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Insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains for preventing malaria

  1. Christian Lengeler*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group

Published Online: 19 APR 2004

Assessed as up-to-date: 18 JAN 2004

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000363.pub2


How to Cite

Lengeler C. Insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD000363. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000363.pub2.

Author Information

  1. Swiss Tropical Institute, Public Health and Epidemiology, Basel, Switzerland

*Christian Lengeler, Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, 4002, Switzerland. Christian.Lengeler@unibas.ch.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 19 APR 2004

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Background

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms

Malaria remains a major public health problem. Global estimates of the malaria disease burden for 2000 indicated that there were at least 300 to 500 million clinical cases annually, of which 90% occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, around one million deaths are related to malaria every year, of which an overwhelming proportion occurs in Africa (WHO 1997; WHO 2003). In Africa, malaria accounts for an estimated 25% of all childhood mortality below age five, excluding neonatal mortality (WHO 2003). Recent studies suggest that this percentage might even be higher because of the contribution of malaria as indirect cause of death (Alonso 1991; Molineaux 1997). In addition, it might be more of a problem in adults than thought previously, as suggested by the high proportion of adults dying of "acute febrile illness" in Tanzania (Kitange 1996). In Africa, malaria is the primary cause of disease burden measured by disability-adjusted life years (WHO 2003; World Bank 1993). In countries outside the African continent, malaria appears to be an increasing problem; for example, in India malaria is making a comeback after decades of effective control. Malaria places an enormous economic burden on affected countries and has a highly detrimental effect on economic and social development.

In 1992, the World Health Organization convened a ministerial conference in Amsterdam to give a new impetus to control activities. While the consensus at this meeting was that prompt access to diagnosis and treatment remained the mainstay of malaria control, there was a renewed emphasis on preventive measures, both at the community and at the individual level (WHO 1993). The most promising preventive measures mentioned were insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains, collectively known as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). In 1998, the main international health agencies launched an ambitious partnership, Roll Back Malaria, to tackle the global malaria issue. The wide-scale implementation of ITNs is now one of the four main strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality from malaria (WHO 2003), with a target set by African Heads of State to protect 60% of all pregnant women and children by 2005. As a result, many large-scale programmes have taken off during the last few years.

 

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs)

Using mosquito nets as a protection against nuisance insects was practiced in historical times (Lindsay 1988). During World War II, Russian, German, and US armies treated bed nets and combat fatigues with residual insecticide to protect soldiers against vector-borne diseases (mainly malaria and leishmaniasis) (Curtis 1991). In the late 1970s, entomologists started using synthetic pyrethroids: their high insecticidal activity and low mammalian toxicity made them ideal for this purpose.

In the 1980s, studies of ITNs showed that pyrethroids were safe and that ITNs had an impact on various measures of mosquito biting (such as the proportion of mosquitoes successfully feeding on humans and the number of times a mosquito bit humans in one night). These studies showed that pyrethroids worked by both repelling and killing mosquitoes. In addition, researchers determined optimal doses of various insecticides with different materials (Curtis 1991; Curtis 1992a; Curtis 1996; Lines 1996; Rozendaal 1989a). The cost-effectiveness of ITNs has also been demonstrated (Goodman 1999; Hanson 2003).

Given the part played by Plasmodium falciparum malaria as a direct and indirect cause of death in African children, the main public health question for ITNs is whether they reduce mortality in children. One observational study of impregnated bed nets in The Gambia reported a 42% reduction in all mortality in children aged 1 to 59 months in 1991 (Alonso 1991). This dramatic result from the first mortality trial prompted the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) to collaborate with around 20 agencies to launch four additional large-scale trials to measure the impact of ITNs on overall child mortality in different endemic areas of Africa (Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Ghana, and Kenya). Since this time, several trials have been conducted including a large-scale trial completed in 2000 in Western Kenya in an area of high perennial transmission.

 

Objectives

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms

To assess the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets or curtains on mortality, malarial illness (life-threatening and mild), malaria parasitaemia, anaemia, and spleen rates.

 

Hypotheses

Any effect of ITNs compared to routine antimalarial control measures in reducing malaria-specific and all-cause morbidity and mortality will be:

  • less in areas with high entomological inoculation rates (ie stable malarious areas with > 1 infective bite per year) compared to areas with low inoculation rates (unstable malaria with < 1 infective bite per year);
  • less when the population under study already uses untreated bed nets regularly before the start of the trial (coverage of untreated nets by household at least 40%).

The original protocol aimed to explore whether the impact of ITNs on all-cause mortality is greater in areas where access to treatment for malarial illness is limited. However, I could not investigate this because the relevant measures of treatment access were not available.

 

Methods

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms
 

Criteria for considering studies for this review

 

Types of studies

Individual and cluster randomized controlled trials.

 

Types of participants

  • Children and adults living in rural and urban malarious areas.
  • Excluded: trials dealing only with pregnant women, because they are reviewed elsewhere (seeGamble 2006); and trials examining the impact of ITNs among soldiers or travellers, because they are not representative of the general population.

 

Types of interventions

Bed nets or curtains treated with a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide at a minimum target impregnation dose of:

  • 200 mg/m2 permethrin or etofenprox;
  • 30 mg/m2 cyfluthrin;
  • 20 mg/m2 alphacypermethrin;
  • 10 mg/m2 deltamethrin/lambdacyhalothrin.

No distinction was made between insecticide-treated bed nets and door/window/eave/wall curtains, which were assumed to have approximately the same impact.

Recently, other types of materials such as wall curtains, blankets, sheets, and veils have also been treated and assessed. However, these are excluded from the review because they are difficult to compare to treated mosquito nets and curtains for which many more studies are available; they are listed in the 'Characteristic of excluded trials'.

 

Types of outcome measures

  • Child mortality from all causes: measured using protective efficacy and rate difference.

  • Malaria specific child mortality: measured using "verbal autopsy" reports that fulfil standard clinical criteria for a probable malaria death (Snow 1992; Todd 1994).

  • Severe disease: measured using site-specific definitions, which were based on the World Health Organization guidelines (WHO 1990) and on Marsh 1995. The definition included P. falciparum parasitaemia. Cerebral malaria was defined as coma or prostration and/or multiple seizures. The cut-off for severe, life-threatening anaemia was set at 5.1g/litre (WHO 1990).

  • Uncomplicated clinical episodes: measured using site-specific definitions, including measured or reported fever, with or without parasitological confirmation. Measurements were usually done in the frame of prospective longitudinal studies, but I also considered trials using validated retrospective assessments in the frame of cross-sectional surveys. In areas with entomological inoculation rates below 1 (unstable malaria), I considered P. falciparum and P. vivax episodes separately.

  • Parasite prevalence: parasite prevalence due to P. falciparum and P. vivax was obtained using the site-specific method for estimating parasitaemia − usually thick and/or thin blood smears. When more than one survey was done, the reported prevalence result is the average prevalence of all the surveys.

  • High parasitaemia: measured using site-specific definitions of high parasitaemia, provided the cut-off value between high and low was determined prior to data analysis.

  • Anaemia: expressed in mean packed cell volume (PCV); it is equivalent to the percentage haematocrit. Results given in g/decilitre were converted with a standard factor of 3:1, that is, 1 g/decilitre equals 3% PCV (Wallach 1986).

  • Splenomegaly: measured in all trials using the Hackett scale.

  • Anthropometric measures: standard anthropological measures (weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, skinfold thickness, or mid-upper arm circumference) and the impact of ITNs on them.

 

Search methods for identification of studies

I attempted to identify all relevant trials regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, and in progress).

I searched the following databases using the search terms and strategy described in Appendix 1: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group's trials register (January 2003); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2003); MEDLINE (1966 to October 2003); EMBASE (1974 to November 2002); and LILACS (1982 to January 2003).

 

Handsearching

I handsearched some foreign language tropical medicine journals (Bulletin OCEAC, Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, Médecine Tropicale, Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo) for the period 1980 to 1997.

 

Researchers, organizations, and pharmaceutical companies

I contacted many researchers actively involved in the field of ITNs and asked about unpublished past or ongoing work.

I contacted the following agencies, which have funded ITN trials, for unpublished and ongoing trials: UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR); International Development Research Center (IDRC), Canada; The Department for International Development, UK; and The European Union Directorate-General XII.

I contacted the following manufacturers of pyrethroids used for treating netting for unpublished and ongoing trials: AgrEvo (now part of Bayer); Bayer; Cyanamid; Mitsui; Sumitomo; and Zeneca (now part of Syngenta).

 

Reference lists

I consulted the following reviews: Abdulla 1995; Bermejo 1992; Carnevale 1991; Cattani 1997; Choi 1995; Curtis 1992b; Molineaux 1994; Rozendaal 1989a; Sexton 1994; Voorham 1997; WHO 1989; Xu 1988; Yadav 1997; and Zimmerman 1997.

I consulted the following books dealing with ITNs: 'Control of disease vectors in the community' (Curtis 1991); 'Malaria: waiting for the vaccine' (Targett 1991); and 'Net Gain, a new method for preventing malaria deaths' (Lengeler 1996a; Lengeler 1997a).

I also checked the reference lists of all trials identified by the above methods.

 

Data collection and analysis

 

Selection of studies

The reviewer and two independent assessors experienced in trial epidemiology (Dr Gerd Antes and Dr Daniel Galandi, German Cochrane Centre) applied the inclusion criteria to all identified trials and reached agreement by consensus.

 

Data extraction and management

I used standard forms to extract the following descriptive data.

  • Trial location.
  • Duration and type of intervention.
  • Randomization procedure.
  • Type of control group.
  • Co-interventions.
  • Age and gender of participants.
  • Percentage of target group protected by ITNs and untreated nets.
  • Malarial endemicity (as defined by the entomological inoculation rate: the number of times on average a person living in the area receives an infected mosquito bite per year).
  • Species and proportion of Plasmodium parasites.
  • Main vectors.

When these data were not given in the primary trial reference, I used secondary sources and included the references.

 

Assessment of risk of bias in included studies

I assessed the risk of bias in the included trials using generation of allocation sequence, allocation concealment, inclusion of all randomized participants, and blinding, as described in Appendix 2.

