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Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures in post-menopausal women and older men

  1. Alison Avenell1,*,
  2. Jenson CS Mak2,
  3. Dianne O'Connell3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group

Published Online: 14 APR 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 1 JUN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000227.pub4


How to Cite

Avenell A, Mak JCS, O'Connell D. Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures in post-menopausal women and older men. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD000227. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000227.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Aberdeen, Health Services Research Unit, Health Sciences Building, Aberdeen, UK

  2. 2

    Gosford Hospital, Department of Aged Care and Rehabilitation, Gosford, New South Wales (NSW), Australia

  3. 3

    Cancer Council, Cancer Research Division, Sydney, NSW, Australia

*Alison Avenell, Health Services Research Unit, Health Sciences Building, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK. a.avenell@abdn.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 14 APR 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Aloia 1988 {published data only}
Arthur 1990 {published data only}
  • Arthur RS, Piraino B, Candib D, Cooperstein L, Chen T, West C, et al. Effect of low-dose calcitriol and calcium therapy on bone histomorphometry and urinary calcium excretion in osteopenic women. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism 1990;16(6):385-90. [MEDLINE: 1991211662]
Avenell 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Avenell A. Personal communication 2005.
  • Avenell A, Grant AM, McGee M, McPherson G, Campbell MK, McGee MA for the RECORD Trial Management Group. The effects of an open design on trial participant recruitment, compliance and retention - a randomized controlled trial comparison with a blinded, placebo-controlled design. Clinical Trials Journal 2004;1:490-8.
Bischoff 2003 {published and unpublished data}
Bolton-Smith 2007 {published and unpublished data}
Burleigh 2007 {published and unpublished data}
Caniggia 1984 {published data only}
  • Caniggia A, Delling G, Nuti R, Lore F, Vattimo A. Clinical, biochemical and histological results of a double-blind trial with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, estradiol and placebo in post-menopausal osteoporosis. Acta Vitaminologica et Enzymologica 1984;6(2):117-28.
Chapuy 1992 {published data only}
  • Chapuy MC, Arlot M, et al. Prevention of non vertebral fractures and cortical bone loss in elderly women: a prospective controlled trial using calcium and vitamin D3 supplements [abstract]. Osteoporosis International 1993;3 Suppl 1:258.
  • Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol treatment for three years on hip fractures in elderly women. BMJ 1994;308:1081-2.
  • Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, Brun J, Crouzet B, Arnaud S, et al. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in elderly women. New England Journal of Medicine 1992;327:1637-42.
  • Meunier PJ, Pamphile R, Chapuy MC, Schulten J, Arlot M, Lillu H. A calcium-vitamin D3 combined supplementation is cost-saving for preventing hip fractures in institutionalised elderly women: an economic evaluation from the perspective of seven European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom). Osteoporosis International 2002;13(Suppl 1):S14.
Chapuy 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bosworth C, de Boer IH, Targher G, Kendrick J, Smits G, Chonchol M. The effect of combined calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on bone mineral density in elderly women with moderate chronic kidney disease. Clinical Nephrology 2012;77(5):358-65.
  • Chapuy MC, Pamphile R, Paris E, Kempf C, Schlichting M, Arnaud S, et al. Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: the Decalyos II study. Osteoporosis International 2002;13(3):257-64. [MEDLINE: 11991447]
  • Chapuy MC, Pamphile R, Paris E, Kempf C, Schlichting M, Arnaud S, et al. Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation to prevent hip fracture in elderly women. A confirmatory study: Decalyos II. Osteoporosis International 2002;13(Suppl 1):S25.
  • Meunier PJ. Personal communication 28 February 2005.
Dawson-Hughes 1997 {published data only}
  • Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Orav EJ, Dawson-Hughes B. Additive effect of higher testosterone levels and vitamin D plus calcium supplementation in regard to fall risk reduction among older men and women. Osteoporosis International 2008;19:1307-14.
  • Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Orav EJ, Dawson-Hughes B. Effect of cholecalciferol plus calcium on falling in ambulatory older men and women: a 3-year randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006;166(4):424-30.
  • Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Orav EJ, Dawson-Hughes B. Effect of vitamin D3 plus calcium on fall risk in older men and women: a 3-year randomized controlled trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004;19(Suppl 1):S57.
  • Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS. Calcium intake influences the association of protein intake with rates of bone loss in elderly men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;75(4):773-9.
  • Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. New England Journal of Medicine 1997;337(10):670-6.
  • Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effect of withdrawal of calcium and vitamin D supplements on bone mass in elderly men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;72(3):745-50.
  • Krall EA, Randall C, Harris SS, Garcia RI, Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce tooth loss in the elderly. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2000;15(Suppl 1):S191.
  • Krall EA, Wehler C, Garcia RI, Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce tooth loss in the elderly. American Journal of Medicine 2001;111(6):452-6.
  • Niramitmahapanya S, Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Type of dietary fat is associated with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increment in response to vitamin D supplementation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2011;96(10):3170-4.
Dukas 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Dukas L, Bischoff HA, Lindpaintner LS, Schacht E, Birkner-Binder D, Damm TN, et al. Alfacalcidol reduces the number of fallers in a community-dwelling elderly population with a minimum calcium intake of more than 500 mg daily. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2004;52(2):230-6.
  • Dukas L, Bischoff HA, Lindpaintner LS, Schacht E, Birkner-Binder D, Thalman B, et al. Alfacalcidol reduces the number of fallers and falls in community-dwelling elderly provided a minimum total daily intake of 500mg calcium [abstract]. Calcified Tissue International 2003;72:371.
  • Dukas L, Schacht E. Reduction of falls and fallers using D-hormone analogs. Osteoporosis International 2006;17(Suppl 1):S122-3.
  • Dukas L, Schacht E, Mazor Z, Stahelin HB. Treatment with alfacalcidol in elderly people significantly decreases the high risk of falls associated with a low creatinine clearance of <65 ml/min. Osteoporosis International 2005;16(2):198-203.
  • Dukas L, Schacht E, Stahelin HB. A significant independent new risk factor for falls in the elderly: a low creatinine clearance of less than 65ml/min. Osteoporosis International 2003;14(Suppl 7):S33.
  • Dukas L, Schacht E, Stahelin HB. High risk of falls related to low D-hormone syndrome and its treatment with alfacalcidol. Osteoporosis International 2004;15(Suppl 1):S8-9.
  • Dukas L, Schacht E, Stahelin HB. Reduction of falls and fallers in high risk patients by D-hormone analogs. Osteoporosis International 2004;15(Suppl 1):S144-5.
  • Dukas L, Schacht E, Stahelin HB. Treatment with alfacalcidol significantly decreases the high incidence of fallers and the high risk of falls associated with low creatinine clearance (<65ml/min) in elderly community-dwelling men and women. Osteoporosis International 2003;14(Suppl 7):S33.
  • Dukas LC. Personal communication 19 July 2004.
  • Dukas LC, Schacht E, Mazor Z, Stahelin HB. The low creatinine clearance associated high risk of falls can significantly be treated with alfacalcidol. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004;19(Suppl 1):S95.
Ebeling 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ebeling PR. Personal communication 15 February 2005.
  • Ebeling PR, Wark JD, Yeung S, Poon C, Salehi N, Nicholson GC, et al. Effects of calcitriol or calcium on bone mineral density, bone turnover, and fractures in men with primary osteoporosis: a two-year randomized, double-blind, double placebo study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2001;86(9):4098-103.
Falch 1987 {published and unpublished data}
  • Falch JA. Personal communication 1999.
  • Falch JA, Odegaard OR, Finnanger AM. 3 years treatment with 1.25(OH)2 Vitamin D3 does not reduce bone loss or fracture rate in postmenopausal women with fracture of the distal forearm. Vitamin D : chemical, biochemical, and clinical update: proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Vitamin D, Merano, Italy, March 1985. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1985:1004-5.
