published data only}
  • Daughton DM, Fortmann SP, Glover ED, Hatsukami DK, Heatley SA, Lichtenstein E, et al. The smoking cessation efficacy of varying doses of nicotine patch delivery systems 4 to 5 years post-quit day. Prev Med 1999;28:113-8. [MedLine: 1999157662].
  • Swan GE, Jack LM, Ward MM. Subgroups of smokers with different success rates after use of transdermal nicotine. Addiction 1997;92:207-217.
  • Transdermal Nicotine Study Group. Transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation. Six-month results from two multicenter controlled clinical trials. Transdermal Nicotine Study Group. JAMA 1991;266:3133-8. [MedLine: 1992065541].
Tonnesen 1988{published data only}
  • Tonnesen P, Fryd V, Hansen M, Helsted J, Gunnersen AB, Forchammer H, Stockner M. Effect of nicotine chewing gum in combination with group counseling on the cessation of smoking. N Engl J Med 1988;318:15-8. [MedLine: 1988094537].
  • Tonnesen P, Fryd V, Hansen M, Helsted J, Gunnersen AB, Forchammer H, Stockner M. Two and four mg nicotine chewing gum and group counselling in smoking cessation: an open, randomized controlled trial with a 22 month follow-up. Addict Behav 1988;13:17-27. [MedLine: 1988206866].
Tonnesen 1991{published data only}
  • Mikkelsen KL, Tonnesen P, Norregaard J. Three-year outcome of two- and three-year sustained abstainers from a smoking cessation study with nicotine patches. J Smoking-Related Disorders 1994;5:95-100.
  • Norregaard J, Tonnesen P, Petersen L. Predictors and reasons for relapse in smoking cessation with nicotine and placebo patches. Prev Med 1993;22:261-271.
  • Tonnesen P, Norregaard J, Sawe U. Two-year outcome in a smoking cessation trial with a nicotine patch. J Smoking-Related Disorders 1992;3:241-245.
  • Tonnesen P, Norregaard J, Simonsen K, Sawe U. A double-blind trial of a 16-hour transdermal nicotine patch in smoking cessation. N Engl J Med 1991;325:311-5. [MedLine: 1991278935].
  • Tonnesen P, Norregaard J, Simonsen K, Sawe U. A double-blind trial of nicotine patches in smoking cessation [En dobbeltblind undersogelse af nikotinplaster ved rygeafvaenning]. Ugeskr Laeger 1992;154:251-4. [MedLine: 1992142309].
Tonnesen 1993{published data only}
  • Tonnesen P, Norregaard J, Mikkelsen K, Jorgensen S, Nilsson F. A double-blind trial of a nicotine inhaler for smoking cessation. JAMA 1993;269:1268-71. [MedLine: 1993172482].
Tonnesen 2000{published data only}
  • Tonnesen P, Mikkelsen KL. Smoking cessation with four nicotine replacement regimes in a lung clinic. Eur Respir J 2000;16(4):717-722.
Villa 1999{published data only}
  • Villa RS, Alvarez ABD, Hermida JRF. Effectiveness of a multicomponent program to quit smoking with and without nicotine chewing gum [Eficacia de un programa multicomponente para dejar de fumar con y sin chicle de nicotina]. Psicologia Conductual 1999;7:107-18.
Wallstrom 2000{published data only}
  • Pharmacia, Upjohn. Nicorette Nicotine Microtab Monograph. Chester: Adis International, 1998.
  • Wallstrom M, Nilsson F, Hirsch JM. A double-blind placebo controlled clinical evaluation of a nicotine sublingual tablet in smoking cessation [abstract 2822]. European Respiratory Society Meeting; 1997 Sept 20-24; Berlin
  • Wallstrom M, Nilsson F, Hirsch JM. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of a nicotine sublingual tablet in smoking cessation. Addiction 2000;95(8):1161-1171. [MedLine: 20073803].
Westman 1993{published data only}
  • Westman EC, Levin ED, Rose JE. The nicotine patch in smoking cessation. A randomized trial with telephone counseling. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1917-23. [MedLine: 1994071559].
Wisborg 2000{published data only}
  • Wisborg K, Henriksen TB, Jespersen LB, Secher NJ. Nicotine patches for pregnant smokers: A randomized controlled study. Obstet Gynecol 2000;96(6):967-971.
Wong 1999{published data only}
  • Wong GY, Wolter TD, Croghan GA, Croghan IT, Offord KP, Hurt RD. A randomized trial of naltrexone for smoking cessation. Addiction. 1999;94(8):1227-37. [MedLine: 20082600].
Zelman 1992{published data only}
  • Zelman DC, Brandon TH, Jorenby DE, Baker TB. Measures of affect and nicotine dependence predict differential response to smoking cessation treatments. J Consult Clin Psychol 1992;60:943-52. [MedLine: 1993094432].

References to studies excluded from this review

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Brantmark 1973
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Christen 1984
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Elan Pharm 88-02
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Elan Pharm 90-03
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Fagerstrom 1997
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Fagerstrom 2000
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Foulds 1993
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Hurt 1994b
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Hurt 1995
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Kapur 2001
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Korberley 1999
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Kozak 1995
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Krumpe 1989
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Kupecz 1996
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Leischow 1996b
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Levin 1994
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Molander 2000
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Mulligan 1990
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Rose 1990
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Sachs 1995
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Shiffman 2000
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Shiffman 2000b
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Shiffman 2002
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Thorsteinsson 2001
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References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Croghan 1998
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References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Kalman 2001
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Additional references

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Silagy 1994a
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Silagy 1994b
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