 

Data synthesis

I entered data as numerators and denominators for all dichotomous outcomes. For continuous variables, I entered data as the number of participants, mean, and standard deviation.

I used EasyMA 2001 and Review Manager 4.2.2 to calculate the risk ratio, relative rate, rate difference, summary risk ratio/relative rate, summary mean difference, and for testing the homogeneity between trials (using a chi-squared (chi2) test). Both software packages provided similar results for all outcomes.

I considered only crude rate or risk ratios, that is, not adjusted for any co-variates. If only adjusted rates were given in a reference, I attempted to contact the authors to provide the crude rates/risks.

Many trials in the area of vector control interventions are randomized by cluster. While the actual rate/risk ratio is not affected by cluster allocation, the confidence interval (CI) has to be adjusted (made wider) to take into account the inter-cluster variability. This problem has been reviewed by several authors (Bennett 2002; Donner 1993; Donner 1994; Hayes 2000; Klar 1995). This presented me with the problem of interpreting the statistical significance of trials that had not corrected for design effects in their calculations of confidence intervals, and how to obtain accurate confidence intervals when combining data between such trials. For the child mortality from all causes outcome, corrected confidence intervals were available, and I used the generic inverse variance method available in Review Manager 4.2 to combine cluster randomized controlled trials and obtain corrected confidence intervals. Unfortunately, corrected confidence intervals or standard errors were not available for all trials for the other outcomes. Because of this, I have presented summary risk ratios without confidence intervals and in tables, rather than with meta-analysis figures.

For parasite prevalence, I calculated an average denominator from all the surveys and chose the appropriate numerator to fit the average prevalence and average denominator. I selected this procedure in order not to inflate the denominator artificially by adding up the participants from repeated surveys. This procedure gives more weight to larger trials doing only one survey rather than smaller trials doing multiple surveys.

I performed a limited number of additional analyses with the mortality data. I used Epi Info 2002 to perform linear regressions in order to test for trends in the mortality outcomes as a result of transmission intensity. Mortality was measured using protective efficacy and rate difference. Protective efficacy is based on the risk ratio or relative rate. The protective efficacy (PE) is calculated as PE = (1 - risk ratio or relative rate) x 100. Rate difference estimates directly how many child deaths can be avoided through the use of the intervention (in this case deaths per 1000 children protected per year). I only calculated rate difference for mortality from all causes since it was the only measure for which similar incidence measures were used in all trials.

 

Comparisons

I pre-specified two comparisons: trials in which the control group did not have a net at all; and trials in which the control group had untreated bed nets or curtain; and pre-specified one stratified analysis: entomological inoculation rate above or below one (stable versus unstable malaria).

 

Results

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms
 

Description of studies

See: Characteristics of included studies; Characteristics of excluded studies.

 

Study selection

I identified 113 potentially relevant studies. Of these I excluded 32 published studies without further analysis (and did not include in the 'Characteristics of excluded studies') for the following reasons:

I identified the remaining 81 trials (including 10 (12%) unpublished trials) through the following sources.

  • Electronic sources and manual search of references: 57 (70%).
  • Handsearch of journals in non-English language journals: 4 (5%).
  • Books and reviews: 2 (3%).
  • Insecticide manufacturers: 12 (15%).
  • Personal contacts with authors and internet search: 6 (7%).

Of these, 59 trials were excluded: 55 because they were not randomized (in two, allocation was achieved "by chance"); 2 because they used materials other than bed nets or curtains (such as wall curtains or blankets); and 2 because they were not adequately controlled (before and after assessments). I have provided the reasons for excluding them in the 'Characteristics of excluded studies'.

The remaining 22 trials, including 1 trial that is currently unpublished, met the inclusion criteria for this review. These trials are described below (see the 'Characteristics of included studies' for details).

 

Trial design and location

Fourteen of the included trials were cluster RCTs (by villages, blocks of villages, zones within one village), and 8 were individual RCTs (6 by household and 2 by individuals) (Appendix 2). The eight individual randomized controlled trials were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis.

Thirteen trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, 5 in Latin America, 2 in Thailand, 1 in Pakistan, and 1 in Iran. Thus 13 trials were carried out in areas of stable endemicity areas, and 9 in areas of unstable endemicity.

 

Participants

Trials included either the whole population of selected areas (typically in low endemicity areas) or specific age groups (typically children in high endemicity areas), and gender ratios were well balanced (range of male:female ratio: 0.8 to 1.2).

 

Interventions

Nineteen trials examined the impact of treated bed nets, while two examined the impact of treated curtains. One trial compared treated nets, treated curtains, and no bed nets or curtains (Kenya (Sexton)). In some trials the intervention consisted of treating existing nets with an insecticide ('treatment of nets') while in other trials the investigators provided treated mosquito nets or curtains to the population ('treated nets' and 'treated curtains'). Most nets or curtains were treated with permethrin (200 (n = 3), 500 mg (n = 10), or 1000 mg/m2 (n = 1)). The remaining nets or curtains were treated with lambdacyhalothrin (10 to 30 mg/m2, n = 4), deltamethrin (25 mg/m2 (n = 2), or cyfulthrin (40 mg/m2, n =1). One study used lambdacyhalothrin (10 mg/m2) for the first year and permethrin (500 mg/m2) for the second year (Peru Coast (Kroeger)).

Half of the trials did not use bed nets or curtains as the control group, and other 11 trials used untreated nets or curtains. The usage rate of the untreated nets was high (> 80%), except in Gambia (D'Alessandro), in which it varied between 50% and 90% (according to the area) in both the intervention and control groups, and in Peru Coast (Kroeger) in which it was 63%; no usage rate provided for Madagascar (Rabarison).

 

Outcomes

The five trials that examined child mortality from all causes as an outcome were conducted in highly malaria endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. No trial presented results for all the possible outcomes, and the majority of trials presented two to five different outcomes (see Appendix 2).

 

Risk of bias in included studies

See Figure 1 for a summary of the risk of bias in the included trials.

 FigureFigure 1. Methodological quality (risk of bias) in included trials.

 

Generation of allocation sequence

Generation of the allocation sequences used random number tables or an equivalent method in 9 trials (graded 'A'); randomization was mentioned without details in 13 trials (graded 'B').

 

Allocation concealment

Allocation was concealed in 16 trials (graded 'A') and was not reported on in the remaining 6 (graded 'B').

 

Inclusion of all randomized participants

In 16 trials losses to follow up were less than 10%, and in 6 trials they were not reported but likely to be below 10%.

 

Blinding

Four trials blinded the investigator and the trial participants to impregnation, and they did this by using dummy preparations for dipping the nets.

 

Effects of interventions

 

Child mortality from all causes

Five cluster randomized controlled trials examined child mortality from all causes (Appendix 3). They were all conducted in areas with stable malaria in sub-Saharan Africa: (Burkina Faso (Habluetzel); Gambia (D'Alessandro); Ghana (Binka); Kenya (Nevill); Kenya (Phillips-Howard)). Four of the trials did not use any nets as the control group, and one trial used untreated nets. Both the relative and the absolute impact were analysed.

 

Relative rate

When the five trials were pooled regardless of the type of control group, the summary relative rate was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76 to 0.89;  Analysis 1.1), giving a summary protective efficacy of 18%. The chi2 test for heterogeneity was not statistically significant (chi2 = 1.53, degrees of freedom = 4, P = 0.82).

 

Protective efficacy

A regression analysis of the protective efficacy (ln) on the transmission intensity (as measured by the entomological inoculation rate: 10 Gambia (D'Alessandro), 30 Kenya (Nevill), 300 Ghana (Binka), 300 Kenya (Phillips-Howard), 500 Burkina Faso (Habluetzel)) was statistically significant at the 5% level (r2 = 0.88, F = 22.1 on 1,3 degrees of freedom, P = 0.05). The protective efficacy appeared to be lower in areas with a higher entomological inoculation rate, consistent with the hypothesis that relative impact is lower in areas with higher entomological inoculation rates.

 

Rate difference

It was possible to summarize the rate difference because the trials used similar methods and a similar denominator for their rate calculations (person-years at risk). Each trial corrected the confidence limits in their analysis to take into account cluster allocation (see Appendix 3). Four trials showed a statistically significant effect, and the direction of effect in the fifth trial favoured treated nets.

The summary rate difference, which expresses how many lives can be saved for every 1000 children protected, was 5.53 deaths averted per 1000 children protected per year (95% CI 3.39 to 7.67;  Analysis 1.2). I performed a regression analysis of the natural logarithm of the rate difference on the entomological inoculation rate and could not find a trend (r2 = 0.52, F = 3.2 on 1,3 degrees of freedom, P = 0.2). In contrast to protective efficacies, the risk differences seemed to have a tendency towards a higher effect with a higher entomological inoculation rate. This apparent paradox is because the baseline mortality rates are higher in areas with high entomological inoculation rates.

 

Stratified by type of control group

There was a small non-statistically significant difference in the summary results of protective efficacy in the two comparisons − controls with no nets versus controls with untreated nets: 17% versus 23% reduction in mortality. The summary rate differences in the two comparison groups were virtually identical (5.5 versus 5.6 averted deaths per 1000 per year).

 
Controls without nets (4 trials)

The summary rate ratio was 0.83 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.90;  Analysis 1.1), or a protective efficacy of 17%. In other words, overall mortality was reduced by 17% among children aged 1 to 59 months. The chi2 test for heterogeneity was not statistically significant (chi2 = 1.14, degrees of freedom = 3, P = 0.77).

The risk difference was 5.52 per 1000 protected children per year (95% CI 3.16 to 7.88;  Analysis 1.2).

 
Controls with untreated nets (1 trial)

The summary rate ratio was 0.77 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.95;  Analysis 1.1), or a protective efficacy of 23%. The risk difference was 5.60 deaths per 1000 protected children per year (95% CI 0.50 to 10.70;  Analysis 1.2).

 

Malaria-specific child mortality

The impact of ITNs on malaria-specific death rates was looked at only briefly because of the problems using verbal autopsies in determining malaria deaths. In the two trials for which the data were available, the percentage reduction in malaria-specific mortality was similar or smaller than the percentage reduction in all-cause mortality: 14% (versus 23%) for Gambia (D'Alessandro), and 22% (versus 18%) for Ghana (Binka). One interpretation is that malaria-specific death rates were not reflecting the true impact of ITNs on mortality (since a much higher specific impact would have been expected).