  • Falch JA, Odegaard OR, Finnanger AM, Matheson I. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: no effect of three years treatment with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1987;221(2):199-204. [MEDLINE: 1987237893]
Flicker 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Flicker L. Personal communication 7 January 2008.
  • Flicker L, MacInnis R, Stein M, Scherer S, Mead K, Nowson C, et al. Should all older people in residential care receive vitamin D to prevent falls? Results of a randomised trial [abstract]. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004; Vol. 19, issue Suppl 1:S99.
  • Flicker L, MacInnis RJ, Stein MS, Scherer SC, Mead KE, Nowson CA. Should all older people in residential care receive vitamin D to prevent falls? Results of a randomised trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004;19(Suppl 1):S99.
  • Flicker L, MacInnis RJ, Stein MS, Scherer SC, Mead KE, Nowson CA, et al. Erratum. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2012;60:1599.
  • Flicker L, MacInnis RJ, Stein MS, Scherer SC, Mead KE, Nowson CA, et al. Should older people in residential care receive vitamin D to prevent falls? Results of a randomized trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2005;53(11):1881-8.
  • Flicker L, MacInnis RJ, Stein MS, Scherer SC, Mead KE, et al. Response letter to Dr. Gau et al. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2006;54:1021-2.
Gallagher 1989 {published data only}
  • Gallagher JC, Riggs BL, Recker RR, Goldgar D. The effect of calcitriol on patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with special reference to fracture frequency. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1989;191(3):287-92. [MEDLINE: 1989296988]
Gallagher 1990 {published data only}
  • Gallagher JC. Personal communication 21 February 1995.
  • Gallagher JC. Metabolic effects of synthetic calcitriol (Rocaltrol) in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental 1990;39(4 Suppl 1):27-9. [MEDLINE: 2112606]
  • Gallagher JC, Goldgar D. Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with high doses of synthetic calcitriol. A randomized controlled study. Annals of Internal Medicine 1990;113(9):649-55. [MEDLINE: 1991023790]
Gallagher 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gallagher JC. Personal communication 21 February 2005.
  • Gallagher JC. The effects of calcitriol on falls and fractures and physical performance tests. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2004;89-90(1-5):497-501.
  • Gallagher JC, Fowler S. Effect of estrogen, calcitriol and a combination of estrogen and calcitriol on bone mineral density and fractures in elderly women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1999;14(Suppl 1):S209.
  • Gallagher JC, Fowler SE, Detter JR, Sherman SS. Combination treatment with estrogen and calcitriol in the prevention of age-related bone loss. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2001;86(8):3618-28.
  • Gallagher JC, Haynatski G, Fowler S. Calcitriol therapy reduces falls and fractures in elderly women. Calcified Tissue International 2003;72:334.
  • Gallagher JC, Haynatzki G, Fowler S. Effect of estrogen, calcitriol or the combination of both on falls and non vertebral fractures in elderly women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2001;17(Suppl 1):S210.
  • Gallagher JC, Rapuri PB, Haynatzki G. A comparison of estrogen, calcitriol or both therapies on the relationship between serum parathyroid hormone and 25 hydroxy vitamin. Journal of Bone and MIneral Research 2004;19(Suppl 1):S440.
  • Gallagher JC, Rapuri PB, Haynatzki G, Detter JR. Effect of discontinuation of estrogen, calcitriol, and the combination of both on bone density and bone markers. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2002;87(11):4914-23. [: 12414850]
Garay Lillo 1997 {published data only}
  • Garay Lillo J, Parreno J, González Y, González JA. Geminis: a prospective, multicentric, randomised study to evaluate the effect of tricalcium phosphate versus tricalcium phosphate plus 25(OH) Vitamin D on the risk of fractures in older women [Géminis: Estudio prospectivo, multicéntrico y aleatori para valorar el efecto del Fosfato Tricálcico versus Fosfato Tricálcico + 25(OH) Vitamina D sobre el riesgo de fracturas en mujerioes ancianas.]. Geriátrika 1997;13(6):24-8.
Geusens 1986 {published data only}
  • Geusens P, Dequeker J. Long-term effect of nandrolone decanoate, 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 or intermittent calcium infusion therapy on bone mineral content, bone remodeling and fracture rate in symptomatic osteoporosis: a double-blind controlled study. Bone and Mineral 1986;1(4):347-57.
Glendenning 2012 {published data only}
Gorai 1999 {published data only}
  • Gorai I, Chaki O, Taguchi Y, Nakayama M, Osada H, Suzuki N, et al. Early postmenopausal bone loss is prevented by estrogen and partially by 1alpha-OH-vitamin D3: therapeutic effects of estrogen and/or 1alpha-OH-vitamin D3. Calcified Tissue International 1999;65:16-22.
Harwood 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Harwood RH, Sahota O, Gaynor K, Masud T, Hosking D. A randomised, controlled comparison of different calcium and vitamin D supplementation regimens in elderly women after hip fracture: The Nottingham Neck of Femur (NoNOF) Study. Age and Ageing 2004;33:45-51. [: 14695863]
  • Harwood RW. Personal communication 24 January 2003.
  • Sahota O, Harwood RH, Gaynor K, Masud T, Hosking DJ. A randomised, controlled comparison of different calcium and vitamin D regimes: the NoNOF (Nottingham Neck of Femur) study. Osteoporosis International 2003;14(Suppl 4):S10-11.
Hayashi 1992 {published data only}
  • Hayashi Y, Fujita T, Inoue T. A multi-center study on efficacy of 1 alpha-hydroxy vitamin D3 in preventing spinal fracture of patients with osteoporosis (abstract). Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1989;4 Suppl 1:Si84.
  • Hayashi Y, Fujita T, Inoue T. Decrease of vertebral fracture in osteoporotics by administration of 1alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D3. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 1992;10(2):50-4.
Inkovaara 1983 {published data only}
  • Inkovaara J, Gothoni G, Halttula R, Heikinheimo R, Tokola O. Calcium, vitamin D and anabolic steroids in treatment of aged bones: double-blind placebo-controlled long-term clinical trial. Age and Ageing 1983;12:124-30.
Ishida 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ishida Y. Personal communication 21 February 2005.
  • Ishida Y, Kawai S. A two-year randomized controlled trial of hormone replacement therapy, etidronate, calcitonin, vitamin D, or vitamin K, in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2002;17(Suppl 1):S478.
  • Ishida Y, Kawai S. Comparative efficacy of hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, vitamin D and vitamin K in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2003;18(Suppl 2):S158.
  • Ishida Y, Kawai S. Comparative efficacy of hormone replacement therapy, etidronate, calcitonin, alfacalcidol, and vitamin K in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: the Yamaguchi osteoporosis prevention study. American Journal of Medicine 2004;117:549-55.
  • Ishida Y, Kawai S. Comparative efficacy of hormone replacement therapy, etidronate, calcitonin, vitamin D and vitamin K in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone 2003;33(5 Suppl1):S220.
  • Ishida Y, Soh H, Ogawa S, Kawahara S, Murata H. A one-year randomized controlled trial of hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonate, calcitonin, vitamin D, and vitamin K, in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2000;15(Suppl 1):S310.
  • Ishida Y, Soh H, Tsuchida S, Kawahara S, Murata H, Kawai S. Effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy, etidronate, calcitonin, vitamin D, and vitamin K in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis [abstract]. Bone 2002;30(3 Suppl 1):50S.
Janssen 2010 {published data only}
  • Janssen HC, Samson MM, Verhaar HJ. Muscle strength and mobility in vitamin D-insufficient female geriatric patients: a randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 2010;22(1):78-84.