 

Severe disease

Only one trial examined severe malarial disease as an outcome Kenya (Nevill). The trial used passive and hospital-based case ascertainment, and observed a 45% (cluster-adjusted 95% CI 20 to 63) reduction in the frequency of severe malaria episodes following the introduction of ITNs (Appendix 4).

 

Uncomplicated clinical episodes

The trial results are available in Appendix 5 for no nets controls and in Appendix 6 for untreated nets controls. A summary of the main findings for protective efficacies is available in Appendix 7; confidence intervals were not calculated as this analysis includes both cluster and individually randomized controlled trials. No risk or rate differences were calculated because the denominators were not uniform and the sensitivity of the reporting systems of the different trials is likely to have varied considerably. Three findings can be highlighted.

  • The effect of ITNs on uncomplicated clinical episodes of malaria is shown by large effect estimates in all trials. Overall, the reduction in clinical episodes was around 50% for all subgroups (stable and unstable malaria; no nets and untreated nets) and for both P. falciparum and P. vivax.
  • The protective efficacy is higher (at least 11% for P. falciparum) when the control group had no nets. This was expected and it was the reason to create two separate comparisons. In areas with stable malaria (entomological inoculation rate > 1) the differences in protective efficacies against uncomplicated malaria was 11% (50% no nets versus 39% untreated nets). In areas with unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1), the differences were bigger: 23% (62% no nets versus 39% untreated nets) for P. falciparum, and 41% (52% no nets versus 11% untreated nets) for P. vivax.
  • In areas of unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1), the impact against P. falciparum episodes seemed to be higher than the impact against P. vivax episodes.

 

Parasite prevalence

The results are available in Appendix 8 for no nets and in Appendix 9 for untreated nets controls. The results for both groups are summarized in Appendix 10; confidence intervals were not calculated as this analysis includes both cluster and individually randomized controlled trials. Two points can be highlighted from these results.

  • In areas of stable malaria, impact on prevalence of infection (measured through cross-sectional surveys) was small: 13% reduction when the control group did not have any nets and 10% reduction when the control group had untreated nets.
  • In areas with unstable malaria, the results are of limited value because there was only a single trial in each subgroup (treated versus no nets; and treated versus untreated nets).

 

High parasitaemia

The results are shown in Appendix 11 for no nets and Appendix 12 for untreated nets controls. This outcome was only assessed for trials in areas of stable malaria, where parasitaemia does not necessarily lead to a clinical episode, and where parasitaemia cut-offs are useful to define disease episodes. Five trials measured this outcome: four used 5000 trophozoites/ml as the cut-off, while the fifth trial used an age-specific cut-off (Kenya (Phillips-Howard)). The protective efficacy was 29% for the two trials in which the control group did not have nets, and was 20% for the three trials in which controls had untreated nets.

 

Anaemia

The nine trials that measured anaemia were conducted in areas of stable malaria; six trials compared treated to untreated nets (Appendix 13), and three trials compared treated nets to untreated nets (Appendix 14).

Overall, the packed cell volume of children in the ITN group was higher by 1.7 absolute packed cell volume per cent compared to children not using nets. When the control group used untreated nets, the difference was 0.4 absolute packed cell volume per cent.

 

Splenomegaly

Prevalence of splenomegaly was defined as the prevalence rate of children with at least a degree '1' of spleen enlargement on the Hackett's scale. Together with overall mortality it was the only outcome to be properly standardized between the sites (although inter-observer variability can be substantial).

Four out of the five trials that measured splenomegaly were carried out in areas with stable malaria (Appendix 15 and Appendix 16). Because the exception was one trial carried out in Thailand whose weight is very small (only 2.6% in the relevant comparison) (Thailand (Luxemberger)), I did not carry out a subgroup analysis.

Splenomegaly was significantly reduced for both types of controls: there is a 30% protective efficacy when controls were not using nets, and a 23% protective efficacy when the control group used untreated nets.

 

Anthropometric measures

Three trials carried out with ITNs have demonstrated a positive impact on anthropological measurements in children sleeping under treated nets.

In The Gambia (Gambia (D'Alessandro)), mean z-scores of weight-for-age and weight-for-height were higher in children from treated villages (-1.36 and -0.98, respectively) than in those from untreated villages (-1.46 and -1.13, respectively). The differences were statistically significant after adjustment for area, age, differential bed net use, and gender (P = 0.008 and P = 0.001, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in mean z-scores for height-for-age.

In the trial carried out in Kenya (Kenya (Nevill)), infants sleeping under ITNs in the intervention areas had statistically significantly higher z-scores for weight-for-age than control infants not under treated nets (analysis of variance allowing for season, gender, and age: F = 21.63, P = 0.03). Mean mid-upper arm circumference z-scores were also statistically significantly higher among infants in the intervention communities (analysis of variance allowing for survey, gender, and age: F = 19.0, P = 0.005) (Snow 1997).

In Kenya (Kenya (Phillips-Howard)), protected children under two years of age had a statistically significantly better weight-for-age z-score than unprotected children (P < 0.04). No other statistically significant differences were measured for other parameters or other age groups, although all z-score differences between intervention and control groups were in favour of the protected group.

 

Discussion

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms

A large number of trials with insecticide-treated bed nets or curtains has been carried out all over the world. We identified 81 trials investigating insecticide-treated mosquito nets or curtains. The 22 trials meeting this review's inclusion criteria span 17 countries. Five of these trials measured mortality, and they showed that the use of ITNs reduces under five mortality in malaria-endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa by about a fifth.

More trials examined morbidity, and showed an impact of ITNs nets on illness, and on both P. falciparum and P. vivax infections.

 

The impact on overall mortality

The relative decrease in mortality (as given by the protective efficacy) afforded by ITNs seemed to be lower in areas with high malaria transmission (entomological inoculation rate > 100) than in areas with a lower transmission rate. However, this was not reflected in terms of absolute risk reduction: the estimated numbers of lives saved per 1000 protected children were similar in all the areas (5.5 lives saved per 1000 children protected per year). With a high coverage of treated nets over two-year period, the benefit of ITNs in terms of lives saved per unit of investment was high in the five trial areas in which overall mortality was measured as outcome.

An approximate extrapolation to the current population of children under five years of age at risk for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (14% of approximately 480 million population at risk, or 67 million children) indicates that approximately 370,000 child deaths could be avoided if every child could be protected by an ITN.

A cost-effectiveness assessment has shown that ITN programmes compare well in terms of cost-effectiveness with other child survival interventions such as the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) (Goodman 1999).

 

The impact on morbidity

The impact of ITNs on uncomplicated episodes of malaria is also marked with a halving of episodes under most transmission conditions (stable and unstable malaria). If these results are sustained in large-scale implementation, then ITN programmes could lead to substantial savings both at the healthcare level and at the household level, where the cost of disease episodes is considerable (Sauerborn 1995).

The one trial that demonstrated a substantial impact on severe malaria disease provided evidence that ITNs can have an impact on preventing severe illness and the associated high costs to both patients and healthcare providers (Kenya (Nevill)).

The finding that ITNs improve the haemoglobin level in African children by 1.7% packed cell volume also has important public health implications.

ITNs have a benefit on growth in children too, although these effects appear to be modest.

 

ITN impact in trials versus programmes

The results presented in this review are from randomized controlled trials where the intervention was deployed under highly controlled conditions, leading to high coverage and use rates. The one exception is Gambia (D'Alessandro), which was a randomized evaluation of a national ITN programme in which the intervention deployment was not as good as in the other trials. Therefore, the bulk of data in this review describe impact under ideal trial conditions (efficacy) rather than impact under large-scale programme conditions (effectiveness). While the difference between efficacy and effectiveness is likely to be small for certain medical interventions (such as vaccination or surgery), it can potentially be large for preventive interventions such as ITNs.

Some of the consequences of moving from a scientific trial towards a large-scale programme is illustrated by the results of the two mortality trials carried out in The Gambia. The first trial was carried out under well-controlled implementation conditions, with a high coverage rate in the target population (Gambia (Alonso)). Unfortunately it was not randomized and hence not included in the present analysis. The second one was the evaluation of a national impregnation programme carried out by primary health care personnel and which faced some operational problems (leading, for example, to a lower than expected insecticide dosage) and a lower coverage rate (around 60%) of the target population (Gambia (D'Alessandro)). The difference of impact between the two studies is important: the first trial achieved a total reduction in mortality of 42%, while the protective efficacy in the second trial was 23%. It is not clear whether the difference in the baseline mortality rate (42.1 versus 24.3 deaths per 1000 in the control group) played a role in this difference of impact.

Unfortunately, randomization is unlikely to be a feasible option for evaluating most programmes. Impact assessment methodology is not optimal and research is still needed in this area (Lengeler 1996b). Recently, a number of evaluations of small-scale and large-scale programmes have documented good impact on different health parameters (Abdulla 2001; D'Alessandro 1997b; McClean 2002; Rowland 1997; Schellenberg 2001). Most notably, the evaluation of a large social marketing programme in Tanzania showed a 27% improvement in survival in ITN users compared to non-users (Schellenberg 2001) and a substantial (63%) impact on anaemia in children (Abdulla 2001).

A related aspect of programme monitoring is the question of how impact varies with the coverage rate. Especially under high transmission conditions, maximum impact might well be obtained only if a certain level of coverage is achieved and if a substantial part of the mosquito population is killed as a result. Such a "mass effect" has been detected in some trials and not in others, but it is likely that if it is present the impact of ITNs will be enhanced (Lines 1992). Recently, a series of studies have clearly documented a "mass effect" on malaria morbidity (Howard 2000) and especially on child mortality (Binka 1998; Hawley 2003). In Ghana and western Kenya, children living in control areas but within a few hundred meters of an intervention cluster experienced the same reductions in mortality as children in the intervention areas. Since such a "mass effect" is very likely to occur before 100% coverage is achieved, this has potentially important consequences for equity: poorer segments of the population unable to afford an ITN might well benefit from the ITNs used by their better-off neighbours.