Komulainen 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Komulainen M, Kroger H, Tuppurainen MT, Heikkinen AM, Alhava E, Honkanen R, et al. Prevention of femoral and lumbar bone loss with hormone replacement therapy and Vitamin D3 in early postmenopausal women: a population based 5-year randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1999;84(2):546-52.
  • Komulainen M, Kroger H, Tuppurainen MT, Keikkinen A-M, Honkanen R, Saarikoski S, et al. Identification of early postmenopausal women with no bone response to HRT: results of a five-year clinical trial. Osteoporosis International 2000;11:211-8.
  • Komulainen MH. Personal communication 11 November 2004.
  • Komulainen MH, Kroger H, Tuppurainen MT, Heikkinen A-M, Alhava E, Honkanen R, et al. HRT and Vit D in prevention of non-vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women; a 5 year randomized trial. Maturitas 1998;31(1):45-54.
Law 2006 {published data only}
  • Law M, Morris J, Withers H. Cholecalciferol, not ergocalciferol, should be used for vitamin D supplementation [author reply]. Age and Ageing 2006;35(6):645. [MEDLINE: 16982666]
  • Law M, Morris J, Withers H. Vitamin D supplementation and the prevention of fractures and falls [author reply]. Age and Ageing 2007;36(2):233. [MEDLINE: 17255084]
  • Law M, Morris J, Withers H. Vitamin D supplementation and the prevention of fractures and falls. Reply. Age and Ageing 2007;36(2):233.
  • Law M, Withers H, Morris J, Anderson F. Vitamin D supplementation and the prevention of fractures and falls: results of a randomised trial in elderly people in residential accommodation [comment in: Age and Ageing 2006;35(6):645 and Age and Ageing 2007;36(2):232-3]. Age and Ageing 2006;35(5):482-6.
Lips 1996 {published data only}
  • Graafmans WC, Ooms ME, Hofstee HMA, Bezemer PD, Bouter LM, Lips P. Falls in the elderly: a prospective study of risk factors and risk profiles. American Journal of Epidemiology 1996;143(11):1129-36.
  • Lips P, Graafmans WC, Ooms ME, Bezemer PD, Bouter LM. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on the incidence of hip fractures in elderly people. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1994;9 Suppl 1:S148.
  • Lips P, Graafmans WC, Ooms ME, Bezemer PD, Bouter LM. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996;124:400-6. [MEDLINE: 1996151943]
Lyons 2007 {published data only}
  • Johansen A, Lyons RA, Stone M, Brophy S, Newcombe RG, Phillips CJ, et al. Preventing fractures among older people living in institutional care: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation [abstract]. Age and Ageing 2006;35(Suppl 3):i41.
  • Lyons RA, Johansen A, Brophy S, Newcombe RG, Phillips CJ, Lervy B, et al. Preventing fractures among older people living in institutional care: a pragmatic randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation. Osteoporosis International 2007;18(6):811-8.
  • Lyons RA, Johansen A, Stone MD, Brophy S, Newcombe RG, Philips CJ, et al. Preventing fractures among older people living in institutional care: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation [abstract]. Osteoporosis International 2006;17(Suppl 3):372.
Menczel 1994 {published data only}
  • Menczel J, Foldes J, Steinberg R, Leichter I, Shalita B, Bjolah-Abram T, et al. Alfacalcidol (Alpha D3) and calcium in osteoporosis. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 1994;(300):241-7.
Meyer 2002 {published data only}
  • Meyer HE, Falch JA, Kvaavik E, Smedshaug GB, Tverdal A, Pedersen JI. Can vitamin D supplementation reduce the risk of fracture in the elderly? A randomised controlled trial. Osteoporosis International 2000;11(Suppl 2):S114-5.
  • Meyer HE, Smedshaug GB, Kvaavik E, Falch JA, Tverdal A, Pedersen JI. Can vitamin D supplementation reduce the risk of fracture in the elderly? A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2002;17(4):709-15.
  • Smedshaug GB, Pedersen JI, Meyer HE. Can vitamin D supplementation improve grip strength in elderly nursing home residents? A double-blinded controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Food and Nutrition 2007;51(2):74-8.
Mitri 2011 {published data only}
  • Mitri J, Dawson-Hughes B, Hu FB, Pittas AG. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic β cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glycemia in adults at high risk of diabetes: the Calcium and Vitamin D for Diabetes Mellitus (CaDDM) randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011;94:486-94.
Nakatsuka 1997 {published data only}
  • Nakatsuka K, Inaba M, Aratani H, Iba K, Sato T, Koike T, et al. Effects of long-term administration of alfacalcidol on bone mass and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis - comparison with calcium preparations [Japanese]. Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi - Japanese Journal of Geriatrics 1997;34(7):569-76.
Ones 2007 {published data only}
  • Ones K, Schacht E, Dukas L, Caglar N. Effects of combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a two-years, randomized, multiarm, controlled trial. Internet Journal of Epidemiology 2007;4(1):DOI: 10.5580/1523.
Orimo 1994 {published data only}
  • Orimo H, Shiraki M, Hayashi Y, Hoshino T, Onaya T, Miyazaki S, et al. Effects of 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 on lumbar bone mineral density and vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Calcified Tissue International 1994;54:370-6.
OSTPRE-FPS 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Karkkainen M, Tuppurainen M, Rikkonen T, Salovaara K, Sirola J, Honkanen R, et al. Vitamin-D 800IU/day + calcium 1000mg supplementation decreases the risk of recurrent falling among postmenopausal ambulatory women - a population-based, randomized, 3-year study (OSTPRE-FPS). Osteoporosis International 2008;19(Suppl 1):S17-18.
  • Karkkainen M, Tuppurainen M, Rikkonen T, Salovaara K, Sirola J, Honkanen R, et al. Vitamin-D 800IU/day + calcium supplementation decreases the risk of falling among postmenopausal ambulatory women - a population-based, randomized 3-year study (OSTPRE-FPS) [abstract]. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2007;22(Suppl 1):S131.
  • Karkkainen M, Tuppurainen M, Salovaara K, Sandini L, Rikkonen T, Sirola J, et al. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in women aged 65-71 years: a 3-year randomized population-based trial (OSTPRE-FPS). Osteoporosis International 2010;21:2047-55.
  • Karkkainen MK, Tuppurainen M, Salovaara M, Sandini L, Rikkonen T, Sirola J, et al. Does daily vitamin D 800 IU and calcium 1000 mg supplementation decrease the risk of falling in ambulatory women aged 65-71 years? A 3-year randomized population-based trial (OSTPRE-FPS). Maturitas 2010;65:359-65.
  • Kroger HP, Tuppurainen M. OSTPRE-FPS Prevention of Fractures and Falls in Postmenopausal Women With Calcium and Vitamin-D Supplementation - a Randomised Study. http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/trial/405493/OSTPRE.
  • Salovaara K, Tuppurainen M, Karkkainen M, Rikkonen T, Sandini L, Sirola J, et al. Effect of vitamin D3 and calcium on fracture risk in 65- to 71-year-old women: a population-based 3-year randomized, controlled trial - the OSTPRE-FPS. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2010;25(7):1487-95.
  • Salovaara KT, Tuppurainen M, Rikkonen T, Karkkainen M, Sirola J, Honkanen R, et al. Effect of vitamin-D3 and calcium on fracture risk in 65-71 year old women in a 3-year randomized clinical trial - preliminary results from the OSTPRE-Fracture Prevention Study. Calcified Tissue International 2008;82:545-6.
  • Salovaara KT, Tuppurainen M, Rikkonen T, Karkkainen M, Sirola J, Honkanen R, et al. Effect of vitamin-D3 and calcium on fracture risk in 65-71 year old women in a 3-year randomized clinical trial - preliminary results of the OSTPRE-Fracture Prevention Study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2007;22(Suppl 1):S76.
Ott 1989 {published data only}
  • Ott SM, Chesnut CH. Calcitriol treatment is not effective in postmenopausal osteoporosis: see comments. Annals of Internal Medicine 1989;110:267-74.
Peacock 2000 {published data only}
  • Peacock M, Liu G, Carey M, McClintock R, Ambrosius W, Hui S, et al. Effect of calcium or 25OH vitamin D3 dietary supplementation on bone loss at the hip in men and women over the age of 60. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2000;85:3011-9.
Pfeifer 2000 {published data only}
  • Minne HW, Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Nachtigall D, Hansen C. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces falls in elderly women via improvement of body sway and normalisation of blood pressure; a prospective, randomized, and double-blind study. Osteoporosis International 2000;11(Suppl 2):S115.
  • Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW, Abrams C, Nachtigall D, Hansen C. Effects of a short-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on body sway and secondary hyperparathyroidism in elderly women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2000;15(6):1113-8.
  • Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Nachtigall D, Hansen C. Prevention of falls-related fractures: vitamin D reduces body sway in the elderly - a prospective, randomized, double blind study [abstract]. Bone 1998;23(5 Suppl 1):1110.
Pfeifer 2009 {published data only}
  • Minne HW, Dobnig H, Pfeifer M, Suppan K. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle function: a prospective, randomized, double-blind multicenter study [abstract]. Osteoporosis International 2006;17(Suppl 2):S212.
  • Minne HW, Dobnig H, Pfeifer M, Suppan K. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle-function - a prospective, randomized, double-blind multi-center study [abstract]. Osteoporosis International 2006;17(Suppl 1):S21.
  • Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW, Suppan K, Fahrleitner-Pammer A, Dobnig H. Effects of a long-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle function in community-dwelling older individuals. Osteoporosis International 2009;20:315-22.
  • Pfeifer M, Dobnig H, Begerow B, Suppan K. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle function: a prospective randomized, double-blind multi-centre study [abstract]. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004;19(Suppl 1):S58.
  • Pfeifer M, Dobnig H, Minne HW, Suppan K. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle function - a prospective, randomized, double-blind multi-center study [abstract]. Osteoporosis International 2005;16(Suppl 3):S45.
Porthouse 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Dumville JC, Miles JN, Porthouse J, Cockayne ES, Saxon L, King C, et al. Can vitamin D supplementation prevent seasonal affective disorder? A randomised trial among older women. Osteoporosis International 2004;15:S42-3.
  • Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, et al. Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ 2005;330(7498):1003-6.
  • Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, et al. Randomised controlled trial of calcium and vitamin D supplementation for fracture prevention in primary care. Osteoporosis International 2004;15(Suppl 2):S13.
  • Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, et al. Randomised controlled trial of calcium and vitamin D supplementation for fracture prevention in primary care. Osteoporosis International 2005;16:S27.
  • Puffer S. Calcium and vitamin D in primary care: adherence results from a randomised controlled trial [abstract 6.9.3]. RCN International Nursing Conference; 2004 Mar 21-31; Cambridge (UK). London: Royal College of Nursing, 2004.
  • S Puffer, on behalf of the Calcium and Vitamin D Trial. Calcium and vitamin D in primary care. Compliance results from a randomised controlled trial. Osteoporosis International 2003;14(Suppl 4):S8.
  • Torgerson D, on behalf of the trial group. Calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures [author reply]. BMJ 2005;331(7508):109.
  • Torgerson DJ. Personal communication 9-16 February 2005.
Prince 2008 {published data only}
  • Prince RL, Austin N, Devine A, Dick IM, Bruce D, Zhu K. Effects of ergocalciferol added to calcium on the risk of falls in elderly high-risk women. Archives of Internal Medicine 2008;168(1):103-8.
  • Zhu K, Bruce D, Austin N, Devine A, Ebeling PR, Prince RL. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of calcium with or without vitamin D on bone structure and bone-related chemistry in elderly women with vitamin D insufficiency. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2008;23(8):1343-8.
  • Zhu K, Devine A, Dick IM, Wilson SG, Prince RL. Effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on hip bone mineral density and calcium-related analytes in elderly ambulatory Australian women: a five-year randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2008;93(3):743-9.
RECORD 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Anderson FH, Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, Cooper C, Donaldson C, et al. The RECORD Trial: an evaluation of calcium and/or vitamin D in the secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures. Bone 2005;36(Suppl 2):S122-3.
  • Francis RM, Grant AM and the RECORD trial group. The RECORD trial: a randomised double-blind study of calcium and/or vitamin D in the secondary prevention of low trauma fractures. Age Ageing 2005;34(Suppl 2):ii15.
  • Grant A, on behalf of the RECORD Trial Group. Prevention of low-trauma fractures in older people [author reply]. Lancet 2005;366(9485):543-4.
  • Grant AM. Personal communication 11 March 2004.
  • Grant AM, Anderson FH. The RECORD trial: an evaluation of calcium and/or vitamin D in the secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporosis International 2005;16(Suppl 3):S4-5.
  • Grant AM, Anderson FH, for the RECORD Trial Group. The Medical Research Council RECORD Trial: an evaluation of calcium and/or vitamin D in the secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporosis International 2004;15(Suppl 2):S13.
  • Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, et al. Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial [comment in: Lancet 2005;366(9485):543]. Lancet 2005;365(9471):1621-8.
Shiraki 1996 {published data only}
  • Shiraki M, Kushida K, Yamazaki K, Nagai T, Inoue T, Orimo H. Effects of 2 years' treatment of osteoporosis with 1alpha-hydroxy vitamin D3 on bone mineral density and incidence of fracture: a placebo-controlled, double-blind prospective study. Endocrine Journal 1996;43(2):211-20.
Smith 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Anderson FH, Smith HE, Raphael HM, Cooper C. Intramuscular vitamin D increased serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol but did not affect 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol levels in health older adults [abstract]. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2000;15(Suppl 1):S315.
  • Anderson FH, Smith HE, Raphael HM, Crozier SR, Cooper C. Effect of annual intramuscular vitamin D3 supplementation on fracture risk in 9440 community-living older people: the Wessex fracture prevention trial [abstract]. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004;19(Suppl 1):S57.
  • Arden NK, Crozier S, Smith H, Anderson F, Edwards C, Raphael H, et al. Knee pain, knee osteoarthritis, and the risk of fracture. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2006;55(4):610-5.
  • Cooper C, Crozier S. Personal communication 23 February 2005.
  • Raphael H, Smith H, Anderson F, Cooper C. Tackling the problems of trial management in primary care - experience from the Wessex research network fracture prevention study of annual vitamin D injection in older people [abstract]. Osteoporosis International 2000;11(Suppl 1):S63-4.
  • Smith H, Anderson F, Raphael H, Cooper C. The Wessex research network fracture prevention study - a large pragmatic trial of annual vitamin D injection in older people [abstract]. Osteoporosis International 2000;11(Suppl 1):S64.
  • Smith H, Anderson F, Raphael H, Crozier S, Cooper C. Effect of annual intramuscular vitamin D supplementation on fracture risk: population-based, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial [abstract]. Osteoporosis International 2004;15(Suppl 1):S8.
  • Smith H, Anderson F, Raphael H, Maslin P, Crozier S, Cooper C. Effect of annual intramuscular vitamin D on fracture risk in elderly men and women--a population-based, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Rheumatology 2007;46(12):1852-7.
Tilyard 1992 {published data only}
  • Morrison NA, George PM, Vaughan T, Tilyard MW, Frampton CM, Gilchrist NL. Vitamin D receptor genotypes influence the success of calcitriol therapy for recurrent vertebral fracture in osteoporosis. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 2005;15(2):127-35.