 

Short-term versus long-term benefits

The results from the large-scale ITN trials have re-activated a discussion that has been central in malaria control since the 1950s: does reducing exposure to malaria in areas of very high transmission intensity lead to a long-term gain in mortality or merely to a delay in the time of death? For this review, the relevant question is whether the short-term benefits of ITNs, as seen in trials lasting one to two years, will result in a long-term survival benefit of the protected children.

Different researchers have hypothesized that where malaria transmission is particularly high, the benefits of ITNs will be transitory, and that morbidity and mortality may only be postponed to an older age as a result of preventing the natural development of immunity to malaria that occurs through repeated exposure (Lines 1992; Snow 1994; Snow 1995; Snow 1997; Trape 1996). This does have obvious serious implications for decision-making, and this view has been discussed and sometimes challenged by a number of other authors (D'Alessandro 1997a; Greenwood 1997; Lengeler 1995; Lengeler 1997b; Lines 1997; Molineaux 1997; Shiff 1997; Smith 2001). Despite ongoing disagreements on this question among researchers, there is at least one point on which there is consensus: if such a delay in mortality exists it will only occur in very high transmission areas (a commonly quoted cut-off entomological inoculation rate is 100, although this is at present based on little evidence).

Unfortunately, there is little evidence for or against such a delayed mortality effect following interventions that potentially interfere with the development of natural immunity. The best information comes from two five-year follow-up studies of large ITN trials in Burkina Faso (Diallo 2004) and Ghana (Binka 2002). In both trials the overall survival of children who had slept since birth under an ITN was significantly better than for children who had only received ITNs at the end of the trial. The major implication of these findings is that such a "delayed mortality effect" does not seem to exist, but more studies are needed before this can be proven beyond doubt.

Certainly, stopping or delaying ITN programme implementation because of this fear is not warranted and should even be considered unethical in the light of good evidence of benefit. However, it is important that ITN programmes carried out in areas of high transmission have a well-designed mortality monitoring component alongside implementation.

 

Comparisons of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria control

A number of studies in recent years have compared the implementation of ITNs with the application of indoor residual spraying, the other large-scale vector control intervention. While there have been some arguments about which method is the most efficacious, effective, and cost-effective, the views vary, and some people consider that they are equivalent (Lengeler 2003).

 

Operational issues

People in malaria endemic areas primarily use bed nets and curtains as a protection against nuisance biting, rather than as a malaria control measure (Zimicki 1996). Since most malarious areas also have a perceived mosquito nuisance problem, treated nets have proved very popular and large-scale trials had few problems in achieving rapidly high coverage rates and maintain high usage rates for up to three years. Unfortunately, re-treatment of existing nets has proved a much bigger challenge. It is expected that the development of nets with a long-lasting insecticide treatment will offer a solution to this problem.

With the inclusion of ITNs as one of the main strategies for preventing malaria by the Roll Back Malaria partnership, large-scale programmes have started to be implemented in a number of countries. Recently, Roll Back Malaria has developed a global strategy for the up scaling of ITN programmes (RBM 2002), which included a focus on developing of a commercial market for ITNs, as well as additional mechanisms to protect those at highest risk, essentially children and pregnant women. One book chapter has dealt with some of the key operational issues to consider (Feilden 1996), and at least two manuals aimed at national and district level personnel involved in malaria control have been produced (Chavasse 1999; RBM 2003).

 

Methodological issues

The high proportion of trials that could not be included in the primary review (59 out of the 81 identified trials) is a cause for concern. The main reasons for exclusion were because the studies were not randomized, were not adequately controlled (before and after assessments), and used materials other than bed nets or curtains (such as wall curtains or blankets).

Randomization is important in any intervention study to avoid the investigator's preferences from biasing the results. However, randomization is not always possible, especially if the intervention is considered to be very beneficial. An alternative design can then be required by the ethical review committee, as was the case for the first Gambian trial (Gambia (Alonso)).

Equally important is the fact that potential investigators wanting to test preventive measures that are applied at a group level (for example, at the village level) choose a sufficient number of units to make comparisons meaningful. It is clear that a 1:1 design (one intervention village versus one control village) should not be done because it is highly likely that the two groups will not be comparable at baseline. An absolute minimum of randomization units is six (that is, 3:3), but 10 units would be much better.

Finally, some of the cluster randomized controlled trials presented confidence intervals as if allocation had been on an individual level, described by Cornfield as "an exercise in self-deception" (Cornfield 1978). Trialists, statisticians, and journal editors need to get together to address this widespread problem in trial analysis and publication; and statisticians working in meta-analysis could also help to tackle this problem.

 

Authors' conclusions

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms

 

Implications for practice

Five randomized controlled trials have provided strong evidence that the widespread use of ITNs can reduce overall mortality by about a fifth in Africa. For every 1000 children protected, on average about 5.5 lives can be saved in children aged 1 to 59 months every year. In Africa, full ITN coverage could prevent 370,000 child deaths per year.

The impact of ITN use on clinical episodes of uncomplicated malaria is also considerable, halving clinical attacks in areas of stable malaria transmission in Africa. One trial in Kenya further documented a substantial impact of ITN use on cases of severe malaria disease seen in hospital. In Asia and Latin America (areas with low malaria transmission, entomological inoculation rate < 1), the use of ITNs also significantly reduced the number of clinical episodes due to both P. falciparum and P. vivax.

Given the strength of this evidence there is a need to promote the large-scale application of this control tool in the frame of malaria control programmes in endemic areas. The Roll Back Malaria partnership and major international health donors have endorsed this view (WHO 2003).

Because of the lack of data on the long-term impact of ITNs in areas with very high malaria transmission (entomological inoculation rate > 100), a careful monitoring of impact on child survival should be conducted in at least a few sites to provide more data. This consideration is currently not a reason to halt the implementation of ITN programmes.

 
Implications for research

The beneficial impact of ITNs has been largely demonstrated under trial conditions. Given the consistency of the impact results for different outcomes and different areas of the world, it is unlikely that many more trial data are required. However, four major issues regarding impact assessment remain.

  • Firstly, the impact of ITNs under large-scale programme conditions (effectiveness) needs to be better documented for a number of sites and implementation approaches.
  • Secondly, a related aspect would be to investigate further how impact varies with ITN coverage rate, and how effectiveness depends on a mass killing of the mosquito population ("mass effect").
  • Thirdly, the development of nets with a long-lasting insecticidal activity should be energetically pursued.
  • Fourthly, the complex and controversial issue of the long-term impact of reducing malaria transmission in areas of high risk needs to be further explored with clinical, epidemiological, entomological, immunological, and molecular approaches.

In relation to trial reports, researchers and editors need to ensure confidence limits are correctly calculated for cluster randomized controlled trials and that adjusted standard errors are always reported; and meta-analysis specialists could usefully examine how data from cluster randomized controlled trials can be combined.

 

Acknowledgements

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms

Christian Lengeler acknowledges and thanks the following organizations and people who have helped make this review possible:

The Swiss National Science Foundation (via a PROSPER grant to the reviewer), the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), and the Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland, for financial support.

Steve Bennett, Simon Cousens, and Linda Williams for statistical support and for providing cluster-corrected results for the mortality trials.

Gerd Antes and Daniel Galandi, University of Freiburg, Germany for independently applying the inclusion criteria.

Pedro Alonso and Simon Cousens for constructive comments on earlier drafts of this review.

Paul Garner, Harriet G MacLehose, and staff at the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine for help in editing the review at various stages.

Many thanks to Fred Binka, Chris Curtis, Umberto D'Alessandro, Fulvio Esposito, Pierre Guillet, Annette Habluetzel, Marie-Claire Henry, Feiko terKuile, Axel Kroeger, Jo Lines, Chris Nevill, Marbiah Nuahn, Patrick Rabarison, Indra Vythilingam, Jaco Voorham, Morteza Zaim, and Robert Zimmerman for supplying additional data.

Bayer, Mitsui, Sumitomo, and AgrEvo, insecticide manufacturers, for providing additional trial data.

 

Data and analyses

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms
Download statistical data

 
Comparison 1. Insecticide-treated nets versus all controls

Outcome or subgroup titleNo. of studiesNo. of participantsStatistical methodEffect size

 1 Child mortality from all causes (relative rate)5149221Relative rate (Fixed, 95% CI)0.82 [0.76, 0.89]

    1.1 Controls with no nets
4124369Relative rate (Fixed, 95% CI)0.83 [0.76, 0.90]

    1.2 Controls using untreated nets
124852Relative rate (Fixed, 95% CI)0.77 [0.63, 0.95]

 2 Child mortality from all causes (risk difference)5149221Risk difference (RD) (Fixed, 95% CI)-5.53 [-7.67, -3.39]

    2.1 Controls with no nets
4124369Risk difference (RD) (Fixed, 95% CI)-5.52 [-7.88, -3.16]

    2.2 Controls with untreated nets
124852Risk difference (RD) (Fixed, 95% CI)-5.6 [-10.70, -0.50]

 

Appendices

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms
 

Appendix 1. Search methods: search strategies for databases


Search setCIDGa trial registerCENTRALMEDLINE (PubMED)bEMBASE (OVID)LILACS

1malariamalariamalaria [mesh]malaria/malaria

2PlasmodiumPlasmodiumplasmodium/malaria control/bednet

3bednetbednet1 or 2malaria falciparum/insecticide

4mosquito netmosquito netbednet/1 or 2 or 3curtain

5curtaincurtainmosquito net/bednet/

6insecticideinsecticidecurtain/curtain

74 or 5 or 65 or 6

8deltamethr*deltamethrin/

9cyfluthrin*cyrluthrin/

10impregnated/insecticide/

11pyreth*pyrethroid/

12lambdacyhal*lambdacyhal/

13insecticide-treated8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12

148 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 134 and 7 and 13

153 and 7 and 14



aCIDG: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group.
bSearch terms used in combination with the search strategy for retrieving trials developed by The Cochrane Collaboration (Alderson 2004).

 

Appendix 2. Randomization and outcomes


StudyTypes of controlsUnit of allocationaChild mortalitybUncomplicated episodesParasite prevalenceHigh parasitaemiaAnaemiaSplenomegalyAnthropometric

Burkina Faso (Habluetzel)No netsGroups of villagesXXXX

Cameroon (Moyou-Somo)No netsHouseholdXX

Colombia (Kroeger)Untreated netsVillageX Pf/Pvd

Ecuador (Kroeger)Untreated netsVillageX Pf/Pv

Gambia (D'Alessandro)Untreated netsVillageX (X)XXXXX

Ghana (Binka)No netsVillageX (X)XXX

Gambia (Snow I)Untreated netsHouseholdXXXX

Gambia (Snow II)Untreated netsVillageXXXXX

Iran (Zaim I)Untreated netsVillageX Pf/Pv

Ivory Coast (Henry)No netsVillageXXX

Kenya (Nevill)No netsVillageXcXX

Kenya (Phillips-Howard)No netsVillageXXXXXX

Kenya (Sexton)No netsHouseholdX

Madagascar (Rabarison)Untreated netsHouseholdX

Nicaragua (Kroeger)No netsVillageX Pv

Pakistan (Rowland)No netsHouseholdX Pf/PvX Pf/Pv

Peru Amazon (Kroeger)Untreated netsVillageX Pv

Peru Coast (Kroeger)Untreated netsVillageX Pv

Sierra Leone (Marbiah)No netsVillageXXX

Tanzania (Fraser-Hurt)No netsIndividualXX

Thailand (Kamol-R)Untreated netsHouseholdX Pf/Pv

Thailand (Luxemberger)Untreated netsIndividualX Pf/PvX Pf/PvX



aRandomization by village considered by cluster.
bStudies with (X) also measured malaria-specific child mortality.
cAlso included severe disease.
dPf = Plasmodium falciparum; Pv = P. vivax. If no detail then Pf.

 

Appendix 3. Child mortality from all causes


StudyEIRaIntervention ratebControl ratebProtective efficacycRate differencec

Control group = no nets

Burkina Faso (Habluetzel)300 to 50041.8 (618/14773)48.7 (688/14118)14% ( -8% to 31%)6.9 (-2.5 to 16.3)

Ghana (Binka)100 to 30028.2 (521/18457)34.2 (618/18054)18% (2% to 32%)6.0 (1.4 to 10.6)

Kenya (Nevill)10 to 309.4 (109/11596)13.2 (151/11439)29% (3% to 48%)3.8 (0.3 to 7.3)

Kenya (Phillips-Howard)60 to 30043.9 (782/17833)51.9 (940/18099)16% (6% to 25%)8.1 (3 to 12)

Control group = untreated nets

Gambia (D'Alessandro)1 to 1018.7 (222/11864)24.3 (316/12988)23% (5% to 37%)5.6 (0.5 to 10.7)



aTransmission intensity (EIR: entomological inoculation rate).
bRates in the intervention and control groups, and the rate difference, are expressed as deaths/1000/year; ages are 1 to 59 months.
c95% confidence interval, corrected for design effects.

 

Appendix 4. Severe disease


StudyTreated netsNo netsRisk ratioa

Kenya (Nevill)127/11566229/114320.55 (0.37 to 0.80)



a95% confidence interval, corrected for design effects.

 

Appendix 5. Treated nets versus no nets: Prevention of uncomplicated clinical episodes


StudyTreated netsNo netsRisk ratio

Stable malaria (entomological inoculation rate > 1): Plasmodium falciparum

Ivory Coast (Henry)18/28842/2880.43

Kenya (Phillips-Howard)89/2622174/23270.45

Kenya (Sexton)44/174769/16950.62

Sierra Leone (Marbiah)309/16126576/152960.51

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium falciparum

Pakistan (Rowland)53/1398138/13940.38

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium vivax

Nicaragua (Kroeger)63/2530212/27300.32

Pakistan (Rowland)182/1398313/13940.58



 

Appendix 6. Treated versus untreated nets: Prevention of uncomplicated clinical episodes


StudyTreated netsUntreated netsRisk ratio

Stable malaria (entomological inoculation rate > 1): Plasmodium falciparum

Gambia (Snow I)23/342634/29120.57

Gambia (Snow II)16/390249/34030.28

Madagascar (Rabarison)83/140110/1460.61

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium falciparum

Colombia (Kroeger)53/2295185/23370.29

Iran (Zaim I)219/457278/19351.19

Thailand (Kamol-R)15/441030/47250.54

Thailand (Luxemberger)33/93357/9390.58

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium vivax

Ecuador (Kroeger)52/141847/10320.81

Peru Amazon (Kroeger)111/2993149/27160.68

Peru Coast (Kroeger)1066/55521702/81990.92

Thailand (Kamol-R)13/441021/47250.66

Thailand (Luxemberger)35/93345/9390.78



 

Appendix 7. Summary: Prevention of uncomplicated clinical episodesa


Level stratificationNo. trialsbProtective efficacyc

Stable malaria (entomological inoculation rate > 1): Plasmodium falciparum

Control group = no nets450%

Control group = untreated nets339%

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium falciparum

Control group = no nets162%

Control group = untreated nets439%

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium vivax

Control group = no nets252%

Control group = untreated nets511%



aSummary of results presented in Appendix 5 and Appendix 6.
bFor each level, the number of trials contributing to the analysis is indicated.
cAll results are protective efficacies, that is, (1 - risk ratio) x 100, or the percentage reduction in malaria episodes.

 

Appendix 8. Treated nets versus no nets: Parasite prevalence (any infection)


StudyInterventionNo netsRisk ratio

Stable malaria (entomological inoculation rate > 1): Plasmodium falciparum

Burkina Faso (Habluetzel)319/374361/3870.43

Cameroon (Moyou-Somo)54/18274/1790.60

Ghana (Binka)982/14901238/18040.88

Ivory Coast (Henry)549/970624/9110.83

Kenya (Nevill)41/24179/2270.49

Kenya (Phillips-Howard)528/978611/9120.81

Tanzania (Fraser-Hurt)29/6039/600.74

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium falciparum

Pakistan (Rowland)35/95671/11160.58

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium vivax

Pakistan (Rowland)92/95698/11161.10



 

Appendix 9. Treated versus untreated nets: Parasite prevalence (any infection)


StudyTreated netsUntreated netsRisk ratio

Stable malaria (entomological inoculation rate > 1): Plasmodium falciparum


Gambia (D'Alessandro)288/797280/7230.93

Gambia (Snow I)52/14556/1300.83

Gambia (Snow II)58/18987/2330.82

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium falciparum


Thailand (Luxemberger)17/15316/1551.08

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium vivax

Thailand (Luxemberger)6/1539/1550.68



 

Appendix 10. Summary: Parasite prevalencea


Level stratificationNo. trialsProtective efficacyb

Stable malaria (entomological inoculation rate > 1): Plasmodium falciparum

Control group = no nets713%

Control group = untreated nets310%

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium falciparum

Control group = no nets142%

Control group = untreated nets1-8%

Unstable malaria (entomological inoculation rate < 1): Plasmodium vivax

Control group = no nets1-10%

Control group = untreated nets132%



aSummary of results presented in Appendix 8 and Appendix 9.
bProtective efficacy = percentage reduction in malaria episodes.

 

Appendix 11. Treated nets versus no nets: High parasitaemiaa


StudyTreated netsNo netsRisk ratio

Burkina Faso (Habluetzel)63/37486/3870.76

Kenya (Phillips-Howard)156/978210/9120.69



aOnly Plasmodium falciparum in areas of stable malaria.

 

Appendix 12. Treated versus untreated nets: High parasitaemiaa


StudyTreated netsUntreated netsRisk ratio

Gambia (D'Alessandro)94/79797/7230.88

Gambia (Snow I)7/14513/1300.48

Gambia (Snow II)14/18927/2330.64



aOnly Plasmodium falciparum in areas of stable malaria.

 

Appendix 13. Treated nets versus no nets: Anaemia


StudyPacked cell volume (standard deviation), number of participantsPacked cell volume (mean difference)

Treated netsNo nets

Burkina Faso (Habluetzel)28.2 (4.5), n = 37526.7 (3.9), n = 3881.5

Ghana (Binka)24.3 (4.7), n = 93523.1 (5.3), n = 11831.2

Ivory Coast (Henry)32.8 (4.2), n = 8330.8 (5.2), n = 722.0

Kenya (Phillips-Howard)30.0 (5.1), n = 97828.5 (4.9), n = 9121.5

Sierra Leone (Marbiah)43.4 (22.1), n = 47038.0 (16.2), n = 4505.4

Tanzania (Fraser-Hurt)28.0 (20.1), n = 6026.5 (19.0), n = 601.5



 

Appendix 14. Treated versus untreated nets: Anaemia


StudyPacked cell volume (standard deviation), number of participantsPacked cell volume (mean difference)

Treated netsUntreated nets

Gambia (D'Alessandro)32.9 (4.6), n = 79732.6 (4.7), n = 7230.30

Gambia (Snow I)34.7 (5.5), n = 14534.1 (4.3), n = 1300.60

Gambia (Snow II)35.8 (12.3), n = 18933.1 (9.2), n = 2332.7



 

Appendix 15. Treated versus no nets: Splenomegaly (Hackett's scale 1 to 5)


StudyTreated netsNo netsRisk ratio

Cameroon (Moyou-Somo)60/32775/2680.66

Sierra Leone (Marbiah)155/470207/4500.72



 

Appendix 16. Treated versus untreated nets: Splenomegaly (Hackett's scale 1 to 5)


StudyTreated netsUntreated netsRisk ratio

Gambia (D'Alessandro)131/797138/7230.86

Gambia (Snow II)40/18990/2330.55

Thailand (Luxemberger)10/1486/1531.72



 

What's new

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms

Last assessed as up-to-date: 18 January 2004.


DateEventDescription

12 February 2009AmendedGamble 2006 reference (Other References) replaced and updated the Ekwaru 2004 reference.



 

History

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms

Protocol first published: Issue 1, 1995
Review first published: Issue 3, 1998


DateEventDescription

18 August 2008AmendedConverted to new review format with minor editing.

19 January 2004New citation required but conclusions have not changedIssue 2, 2004
This is a major update with a revision of the text, tables, and results.
- An additional 16 trials have been identified and reviewed, of which 4 were included.
- The sensitivity analysis (with group 2 trials) has been removed to clarify the main results.
- The literature in all sections and especially background and discussion has been updated.
- Overall mortality results have been entered with the reverse variance function in order to present confidence intervals adjusted for clustering.