  • Tilyard M. Low-dose calcitriol versus calcium in established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental 1990;39(4 Suppl 1):50-2.
  • Tilyard MW. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aktuelle Rheumatologie 1994;19(Suppl 1):23-6.
  • Tilyard MW, Spears GF, Thomson J, Dovey S. Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with calcitriol or calcium. New England Journal of Medicine 1992;326(6):357-62.
  • Tilyard MW, Spears GFS, Thomson J, Dovey S. Calcitriol or calcium for postmenopausal osteoporosis. New England Journal of Medicine 1992;327:284.
Trivedi 2003 {published data only}
  • Trivedi DP, Doll R, Khaw KT. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ 2003;326:469.
Ushiroyama 2001 {published data only}
  • Ushiroyama T, Ikeda A, Sakai M, Higashiyama T, Ueki M. Effects of the combined use of calcitonin and 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol on vertebral bone loss and bone turnover in women with postmenopausal osteopenia and osteoporosis: a prospective study of long-term and continuous administration with low dose calcitonin. Maturitas 2001;40:229-38.
Vital D {published and unpublished data}
  • Sanders K, Duque G, Ebeling P, McCorquodale T, Herrmann M, Shore-Lorenti C, et al. The efficacy of high-does oral vitamin D3 administered once a year: increased fracture risk is associated with 1,25 vitamin D level at 3-months post dose. ASBMR Annual Meeting; 2012 Oct 12-15; Minneapolis, Minnesota. http://www.asbmr.org/Meetings/AnnualMeeting/AbstractDetail.aspx?aid=6beb2500-4b8e-472b-8b38-d881cadb80e3. 2012.
  • Sanders K, Stuart A, Williamson E, Simpson J, Kotowicz M, Nicholson G. The efficacy of high-dose oral vitamin D3 administered once a year: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Vital D study) for falls and fractures in older women. Osteoporosis International 2011;22(Suppl 1):S104-5.
  • Sanders KM, et al. Incorrect data. JAMA 2010;303(23):2357.
  • Sanders KM, Duque G, McCorquodale T, Stuart AL, Williamson EJ, Kotowicz MA, et al. Annual high-dose oral vitamin D3: is the increased risk of falls attributable to changes in muscle strength?. Osteoporosis International 2011;22(Suppl 4):S552.
  • Sanders KM, Ebeling PR, Stuart AL, Williamson EJ, Kotowicz MA, Nicholson GC. Annual high-dose oral vitamin D3: is increased risk of fractures attributable to changes in bone turnover markers?. Osteoporosis International 2011;22(Suppl 4):S589.
  • Sanders KM, Hayles AL, Kotowicz MA, Nicholson GC. Does vitamin D explain the lower fracture rate in rural communities?. Bone 2007;40(6 Suppl 2):S195.
  • Sanders KM, Hayles AL, Kotowicz MA, Nicholson GC. The possible role of vitamin D and falls in relation to lower fracture rates in rural communities. Osteoporosis International 2007;18(Suppl 1):S120-1.
  • Sanders KM, Stuart AL, Kotowicz MA, Nicholson GC. Annual feedback is an effective tool for a sustained increase in calcium intake among older women. Nutrients 2010;2:1018-25.
  • Sanders KM, Stuart AL, Merriman EN, Read ML, Kotowicz MA, Young D, et al. Trials and tribulations of recruiting 2,000 older women onto a clinical trial investigating falls and fractures: Vital D study. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009;9:78.
  • Sanders KM, Stuart AL, Nicholson GC. High-dose oral vitamin D supplementation and risk of falls in older women. JAMA 2010;304(8):856-7.
  • Sanders KM, Stuart AL, Williamson EJ, Jacka FN, Dodd S, Nicholson G, et al. Annual high-dose vitamin D3 and mental well-being: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2011;198:357-64.
  • Sanders KM, Stuart AL, Williamson EJ, Simpson JA, Kotowicz MA, Nicholson GC. Annual high-dose oral vitamin D for falls and fractures in elderly women: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Vital D study). Osteoporosis International 2010;21(Suppl 1):S30.
  • Sanders KM, Stuart AL, Williamson EJ, Simpson JA, Kotowicz MA, Young D, et al. Annual high-dose oral vitamin D and falls and fractures in older women. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2010;303(18):1815-22.
WHI 2006 {published data only}
  • Cauley J, Wactawski-Wende J, Robbins J, Rodabough R, Chen Z, Johnson K, et al. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) calcium and vitamin D supplementation trial: health outcomes 5 years after trial completion. ASBMR Annual Meeting; 2012 Oct 12-15; Minneapolis, Minnesota. http://www.asbmr.org/Meetings/AnnualMeeting/AbstractDetail.aspx?aid=6450bf3e-c670-4dc0-814c-8842e23cd80e (accessed 27 December 2012).
  • Cauley JA, LaCroix A, Wu L, Lee J, Horowitz M, Bauer D, et al. Serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D 25(OH) and the risk of hip fracture: the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2007;22(Suppl 1):S57.
  • Chen Z, Beck TJ, Wright NC, LaCroix AZ, Cauley JA, Lewis CE, et al. The effect of calcium plus vitamin D supplement on hip geometric structures: results from the Women's Health Initiative CaD trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2007;22(Suppl 1):S59.
  • Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Cauley JA, McGowan J. The Women's Health Initiative Calcium-Vitamin D Trial: overview and baseline characteristics of participants. Annals of Epidemiology 2003;13:S98-106.
  • Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures [erratum appears in New England Journal of Medicine 9 March 2006;354(10):1102]. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;354(7):669-83.
  • Jackson RD, Wright NC, Beck TJ, Sherrill D, Cauley JA, Lewis CE, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation has limited effects on femoral geometric strength in older postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative. Calcified Tissue International 2011;88:198-208.
  • McGowan JA, Jackson RD, Cauley JA, LaCroix AZ. Calcium and vitamin D in the prevention of hip and other fractures: an update on the Women's Health Initiative CaD Trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2002;17(Suppl 1):S477.
  • The Women's Health Initiative Study Group. Design of the Women's Health Initiative clinical trial and observational study. Controlled Clinical Trials 1998;19(1):61-109.
Witham 2010 {published data only}
  • Witham MD, Crighton LJ, Gillespie ND, Struthers AD, McMurdo ME. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on physical function and quality of life in older patients with heart failure. A randomized controlled trial. Circulation: Heart Failure 2010;3:195-201.
Witham 2013 {unpublished data only}
  • Witham M. Can high-dose vitamin D supplementation reduce blood pressure and markers of cardiovascular risk in older people with isolated systolic hypertension? A randomised, double-blind, parallel group placebo controlled trial. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN92186858/ (accessed 3 December 2013).
  • Witham MD, Price RJ, Struthers AD, Donnan PT, Messow M, Ford I, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to reduce blood pressure in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension (VitDISH) - a randomised controlled trial. Personal communication ahead of publication 15 January 2013.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Aguado 2006 {published data only}
  • Aguado P, Gonzalez-Casaus ML, Cobo T, del Campo T, Martinez ME, Martin-Mola E, et al. The efficacy of two dosing regimens (daily colecalciferol versus cyclical calcidiol) for the prevention of bone mass loss in postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2006;21(Suppl 1):S306.
ALFA 2006 {published data only}
  • Bock O, Boerst H, Runge M, Beller G, Touby F, Tuerk J, et al. Effect of alfacalcidol on volumetric bone mineral density measured by pQCT in alendronate-treated postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis: 1 year interim analysis of the ALFA study [abstract]. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2007;22(Suppl 1):S215.
  • Bock O, Boerst H, Runge M, Schacht E, Martus P, Felsenberg D. Effect of alfacalcidol on biochemical bone markers in alendronate-treated postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis: 1 year interim analysis of the ALFA study [abstract]. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2006;21(Suppl 1):S306.