12 January 2004New search has been performedMinor update.

23 October 2003New search has been performedNew studies sought but none found.

21 January 2003New search has been performedNew studies found and included or excluded.



 

Contributions of authors

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms

Christian Lengeler is the sole contributor.

 

Declarations of interest

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms

None known.

 

Sources of support

  1. Top of page
  2. Background
  3. Objectives
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Authors' conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Data and analyses
  10. Appendices
  11. What's new
  12. History
  13. Contributions of authors
  14. Declarations of interest
  15. Sources of support
  16. Index terms
 

Internal sources

  • Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland.

 

External sources

  • Department for International Development, UK.
  • Swiss National Science Foundation, Bern, Switzerland.
  • UNDP/WB/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Switzerland.

* Indicates the major publication for the study

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract摘要Abstrak
  3. Background
  4. Objectives
  5. Methods
  6. Results
  7. Discussion
  8. Authors' conclusions
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. Data and analyses
  11. Appendices
  12. What's new
  13. History
  14. Contributions of authors
  15. Declarations of interest
  16. Sources of support
  17. Characteristics of studies
  18. References to studies included in this review
  19. References to studies excluded from this review
  20. Additional references
Burkina Faso (Habluetzel) {published and unpublished data}
Cameroon (Moyou-Somo) {published data only}
  • Moyou-Somo R, Lehman LG, Awahmukalah S, Ayuk Enyong P. Deltamethrin impregnated bednets for the control of urban malaria in Kumba Town, South-West Province of Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995;98(5):319-24.
Colombia (Kroeger) {published data only}
  • Kroeger A, Mancheno M, Alarcon J, Pesse K. Insecticide-impregnated bed nets for malaria control: varying experiences from Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru concerning acceptability and effectiveness. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995;53(4):313-23.
Ecuador (Kroeger) {published data only}
  • Kroeger A, Mancheno M, Alarcon J, Pesse K. Insecticide-impregnated bed nets for malaria control: varying experiences from Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru concerning acceptability and effectiveness. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995;53(4):313-23.
Gambia (D'Alessandro) {published and unpublished data}
  • D'Alessandro U, Olaleye B, McGuire W, Langerock P, Bennett S, Aikins MK, et al. Mortality and morbidity from malaria in Gambian children after introduction of an impregnated bednet programme. Lancet 1995;345(8948):479-83.
  • Thomson MC, Adiamah JH, Connor SJ, Jawara M, Bennett S, D'Alessandro U, et al. Entomological evaluation of the Gambia's National Impregnated Bednet Programme. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1995;89(3):229-41.
  • Thomson MC, Connor SJ, Quinones ML, Jawara M, Todd J, Greenwood BM. Movement of Anopheles gambiae s.l. malaria vectors between villages in The Gambia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 1995;9(4):413-9.
Gambia (Snow I) {published data only}
Gambia (Snow II) {published data only}
  • Snow RW, Rowan KM, Lindsay SW, Greenwood BM. A trial of bed nets (mosquito nets) as a malaria control strategy in a rural area of The Gambia, West Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1988;82(2):212-5.
Ghana (Binka) {published and unpublished data}
Iran (Zaim I) {published data only}
  • Zaim M, Ghavami MB, Nazari M, Edrissian G, Nateghpour M. Cyfluthrin (EW 050)-impregnated bednets in malaria control programme in Ghassreghand (Baluchistan, Iran). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 1998;14(4):421-30.
Ivory Coast (Henry) {published and unpublished data}
  • Henry M-C, Assi SB, Rogier C, Dossou-Yovo J, Chandre F, Guillet P, et al. The challenge of malaria control in an area of pyrethroid resistance in Cote d'Ivoire. Efficacy of lambdacyhalothrin treated nets on malaria infection and disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2005; Vol. 73, issue 5:859-64.
Kenya (Nevill) {published and unpublished data}
Kenya (Phillips-Howard) {published data only}
  • Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard PA, ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Vulule JM, Ombok M, et al. Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2003;68 Suppl(4):121-7.
  • Phillips-Howard PA, Nahlen BL, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW, ter Kuile FO, Alaii JA, et al. Efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of mortality in young children in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2003;68 Suppl(4):23-9.
  • ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Kariuki SK, Phillips-Howard PA, Mirel LB, Hawley WA, et al. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria, anemia, and growth in infants in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2003;68 Suppl(4):68-77.
  • ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Phillips-Howard PA, Hawley WA, Friedman JF, Kolczak MS, et al. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria and all-cause morbidity in young children in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya: cross-sectional survey. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2003;68 Suppl(4):100-7.
Kenya (Sexton) {published data only}
  • Sexton JD, Ruebush TK 2nd, Brandling-Bennett AD, Breman JG, Roberts JM, Odera JS, et al. Permethrin-impregnated curtains and bed-nets prevent malaria in western Kenya. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1990;43(1):11-8.
Madagascar (Rabarison) {published data only}
  • Rabarison P, Ramambanirina L, Rajaonarivelo E, Rakotoarivony I, Andrianaivolambo L, Jambou R, et al. Study of the impact of deltamethrin impregnated curtains on malaria morbidity in Ankazobe of the Madagascar highlands [Etude de l'impact de l'utilisation des rideaux imprégnés de deltaméthrine sur la morbidité palustre à Ankazobe, sur les hautes terres de Madagascar]. Medecine Tropicale 1995;55 Suppl(4):105-8.
Nicaragua (Kroeger) {published data only}
  • Kroeger A, Gonzalez M, Ordonez-Gonzalez J. Insecticide-treated materials for malaria control in Latin America: to use or not to use?. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999;93(6):565-70.
Pakistan (Rowland) {published data only}
  • Rowland M, Bouma M, Ducornez D, Durrani N, Rozendaal J, Schapira A, et al. Pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets for personal protection against malaria for Afghan refugees. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1996;90(4):357-61.
Peru Amazon (Kroeger) {published data only}
  • Kroeger A, Mancheno M, Alarcon J, Pesse K. Insecticide-impregnated bed nets for malaria control: varying experiences from Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru concerning acceptability and effectiveness. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995;53(4):313-23.
Peru Coast (Kroeger) {published data only}
  • Kroeger A, Mancheno M, Alarcon J, Pesse K. Insecticide-impregnated bed nets for malaria control: varying experiences from Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru concerning acceptability and effectiveness. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995;53(4):313-23.
Sierra Leone (Marbiah) {published data only}
  • Magbity EB, Marbiah NT, Maude G, Curtis CF, Bradley DJ, Greenwood BM, et al. Effects of community-wide use of lambdacyhalothrin-impregnated bednets on malaria vectors in rural Sierra Leone. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 1997;11(1):79-86.
  • Marbiah NT. Control of disease due to perennially transmitted malaria in children in a rural area of Sierra Leone [PhD thesis]. London: University of London, 1995.
  • Marbiah NT, Petersen E, David K, Magbity E, Lines J, Bradley DJ. A controlled trial of lambda-cyhalothrin-impregnated bed nets and/or dapsone/pyrimethamine for malaria control in Sierra Leone. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1998;58(1):1-6.
Tanzania (Fraser-Hurt) {published data only}
  • Fraser-Hurt N, Felger I, Edoh D, Steiger S, Mashaka M, Masanja H, et al. Effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on haemoglobin values, prevalence and multiplicity of infection with Plasmodium falciparum in a randomized controlled trial in Tanzania. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999;93 Suppl 1:47-51.
Thailand (Kamol-R) {published data only}
  • Kamol-Ratanakul P, Prasittisuk C. The effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated bed nets against malaria for migrant workers in eastern Thailand. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1992;47(3):305-9.
Thailand (Luxemberger) {published data only}
  • Luxemburger C, Perea WA, Delmas G, Pruja C, Pecoul B, Moren A. Permethrin-impregnated bed nets for the prevention of malaria in schoolchildren on the Thai-Burmese border. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994;88(2):155-9.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract摘要Abstrak
  3. Background
  4. Objectives
  5. Methods
  6. Results
  7. Discussion
  8. Authors' conclusions
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. Data and analyses
  11. Appendices
  12. What's new
  13. History
  14. Contributions of authors
  15. Declarations of interest
  16. Sources of support
  17. Characteristics of studies
  18. References to studies included in this review
  19. References to studies excluded from this review
  20. Additional references
Afghanistan(Rowland) {published data only}
  • Rowland M, Durrani N, Hewitt S, Mohammed N, Bouma M, Carneiro I, et al. Permethrin-treated chaddars and top-sheets: appropriate technology for protection against malaria in Afghanistan and other complex emergencies. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999;93(5):465-72.
Benin (Akogbeto) {published data only}
  • Akogbeto M, Nahum A, Massougbodji A. Impact of insecticide impregnated bednets on malaria morbidity: preliminary results [Impact des moustiquaires imprégnées d' insecticide sur la morbidité palustre: résultats préliminaires]. Medecine Tropicale 1995;55 Suppl(4):118-9.
  • Akogbeto PM, Nahum A. Impact of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets on the transmission of malaria in the coastal lagoon area, Benin [Impact des moustiquaires imprégnées de deltaméthrine sur la transmission de la malaria dans un milieu côtier lagunaire, Bénin]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 1996;89(4):291-8.
Brazil (Santos) {published and unpublished data}
  • Santos JB. Estudo sobre o uso de mosquiteiros impregnados com deltametrina em um area endemica de malaria na Amazonia Brasileira [PhD thesis]. Belo Horizonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 1995.
  • Santos JB, dos Santos F, Marsden P, Tosta CE, Andrade AL, Macedo V. The effect of bed nets impregnated with deltamethrin on malaria morbidity in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon Region [Acao de mosquiteiro impregnados com deltametrina sobre a morbidade da malaria em uma area da Amazonia Brasileira]. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 1998;31(1):1-9.
Burkina (Carnevale) {published data only}
  • Carnevale P, Robert V, Boudin C, Halna JM, Pazart L, Gazin P, et al. Control of malaria using mosquito nets impregnated with pyrethroids in Burkina Faso [La lutte contre le paludisme par les moustiquaires imprégnées de pyréthrinoides au Burkina Faso]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique et de Ses Filiales 1988;81(5):832-46.
Burkina (Pietra) {published data only}
  • Pietra Y, Procacci PG, Sabatinelli G, Kumlien S, Lamizana L, Rotigliano G. Impact of utilization of permethrin impregnated curtains on malaria in a rural zone of high transmission in Burkina Faso [Impact de l' utilisation des rideaux impregnes de permethrine dans une zone rurale de haute transmission au Burkina Faso]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 1991;84(4):375-85.
Burkina F (Procacci) {published data only}
  • Procacci PG, Lamizana L, Kumlien S, Habluetzel A, Rotigliano G. Permethrin-impregnated curtains in malaria control. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1991;85(2):181-5.
  • Procacci PG, Lamizana L, Pietra V, Di Russo C, Rotigliano G. Utilization of permethrin-impregnated curtains by the inhabitants of a rural community in Burkina Faso. Parassitologia 1991;33(2-3):93-8.
Cambodia (Chheang) {unpublished data only}
  • Chheang Y, Lek S. Final report on a field trial of Olyset net for the control of malaria transmitted by Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus in Rattanak Kiri Province, Cambodia. Tokyo: Sumitomo Corp. Japan, Unpublished document (1994).
Cameroon (LeGoff) {published data only}
  • Le Goff G, Robert V, Fondjo E, Carnevale P. Efficacy of insecticide impregnated bed-nets to control malaria in a rural forested area in southern Cameroon. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 1992;87 Suppl 3:355-9.
China (Cheng Hailu) {published data only}
  • Cheng H, Yang W, Kang W, Liu C. Large-scale spraying of bednets to control mosquito vectors and malaria in Sichuan, China. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1995;73(3):321-8.
China (Li) {published data only}
  • Li ZZ, Zhang M, Shen M, Li M, Zhang L. Field trials of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets in Hainan Island. In: Lizuzi, Lu Baolin, Xie Wanling editor(s). The studies of bed nets impregnated with deltamethrin for the control of vectors of malaria [in Chinese]. Proceedings from a meeting in Guangzhou, China. 1988 [cited in Curtis 1991].
  • Li ZZ, Zhang MC, Wus YG, Zhong BL, Lin GY, Huang H. Trial of deltamethrin impregnated bed nets for the control of malaria transmitted by Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles anthropophagus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1989;40(4):356-9.
China (Luo Dapeng) {published data only}
  • Luo D, Lu D, Yao R, Li P, Huo X, Li A, et al. Alphamethrin-impregnated bed nets for malaria and mosquito control in China. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994;88(6):625-8.
China (Wu Neng I) {published data only}
  • Wu N, Qin L, Liao G, Zhou W, Geng W, Shi Y, et al. Field evaluation of bednets impregnated with deltamethrin for malaria control. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1993;24(4):664-71.
China (Wu Neng II) {published data only}
  • Wu N, Qin L, Liao G, Zhou W, Geng W, Shi Y, et al. Field evaluation of bednets impregnated with deltamethrin for malaria control. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1993;24(4):664-71.
China (Yuyi station) {unpublished data only}
  • Yuyi Station, China. Unpublished data [cited in Curtis 1991].
Ecuador (Yepez) {unpublished data only}
  • Yépes LT. Effectiveness of permethrin-incorporated 'Olyset net' bednet for malaria control in an endemic area of Esmeraldas Province, Republic of Ecuador. Tokyo: Sumitomo Corp. Japan, Unpublished document (1994).
Gambia (Alonso) {published and unpublished data}
  • Alonso PL, Lindsay SW, Armstrong JRM, Conteh M, Hill AG, David PH, et al. The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on mortality of Gambian children. Lancet 1991;337(8756):1499-502.
  • Alonso PL, Lindsay SW, Armstrong Schellenberg JRM, Keita K, Gomez P, Shenton FC, et al. A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, west Africa. 6. The impact of the interventions on mortality and morbidity from malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1993;87 Suppl 2:37-44.
  • Lindsay SW, Alonso PL, Schellenberg JRMA, Hemingway J, Adiamah JH, Shenton FC, et al. A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, west Africa. 7. Impact of permethrin-impregnated bed nets on malaria vectors. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1993;87 Suppl 2:45-51.
Guatemala (Richards) {published data only}
  • Richards FO Jr, Klein RE, Flores RZ, Weller S, Gatica M, Zeissig R, et al. Permethrin-impregnated bed nets for malaria control in northern Guatemala: epidemiologic impact and community acceptance. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1993;49(4):410-8.
Guinea-B. (Jaenson) {published data only}
  • Jaenson TGT, Gomes MJ, Barreto dos Santos RC, Petrarca V, Fortini D, Evora J, et al. Control of endophagic Anopheles mosquitoes and human malaria in Guinea Bissau, West Africa, by permethrin-treated bed nets. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994;88(6):620-4.
India (Banerjee) {published data only}
  • Banerjee A, Nayak B. Deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets: An experimental study in an Air Force Station in Central India (deltamethrin trial). Medical Journal Armed Forces India 2002;58(1):3-4.
India (Das) {published data only}
  • Das PK, Das LK, Parida SK, Patra KP, Jambulingam P. Lambdacyhalothrin treated bed nets as an alternative method of malaria control in tribal villages of Koraput District, Orissa State, India. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1993;24(3):513-21.
India (Jana-Kara) {published data only}
  • Jana Kara BR, Jihullah WA, Shahi B, Dev V, Curtis CF, Sharma VP. Deltamethrin impregnated bednets against Anopheles minimus transmitted malaria in Assam, India. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995;98(2):73-83.
India (Yadav I) {unpublished data only}
  • Sharma VP, Yadav RS. Impregnating mosquito nets with cyfluthrin: study in the mining settlements of Orissa, India, to control malaria. Public Health 1995;12:8-17.
  • Yadav RS, Sharma VP. Impregnated bednet trial in Orissa, India [presentation]. VIII International Congress of Parasitology, Izmir, Turkey Unpublished paper (October 1994).
India (Yadav II) {published data only}
  • Yadav RS, Sampath TR, Sharma VP, Adak T, Ghosh SK. Evaluation of lambdacyhalothrin-impregnated bednets in a malaria endemic area of India. Part 3. Effects on malaria incidence and clinical measures. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 1998;14(4):444-50.
India (Yadav III) {published data only}
  • Yadav RS, Sampath RR, Sharma VP. Deltamethrin treated bednets for control of malaria transmitted by Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) in India. Journal of Medical Entomology 2001;38(5):613-22.
Indonesia (Nalim) {published data only}
  • Nalim S, Widiarti B, Widiyastuti U. A field trial with etofenprox (OMS 3002) as a residual insecticide against malaria vectors, in Tanjung Bunga District, East Flores, Indonesia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1997;28(4):851-6.
Iran (Zaim II) {unpublished data only}
  • Zaim M. Village scale trial on cyfluthrin and lambdacyhalothrin for the impregnation of bed nets in malaria control in Ghassreghand, Baluchistan, Iran. Bayer Corp, Unpublished document (1994).
Irian Jaya (Sutanto) {published data only}
  • Sutanto I, Pribadi W, Purnomo, Bandi R, Rusmiarto S, Atmosoedjono, S, et al. Efficacy of permethrin-impregnated bed nets on malaria control in a hyperendemic area in Irian Jaya, Indonesia: differentiation between two age groups. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1999;30(3):440-6.
Ivory Coast(Doannio) {unpublished data only}
  • Doannio JMC, Dossou-Yovo J, Diarrassouba S, Chauvancy G, Darriet F, Henry M-C, et al. Field evaluation of the efficacy of permethrin pre-treated nets ("Olyset") developed by Sumitomo Corp. in a rice-growing village in Ivory Coast. Evaluation sur le terrain de l'efficacité des moustiquaires préimprégnées a la perméthrine ('Olyset net') développées par la firme Sumitomo Corp, Ltd dans un village situé en zone de riziculture irriguée. (Côte d'Ivoire, Afrique de l'Ouest). Tokyo: Sumitomo Corp. Japan, Unpublished document (1996).
  • Henry MC, Doannio JMC, Darriet F, Nzeyimana I, Carnevale P. Efficacy of permethrin-impregnated Olyset Net mosquito nets in a zone with pyrethroid resistance vectors. II. Parasitic and clinical evaluation [Efficacité des moustiquaires pre-imprégnées de perméthrine Olyset (TM) net en zone de résistance des vecteurs aux pyrétrinoides - II. Evaluation parasitoclinique]. Medecine Tropicale 1999;59(4):355-7.
Kenya (Beach) {published data only}
  • Beach RF, Ruebush TK, Sexton JD, Bright PL, Hightower AW, Breman JG, et al. Effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated bed nets and curtains for malaria control in a holoendemic area of western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1993;49(3):290-300.
Kenya (Macintyre) {published data only}
  • Macintyre K, Sosler S, Letipila F, Lochigan M, Hassig S, Omar SA, et al. A new tool for malaria prevention?: Results of a trial of permethrin-impregnated bedsheets (shukas) in an area of unstable transmission. International Journal of Epidemiology 2003;32(1):157-60.
Kenya (Mutinga) {published data only}
  • Mutinga MJ, Mnzava A, Kimokoti R, Nyamori M, Ngindu AM. Malaria prevalence and morbidity in relation to the use of permethrin-treated wall cloths in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 1993;70(12):756-62.
  • Mutinga MJ, Renapurkar DM, Wachira DW, Mutero CM, Basimike M. Evaluation of the residual efficacy of permethrin-impregnated screens used against mosquitoes in Marigat, Baringo district, Kenya. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1992;43(4):277-81.