  • Boerst H, Bock O, Runge M, Degner C, Stephan-Oelkers M, Umrath F, et al. Effects of alfacalcidol on bone markers and bone mineral density in alendronate-treated postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis: one year interim analysis of the ALFA study [abstract]. Osteoporosis International 2007;18(Suppl 1):S90-1.
  • Felsenberg D, Bock O, Borst H, Armbrecht G, Beller G, Degner C, et al. Additive effect of alfacalcidol on bone mineral density and bone strength in alendronate treated postmenopausal women with reduced bone mass. Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions 2011;11(1):34-45.
Aloia 2005 {published data only}
  • Aloia JF, Talwar SA, Pollack S, Yeh J. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation in African American women. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005;165(14):1618-23.
  • Talwar SA, Aloia JF, Pollack S, Yeh J. Oral vitamin D3 supplementation in postmenopausal African American women. Calcified Tissue International 2004;74(Suppl 1):S102.
  • Talwar SA, Aloia JF, Pollack S, Yeh J. Oral vitamin D3 supplementation in postmenopausal African American women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004;19(Suppl 1):S324.
Baeksgaard 1998 {published data only}
  • Baeksgaard L, Andersen KP, Hylstrup L. Calcium and vitamin supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International 1998;8:255-60.
Binder 1995 {published data only}
  • Binder EF. Implementing a structured exercise program for frail nursing home residents with dementia. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 1995;3:383-95.
Binkley 2007 {published data only}
  • Binkley N, Recker R, Holst A, Walliser J, Lips P, Pfeifer M. Treatment effects of vitamin D3 8400IU once weekly on elderly subjects with vitamin D insufficiency. Osteoporosis International 2007;18(Suppl 1):S118.
Brazier 2005 {published data only}
  • Brazier M, Grados F, Kamel S, Mathieu M, Morel A, Maamer M, et al. Clinical and laboratory safety of one year's use of a combination calcium + vitamin D tablet in ambulatory elderly women with vitamin D insufficiency: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clinical Therapeutics 2005;27(12):1885-93.
Broe 2007 {published data only}
  • Broe KE, Chen TC, Weinberg J, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Holick MF, Kiel DP. A higher dose of vitamin D reduces the risk of falls in nursing home residents: a randomized, multiple-dose study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2007;55(2):234-9.
  • Kiel DP, Broe KE, Chen TC, Cupples LA, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Holick MF. A higher dose of vitamin D reduces the risk of falls in nursing home residents: a randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple dose study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004;19(Suppl 1):S462-3.
Bunout 2006 {published data only}
  • Bunout D, Barrera G, Leiva L, Gattas V, de la Maza MP, Avendano M, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects. Experimental Gerontology 2006;41(8):747-52.
Chen 1997 {published data only}
  • Chen JT, Shiraki M, Hasumi K, Tanaka N, Katase K, Kato T, et al. 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 treatment decreases bone turnover and modulates calcium-regulating hormones in early postmenopausal women. Bone 1997;20:557-62.
Chevalley 1994 {published data only}
  • Chevalley T, Rizzoli R, Nydegger V, Slosman D, Rapin C-H, Michel J-P, et al. Effects of calcium supplements on femoral bone mineral density and vertebral fracture rate in vitamin-D-replete elderly patients. Osteoporosis International 1994;4:245-52.
Cooper 2003 {published data only}
  • Cooper L, Clifton-Bligh PB, Nery ML, Figtree G, Twigg S, Hibbert E, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and bone mineral density in early postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;77:1324-9.
  • Cooper L, Figtree G, Nery L, Twigg S, Hibbert E, Clifton-Bligh P, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and bone mineral density in early postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1999;14(Suppl 1):S538.
Corless 1985 {published data only}
Daly 2006 {published data only}
  • Daly RM, Bass S, Nowson C. Long-term effects of calcium-vitamin-D3-fortified milk on bone geometry and strength in older men. Bone 2006;39(4):946-53.
  • Daly RM, Brown M, Bass S, Kukuljan S, Nowson C. Calcium and vitamin D3 fortified milk reduces bone loss at clinically relevant skeletal sites in older men: a 2-year randomised controlled trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2005;20(Suppl 1):S97.
  • Daly RM, Brown M, Bass S, Kukuljan S, Nowson C. Calcium- and vitamin D3-fortified milk reduces bone loss at clinically relevant skeletal sites in older men: a 2-year randomized controlled trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2006;21(3):397-405.
  • Kukuljan S, Daly RM, Bass SL, Sanders K, Nicholson GC, Turner CH, et al. Does calcium-vitamin D3 fortified milk enhance the effects of exercise on BMD in older men: an 18 month randomised controlled trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2006;21(Suppl 1):S184.
Dawson-Hughes 1991 {published data only}
  • Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Harris S, Sokoll LJ, Falconer G. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Annals of Internal Medicine 1991;115:505-12.
Dawson-Hughes 1995 {published data only}
  • Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE, Falconer G, Green CL. Rates of bone loss in postmenopausal women randomly assigned to one of two dosages of vitamin D. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995;61:1140-5.
Deroisy 1998 {published data only}
  • Deroisy R, Collette J, Chevallier T, Breuil V, Reginster JY. Effects of two 1-year calcium and vitamin D3 treatments on bone remodeling markers and femoral bone density in elderly women. Current Therapeutic Research 1998;59:850-62.
Deroisy 2002 {published data only}
  • Deroisy R, Collette J, Albert A, Jupsin I, Reginster J-Y. Administration of a supplement containing both calcium and vitamin D is more effective than calcium alone to reduce secondary hyperparathyrodism in postmenopausal women with low 25(OH)vitamin D circulating levels. Aging - Clinical and Experimental Research 2002;14:13-7.
Dhesi 2004 {published data only}
  • Dhesi JK, Jackson SHD, Bearne LM, Moniz C, Hurley MV, Swift CG, et al. Vitamin D supplementation improves neuromuscular function in older people who fall. Age and Ageing 2004;33:589-95.
Doetsch 2004 {published data only}
  • Doetsch AM, Faber J, Lynnerup N, Watjen I, Bliddal H, Danneskiold-Samsoe B. The effect of calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation on the healing of the proximal humerus fracture: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Calcified Tissue International 2004;75:183-8.
Francis 1996 {published data only}
  • Francis RM, Boyle IT, Moniz C, Sutcliffe AM, Davis BS, Beastall GH, et al. A comparison of the effects of alfacalcidol treatment and vitamin D2 supplementation on calcium absorption in elderly women with vertebral fractures. Osteoporosis International 1996;6:284-90.
Fujita 1989 {published data only}
  • Fujita T, Inoue T, Orimo H, Kumahara Y, Kurokawa K, Takahashi H, et al. Clinical evaluation of the effect of calcitriol on osteoporosis. Multicenter double-blind study using alfacalcitol as the control drug. Igaku No Ayumi - Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 1989;148:833-57.
Gallagher 1982 {published data only}
  • Gallagher JC, Jerpbak CM, Jee WS, Johnson KA, DeLuca HF, Riggs BL. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3: short- and long-term effects on bone and calcium metabolism in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1982;79:3325-9.
Gloth 1995 {published data only}
  • Gloth FM III, Smith CE, Hollis BW, Tobin JD. Functional improvement with vitamin D replenishment in a cohort of frail, vitamin D-deficient older people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1995;43:1269-71.
Grados 2003 {published data only}
  • Grados F, Brazier M, Kamel S, Duver S, Heurtebize N, Maamer M, et al. Effects on bone mineral density of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in elderly women with vitamin D deficiency. Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme 2003;70(3):203-8.