Kenya (Oloo I) {published data only}
  • Oloo AJ, Mudegu JV, Ngare DK, Ogutu RO, Ondijo SO, Odada PS, et al. The effect of permethrin impregnated sisal curtains on vector density and malaria incidence: a pilot study. East African Medical Journal 1993;70(8):475-7.
Kenya (Oloo II) {published data only}
  • Oloo AJ, Githeko A, Adungo N, Karanja D, Vulule J, Kisia Abok I, et al. Field trial of permethrin impregnated sisal curtains in malaria control in western Kenya. East African Medical Journal 1996;73(11):735-40.
Malawi (Rubardt) {published data only}
Malaysia (Hii I) {published data only}
  • Hii JL, Vun YS, Chin KF, Chua R, Tambakau S, Binisol ES, et al. The influence of permethrin-impregnated bednets and mass drug administration on the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in Sabah, Malaysia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 1987;1(4):397-407.
  • Leake DW Jr, Hii JL. Giving bednets "fair" tests in field trials against malaria:a case from Sabah, East Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1989;20(3):379-84.
Malaysia (Hii II) {published data only}
  • Hii J, Alexander N, Chuan CK, Rahman HA, Safri A, Chan M. Lambdacyhalothrin impregnated bednets control malaria in Sabah, Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1995;26(2):371-4.
Mali (Doumbo) {published data only}
  • Doumbo O, Traoré SF, Sow Y, Dembele M, Soula G, Coulibaly A, et al. Impact of curtains and blankets impregnated with permethrin on the malarial indicators and the number of malarial attacks per child in a village in an area hyperendemic for malaria on the Malian savannah (preliminary results of the first year study) [Impact des rideaux et couvertures imprégnés de perméthrine sur les indices paludométriques et le nombre d'accès palustres par enfant dans un village d'hypérendémie palustre de savanne malienne]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 1991;84(5 Pt 5):761-74.
Mali (Ranque) {published data only}
  • Ranque P, Toure YT, Soula G, Du L, Diallo Y, Traore O, et al. Utilization of mosquitoes impregnated with deltamethrin in the battle against malaria [Etude expérimentale sur l'utilisation de moustiquaires imprégnées de deltaméthrine dans la lutte contre le paludisme]. Parassitologia 1984;26(3):261-8.
Mozambique (Crook) {published data only}
  • Crook SE, Baptista A. The effect of permethrin-impregnated wall-curtains on malaria transmission and morbidity in the suburbs of Maputo, Mozambique. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 1995;47(2):64-7.
Myanmar (Lwin) {published data only}
  • Lwin M, Lin H, Linn N, Kyaw MP, Ohn M, Maung NS, et al. The use of personal protective measures in control of malaria in a defined community. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1997;28(2):254-8.
Nepal (Sherchand) {published data only}
  • Sherchand JB, Shrestha MP, Shreshta BL, Banerjee MK, Shakya S. A preliminary study on field trials with insecticide-treated mosquito nets for malaria control in a rural endemic community of Nepal. Journal of the Nepal Medical Association 1995;33:195-203.
Nigeria (Brieger) {published data only}
  • Brieger WR, Onyido AE, Sexton JD, Ezike VI, Breman JG, Ekanem OJ. Monitoring community response to malaria control using insecticide-impregnated bed nets, curtains and residual spray in Nsukka, Nigeria. Health Education Research 1996;11(2):133-45.
Papua NG (Graves) {published and unpublished data}
  • Graves PM, Brabin BJ, Charlwood JD, Burkot TR, Cattani JA, Ginny M, et al. Reduction in incidence and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in under-5-year-old children by permethrin impregnation of mosquito nets. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1987;65(6):869-77.
Philippines(Quilala) {unpublished data only}
  • Quilala JM, Hugo CT, Ortega LI, Joson NDC, Del Rosario BM, Alvarez AB. Evaluation of mosquito nets treated with cyfluthrin 050EW as a malaria control method. Frankfurt: Bayer Corp. Germany, Unpublished document (1996).
Senegal (Faye) {unpublished data only}
  • Faye O. Field evaluation of preimpregnated mosquito nets 'Olyset nets' produced by Sumitomo Chemical Co Ltd. on reduction of malaria transmission in a Sudanese savanah village of Senegal. Tokyo: Sumitomo Corp. Japan, Unpublished document (1996).
  • Faye O, Konate L, Gaye O, Fontenille D, Sy N, Diop A, et al. The impact of using mosquito nets pre-treated with permethrin on malaria transmission in a hyperendemic village in Senegal [Impact de l'utilisation des moustiquaires pré-imprégnées de permétrhine sur la transmission du paludisme dans un village hyperendémique du Sénégal]. Médecine Tropicale 1998;58(4):355-9.
Solomon (Hii) {published data only}
  • Hii JL, Kanai L, Foligela A, Kan SK, Burkot TR, Wirtz RA. Impact of permethrin-impregnated mosquito nets compared with DDT house-spraying against malaria transmission by Anopheles farauti and An.punctulatus in the Solomon Islands. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 1993;7(4):333-8.
Solomon (Kere I) {published data only}
  • Kere NK, Parkinson AD, Samrawickerema WA. The effect of permethrin impregnated bednets on the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum, in children of north Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1993;24(1):130-7.
Solomon (Kere II) {unpublished data only}
  • Kere NK, Bobogare A, Keni J, Webber RH, Southgate BA. Comparison of permethrin impregnated bednets and DDT residual spraying in Solomon Islands-1. Effects of prevalence of malaria. Unpublished manuscript.
Sudan (El Tayeb) {published data only}
  • El Tayeb RA, El Karib SA, Baraka OZ, Suliaman SM. Deltamethrin-treated Sudanese thobs, a control method for malaria in an endemic region [meeting report]. Unpublished (2001).
Tanzania (Lyimo) {published data only}
  • Lyimo EO, Msuya FHM, Rwegoshora RT, Nicholson EA, Mnzava AE, Lines JD, et al. Trial of pyrethroid impregnated bednets in an area of Tanzania holoendemic for malaria. Part 3. Effects on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and fever. Acta Tropica 1991;49(3):157-63.
  • Msuya FH, Curtis CF. Trial of pyrethroid impregnated bednets in an area of Tanzania holoendemic for malaria. Part 4. Effects on incidence of malaria infection. Acta Tropica 1991;49(3):165-71.
Tanzania (Maxwell) {published data only}
  • Maxwell CA, Myamba J, Njunwa KJ, Greenwood BM, Curtis CF. Comparison of bednets impregnated with different pyrethroids for their impact on mosquitoes and on re-infection with malaria after clearance of pre-existing infections with chlorproguanil-dapsone. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999;93(1):4-11.
Tanzania (Njau) {published data only}
  • Njau RJA, Mosha FW, Nguma JFM. Field trials of pyrethroid impregnated bednets in northern Tanzania - 1. Effect on malaria transmission. Insect Science and its Applications 1993;14(5/6):575-84.
Tanzania (Njunwa) {unpublished data only}
  • Njunwa KJ, Kilimali VAEB, Marero SM, Msuya FHM, Pilyimo R, Kamuzora D. Permethrin incorporated bednets, 'Olyset net', reduce malaria transmission after twelve month of their use in three villages of Kibaha District, Coast Region, Tanzania. Tokyo: Sumitomo Corp. Japan, Unpublished document (1996).
  • Njunwa KJ, Kilimali VEB, Msuya FH, Marero, SM, Pilyimo R, Kamuzora D. "Olyset" nets, with permethrin incorporated into the fibres, reduce malaria transmission in Tanzania. XIVth International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Nagasaki (Japan). 1996:101.
Tanzania (Premji) {published data only}
  • Premji Z. Malaria control measures: impact on malaria and anaemia in a holoendemic area of rural coastal Tanzania [PhD Thesis]. Stockholm: Karolinska Institute, 1996.
  • Premji Z, Hamisi Y, Shiff C, Minjas J, Lubega P, Makwaya C. Anaemia and Plasmodium falciparum infections among young children in an holoendemic area, Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Acta Tropica 1995;59(1):55-64.
  • Premji Z, Lubega P, Hamisi Y, Mchopa E, Minjas J, Checkley W, et al. Changes in malaria associated morbidity in children using insecticide treated mosquito nets in the Bagamoyo District of Coastal Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1995;46(3):147-53.
  • Shiff C, Checkley W, Winch P, Premji Z, Minjas J, Lubega P. Changes in weight gain and anaemia attributable to malaria in Tanzanian children living under holoendemic conditions. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1996;90(3):262-5.
Tanzania (Stich) {published data only}
  • Stich AH, Maxwell CA, Haji AA, Haji DM, Machano AY, Mussa JK, et al. Insecticide-impregnated bed nets reduce malaria transmission in rural Zanzibar. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994;88(2):150-4.
Vietnam (Dang) {unpublished data only}
  • Dang T. Field test on effect of Olyset net for malaria vector control in Vietnam. Tokyo: Sumitomo Corp. Japan, Unpublished document (1995).
Vietnam (IMPE) {unpublished data only}
  • Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, Entomology (IMPE). Evaluation of effect of Vectron (Etofenprox-OMS 3002-Trebon) impregnated mosquito nets on malaria control at a coastal plain southern Vietnam (from March 1992 to May 1993). Tokyo: Mitsui Toatsu Corp., Unpublished document (1993).
Vietnam (Nguyen) {unpublished data only}
  • Nguyen TH, Nguyen TT, Nguyen AT, Nguyen TR, Tran TD, Kieu TT, et al. Evaluation studies on a new compound Vectron (Etofenprox, OMS- 3002) impregnated bednets against malaria vectors An. minimus in the mountainous area of north Vietnam. Tokyo: Mitsui Tatsu Corp. Japan, Unpublished document (1993).
Zaire (Karch) {published data only}
  • Karch S, Garin B, Asidi N, Manzambi Z, Salaun JJ, Mouchet J. Mosquito nets impregnated against malaria in Zaire [Moustiquaires imprégnées contre le paludisme au Zaire]. Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale 1993;73(1):37-53.

Additional references

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract摘要Abstrak
  3. Background
  4. Objectives
  5. Methods
  6. Results
  7. Discussion
  8. Authors' conclusions
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. Data and analyses
  11. Appendices
  12. What's new
  13. History
  14. Contributions of authors
  15. Declarations of interest
  16. Sources of support
  17. Characteristics of studies
  18. References to studies included in this review
  19. References to studies excluded from this review
  20. Additional references
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McClean 2002
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Millen 1986
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Molineaux 1997
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