Grady 1991 {published data only}
  • Grady D, Halloran B, Cummings S, Leveille S, Wells L, Black D, et al. 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 and muscle strength in the elderly: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1991;73:1111-7.
Hangartner 1985 {published data only}
  • Hangartner TN, Overton TR, Harley CH, van den Berg L, Crockford PM. Skeletal challenge: an experimental study of pharmacologically induced changes in bone density in the distal radius, using gamma-ray computed tomography. Calcified Tissue International 1985;37:19-24.
Harju 1989 {published data only}
  • Harju E, Punnonen R, Tuimala R, Salmi J, Paronen I. Vitamin D and calcitonin treatment in patients with femoral neck fracture: a prospective controlled clinical study. The Journal of International Medical Research 1989;17:226-42.
Heikinheimo 1992 {published data only}
  • Harju EJ, Heikinheimo RJ, Haavisto MU, Inkovaara JA, Kaarela RH, Kataja M, et al. Prevention of bone fractures by annual intramuscular injection of ergocalciferol in the aged. British Journal of Surgery 1991;78:1145.
  • Heikinheimo RJ, Inkovaara JA, Harju EJ, Haavisto MV, Kaarela RH, Kataja JM, et al. Annual injection of vitamin D and fractures of aged bones. Calcified Tissue International 1992;51:105-10.
Honkanen 1990 {published data only}
  • Honkanen R, Alhava E, Parviainen M, Talasniemi S, Monkkonen R. The necessity and safety of calcium and vitamin D in the elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1990;38:862-6.
Hunter 2000 {published data only}
Itami 1982 {published data only}
  • Itami Y, Fujita T, Inoue T, Orimo H, Matsuno S, Matsui S, et al. [Effect of alphacalcidol on osteoporosis - a multicentre double-blind study]. [Japanese]. Igaku No Ayumi - Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 1982;123:958-73.
Iwamoto 1999 {published data only}
  • Iwamoto I, Kosha S, Noguchi S, Murakami M, Fujino T, Douchi T, et al. A longitudinal study of the effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women a comparative study with vitamin D3 and estrogen-progestin therapy. Maturitas 1999;31:161-4.
Iwamoto 2000 {published data only}
  • Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effect of combined administration of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Journal of Orthopaedic Science 2000;5:546-51.
Jensen 1982 {published data only}
  • Jensen C, Holloway L, Block G, Spiller G, Gildengorin G, Gunderson E, et al. Long-term effects of nutrient intervention on markers of bone remodeling and calciotropic hormones in late-postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;75:1114-20. [MEDLINE: 12036821]
  • Jensen GF, Christiansen C, Transbol I. Treatment of post menopausal osteoporosis. A controlled therapeutic trial comparing oestrogen/gestagen, 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 and calcium. Clinical Endocrinology 1982;16:515-24.
Jensen 1985 {published data only}
  • Jensen GF, Meinecke B, Boesen J, Transbol I. Does 1,25(OH)2D3 accelerate spinal bone loss? A controlled therapeutic trial in 70-year old women. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 1985;(192):215-21.
Johnell 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Johnell O. Personal communication 9 September 2004.
  • Johnell O, Billsten M, Sernbo I, Rodine I, Ornstein E. Vitamin D treatment best for the frailest to prevent hip fractures? A prospective controlled clinical trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2002;16(Suppl 1):S180.
Johnson 1980 {published data only}
Keane 1998 {published data only}
Kenny 2003 {published data only}
Krieg 1999 {published data only}
  • Krieg MA, Jacquet AF, Bremgartner M, Cuttelod S, Thiebaud D, Burckhardt P. Effect of supplementation with vitamin D3 and calcium on quantitative ultrasound of bone in elderly institutionalized women: a longitudinal study. Osteoporosis International 1999;9(6):483-8.
Larsen 2004 {published data only}
  • Larsen ER, Mosekilde L, Foldspang A. Determinants of acceptance of a community-based program for the prevention of falls and fractures among the elderly. Preventive Medicine 2001;33(2 Pt 1):115-9.
  • Larsen ER, Mosekilde L, Foldspang A. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation prevents osteoporotic fractures in elderly community dwelling residents: a pragmatic population-based 3-year intervention study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004;19(3):370-8.
  • Larsen ER, Mosekilde L, Foldspang A. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation prevents severe falls in elderly community-dwelling women: a pragmatic population-based 3-year intervention study. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 2005;17(2):125-32.
  • Larsen ER, Mosekilde L, Foldspang A. Vitamin D and calcium treatment and environmental adjustment in the prevention of falls and osteoporotic fractures among elderly Danish community residents. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2002;17(Suppl 1):S157.
Latham 2003 {published data only}
Meier 2004 {published data only}
Moschonis 2006 {published data only}
  • Moschonis G, Manios Y. Skeletal site-dependent response of bone mineral density and quantitative ultrasound parameters following a 12-month dietary intervention using dairy products fortified with calcium and vitamin D: the Postmenopausal Health Study. British Journal of Nutrition 2006;96(6):1140-8.
Nordin 1985 {published data only}
  • Nordin BE, Baker MR, Horsman A, Peacock M. A prospective trial of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on metacarpal bone loss in elderly women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1985;42:470-4.
Ongphiphadhanakul 2000 {published data only}
  • Ongphiphadhanakul B, Piaseu N, Sae Tung S, Chailurkit L, Rajatanavin R. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss by low and conventional doses of calcitriol or conjugated equine estrogen. Maturitas 2000;34:179-84.
Ooms 1995 {published data only}
  • Ooms ME, Poos JC, Bezemer PD, van der Vijgh WJ, Bouter LM, Lips P. Prevention of bone loss by vitamin D supplementation in elderly women: a randomized double blind trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1995;80:1052-8.
Orimo 2011 {published data only}
  • Orimo H, Nakamura T, Fukunaga M, Ohta H, Hosoi T, Uemura Y, et al. Effects of alendronate plus alfacalcidol in osteoporosis patients with a high risk of fracture: the Japanese Osteoporosis Intervention Trial (JOINT) - 02. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2011;27(6):1273-84.
Orwoll 1989 {published data only}
  • Orwoll ES, McClung MR, Oviatt SK, Recker RR, Weigel RM. Histomorphometric effects of calcium or calcium plus 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 therapy in senile osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1989;4:81-8.
Patel 2001 {published data only}
  • Patel R, Collins D, Bullock S, Swaminathan R, Blake GM, Fogelman I. The effect of season and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in healthy women: a double-masked crossover study. Osteoporosis International 2001;12:319-25.
  • Patel R, Collins D, Bullock S, Swaminathan R, Blake GM, Fogelman I. The effect of season and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density: a double-blind crossover study. Osteoporosis International 2000;11(Suppl 1):S28.
  • Patel R, Collins D, Swaminathan R, Blake GM, Fogelman I. The effect of season and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density: a double-blind cross-over study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2000;15(Suppl):S315.
Pedrosa 2006 {published data only}
  • Pedrosa MA, Moreira LD, Barros ER, Kunii I, Lazaretti-Castro M. Cholecalciferol supplementation reverts 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) insufficiency and increases lower limb muscle strength (LLMS) in elderly people living in long-stay geriatric care (LSC). Osteoporosis International 2006;17(Suppl 2):S229-30.
Riera 2003 {published data only}
  • Naressi M, Riera G, Ramos J, Marcano L. Bone markers and bone mineral density after two years treatment with alfacalcidol in high remodeling postmenopausal women with low mineral density. Osteoporosis International 2004;15(1 Suppl):S100.
  • Riera GS, Naressi M, Velasquez G, Ramos J, Herrera B. Randomized double blind twelve months study of 1mcg/day of alphacalcidol vs placebo in high bone turnover postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2002;17(Suppl 1):S276-7.
  • Riera-Espinoza G, Naressi M, Velasquez G, Ramos J, Herrera B. Randomized double blind 12 months study of 1mcg/day of alphacalcidol vs placebo in high bone turnover postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone 2003;5(Suppl 1):S226.
Riis 1986 {published data only}
Shiraki 1985 {published data only}
  • Shiraki M, Orimo H, Ito H, Akiguchi I, Nakao J, Takahashi R, et al. Long-term treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with active vitamin D3, 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1 alpha-OHD3) and 1, 24 Dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,24(OH)2D3). Endocrinologia Japonica 1985;32:305-15.
Shiraki 2004 {published data only}
  • Shiraki M, Fukuchi M, Kiriyama T, Okamoto S, Ueno T, Sakamoto H, et al. Alfacalcidol reduces accelerated bone turnover in elderly women with osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 2004;22:352-9.
Son 2001 {published data only}
  • Son SM, Chun YN. Effect of oral therapy with alphacalcidol or calcium in Korean elderly women with osteopenia and low dietary calcium. Nutrition Research 2001;21:1347-55.
Sorensen 1977 {published data only}
Sosa 2000 {published data only}
Thomsen 1986 {published data only}
  • Thomsen K, Riis B, Christiansen C. Effect of estrogen/gestagen and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy on bone formation in postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1986;1:503-7.
Ushiroyama 1995 {published data only}
  • Ushiroyama T, Okamura S, Ikeda A, Ueki M. Efficacy of ipriflavone and 1-alpha vitamin D therapy for cessation of vertebral bone loss. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1995;48:283-8.
Ushiroyama 2002 {published data only}
  • Ushiroyama T, Ikeda A, Ueki M. Effect of continuous combined therapy with vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on bone mineral density and coagulofibrinolysis function in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 2002;41:211-21.
Zhu 2006 {published data only}
  • Zhu K, Dick I, Devine A, Bruce D, Prince RL. An RCT of vitamin D or placebo on falls in elderly women with low vitamin D status and a falling history. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2006;21(Suppl 1):S60.
  • Zhu K, Dick L, Devine A, Bruce D, Prince RL. An RCT of the effects of ergocalciferol and calcium on PTH and bone structure in elderly women with low vitamin D status. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2006;21(Suppl 1):S308.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Bischoff-Ferrari 2010a {published data only}
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Lappe 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lappe J. Personal communication 10 September 2007.
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  • Lappe JM, Davies KM, Travers-Gustafson D, Heaney RP. Vitamin D status in a rural postmenopausal female population. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2006;25(5):395-402.
  • Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Barger-Lux MJ, Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR. Population-based evidence that serum 25(OH)D levels below 80nmol/L reflect vitamin D deficiency [abstract]. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2005;20(Suppl 1):S379.
  • Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies KM, Recker RR, Heaney RP. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;85(6):1586-91.
  • Zhao L-J, Zhou Y, Bu F, Travers-Gustafson D, Ye A, Xu X, et al. Factors predicting vitamin D response variation in non-Hispanic white postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2012;97(8):2699-705.
  • Zhou J, Zhao L-J, Watson P, Zhang Q, Lappe JM. The effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on obesity in postmenopausal women: secondary analysis for a large-scale placebo controlled, double-blind, 4-year longitudinal trial. Nutrition and Metabolism 2010;7:62.
Nuti 2006 {published data only}
  • Nuti R, Bianchi G, Brandi ML, Caudarella R, D'Erasmo E, Fiore C, et al. Efficacy and safety of alfacalcidol compared to vitamin D plus calcium in post menopausal osteoporosis [abstract]. Osteoporosis International 2005;16(Suppl 3):S75-6.
  • Nuti R, Bianchi G, Brandi ML, Caudarella R, D'Erasmo E, Fiore C, et al. Superiority of alfacalcidol compared to vitamin D plus calcium in lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rheumatology International 2006;26(5):445-53.
Orimo 1987 {published data only}
  • Orimo H, Shiraki M, Hayashi T, Nakamura T. Reduced occurrence of vertebral crush fractures in senile osteoporosis treated with 1 alpha (OH)-vitamin D3. Bone and Mineral 1987;3:47-52.
Papaioannou 2011 {published data only}
  • Papaioannou A, Kennedy CC, Giangregorio L, Ioannidis G, Pritchard J, Hanley DA, et al. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D dosing strategies after acute hip fracture: no advantage of loading doses over daily supplementation. BMC Muscloskeletal Disorders 2011;12:135.
Petkakov 1995 {published data only}
  • Petkakov M, Popovic V, Milic D, Damjanovic S, Manojlovic D, Micic J. Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with 1-alpha(OH)D3 [Lecenje postmenopauzne osteoporoze sintetskim analogom vitamina de-tri]. Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo 1995;123(7-8):171-3.
Sato 1997 {published data only}
  • Sato Y, Maruoka H, Oizumi K. Amelioration of hemiplegia-associated stroke osteopenia more than four years after stroke by 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcium supplementation. Stroke 1997;28:736-9.
Sato 1999a {published data only}
  • Sato Y, Manabe S, Kuno H, Oizumi K. Amelioration of osteopenia and hypovitaminosis D by 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1999;66:64-8.
Sato 1999b {published data only}
  • Sato S, Kuno H, Kaji M, Saruwatari N, Oizumi K. Effect of ipriflavone on bone in elderly hemiplegic stroke patients with hypovitaminosis D. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1999;78:457-63.
Sato 2005 {published data only}
  • Sato Y, Iwamoto J, Kanoko T, Satoh K. Low-dose vitamin D prevents muscular atrophy and reduces falls and hip fractures in women after stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2005;20(3):187-92.
TIDE 2012 {published data only}
Wood 2012 {published data only}
  • Wood AD, Secombes KR, Thies F, Aucott L, Black AJ, Mavroeidi A, et al. Vitamin D3 supplementation has no effect on conventional cardiovascular risk factors: a parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2012;97:3557-68.
Xia 2009 {published data only}
  • Xia W-B, Zhang Z-L, Wang H-F, Meng X-W, Zhang Y, Zhu G-Y, et al. The efficacy and safety of calcitriol and/or Caltrate D in elderly Chinese women with low bone mass. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 2009;30(3):372-8.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
ANVITAD {published data only}
  • Lopez-Torres Hidalgo J, ANVITAD Group. Prevention of falls and fractures in old people by administration of calcium and vitamin D. Randomized clinical trial. BMC Public Health 2011;11:910.
REVITAHIP {published data only}
  • Mak J. Replenishment of Vitamin D in Hip fractured Patients (REVITAHIP) Trial. http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/trial.aspx?trialid=ACTRN12610000392066 (accessed 27 March 2012).
  • Mak JC, Cameron ID, Mason RS, Klein L, Soong M, Ohn K. Improving mobility and reducing disability in older people through early high-dose vitamin D replacement following hip fracture (the REVITAHIP trial): preliminary results. Osteoporosis International 2011;22(Suppl 4):S586-7.

Additional references

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Abrahamsen 2013
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Autier 2007
Avenell 2009a
Bacon 2009
Bergman 2010
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Binkley 2011
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Bischoff-Ferrari 2009b
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Bischoff-Ferrari 2010
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Bjelakovic 2014
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Lai 2010
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Lips 1999
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Murad 2011
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Murad 2012
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Nevitt 1998
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O'Donnell 2008
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Pieper 2007
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Rejnmark 2012
  • Rejnmark L, Avenell A, Masud T, Anderson F, Meyer HE, Sanders KM, et al. Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality: patient level pooled analysis of 70,528 patients from eight major vitamin D trials. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2012;97:2670-81.
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Avenell 2005
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Avenell 2009b
Gillespie 1996
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Gillespie 2000
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Gillespie 2001
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