|Screened for infection - single dose (outcomes measured < 1 year)|
|Nokes 1992 |
|Growth measured but not reported: 9 weeks cited as too short a follow-up period to demonstrate a change.|
|Screened for infection - multiple dose (outcome measured < 1 year)|
|Simeon 1995 |
|No significant difference in any reported outcome for whole group. |
Height-for-age z-score at baseline in treatment group -0.48 (0.95) and in placebo group -0.39 (0.90). At follow up in treatment group -0.48 (0.97) and in placebo group -0.41 (0.89).
Body mass index (kg/m2) at baseline in treatment group 15.3 (1.3) and in placebo group 15.5 (1.3). At follow up in treatment group 15.6 (1.3) and in placebo group 15.8 (1.4).
|Whole target population treated - single dose (outcome measured < 1 year)|
|Beach 1999 |
|A nutritional benefit of treatment was not detectable after 4 months for the entire study population (853 participants, no figures provided).|
Stratification by infection demonstrated small positive effects in the treatment group for some anthropometric outcomes. In Ascaris-infected children (51), height gain was 0.62 cm greater than placebo in the combination treatment group (P = 0.01) at 4 months. In Trichuris-infected children (158), weight gain was 0.56 kg greater than placebo in the combination treatment group (P = 0.01) at 4 months.
|Fox 2005 |
|No results provided for whole study population.|
Results for height and weight only presented in the narrative for subgroups infected with hookworm and Ascaris: no significant anthropometric changes detected (no figures quoted). In those infected with Trichuris, weight gain was greater in the albendazole group (difference compared to placebo 0.28 kg, P = 0.038). Adverse events: no serious adverse events (albendazole 0/46 versus placebo 0/43). Myalgia and cough were reported significantly more frequently in the placebo group compared to albendazole.
|Greenberg 1981 |
|Treatment group tended to show worse nutrition than placebo.|
Comparison showed no significant difference for all measured anthropometric variables for the total group and for subgroups defined by severity of infection (no figures provided).
|Kloetzel 1982 |
|No significant difference was found between the groups.|
Results reported as the proportion of treatment or control group that improved, deteriorated, or experienced no change. Unclear which anthropological measures were used in this categorization process. Proportions in each category were not significantly different between trial arms (improved: 51% in mebendazole group versus 49% in control; deteriorated: 35% in mebendazole group versus 33% in control; no change: 14% in mebendazole group versus 18% in control; no significance test results quoted).
|Koroma 1996 |
|Significant increases in weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and height-for-age z-scores recorded in rural and urban treatment groups at 6 months. |
Mean increase in rural treatment group compared to placebo: weight-for-height z-score 0.28 (SE 0.17) P < 0.05; weight-for-age z-score 1.04 (SE 0.03) P < 0.05; and height-for-age z-score 0.83 (SE 0.03) P < 0.001.
Mean increase in urban treatment group compared to placebo: weight-for-height z-score 1.04 (SE 0.07) P < 0.05; weight-for-age z-score 1.02 (SE 0.09) P < 0.001; and height-for-age z-score 1.01 (SE 0.02) P <0.05.
|Michaelsen 1985 |
|No significant difference in change in mean for haemoglobin.|
(tetrachloroethylene 0.22 g/100 mL versus placebo 0.09 g/100 mL; quoted as non-significant) or weight for height at 5 months (tetrachloroethylene -1.3% of WHO reference mean versus placebo -0.4%; quoted as non-significant).
Adverse events: 17% (19/119: results not given for separate trial arms) of the children suffered adverse effects (nausea and ataxia) that began one and a half hours after treatment. All symptoms disappeared within four hours. Tetrachlorethylene is not in current use as a deworming drug.
|No significant differences in weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and height-for-age z-scores and skin fold thickness at 4 months.|
There was no statistically significant effect of deworming on weight, height, HAZ scores, WAZ scores, or WHZ scores. There were no statistically significant differences in skin fold thickness after four months of intervention.
|Whole target population treated - multiple dose (outcome measured < 1 year)|
|Goto 2009 |
Albendazole plus secnidazole
|No significant differences in mean z-scores or prevalence of stunting, underweight or wasting between the intervention groups were found, and the changes between intervals (eg between weeks 0 to 12, 0 to 24, 0 to 36, 12 to 24, etc.) did not differ significantly between groups. |
Height-for-age z-score: at baseline in treatment group -1.08 (1.02) and in control group -1.21 (1.0). At follow up in treatment group -1.59 (0.93) and in control group -1.70 (0.93).
Weight-for-age z-score: at baseline in treatment group -1.91 (1.15) and in control group -1.85 (1.14). At follow up in treatment group -2.62 (1.17) and in control group -2.59 (1.17).
Weight-for-height z-score: at baseline in treatment group -1.25 (1.18) and in control group -0.96 (1.17). At follow up in treatment group -1.55 (1.07) and in control group -1.83 (1.06).
|Hadju 1997 |
|No significant differences detected between treatment groups on basis of multivariate analyses controlling for age, sex, and ‘times’. |
Change in weight-for-age z-score: placebo 0.02; pyrantel 1 x treatment 0.03; pyrantel 2 x treatments 0.08; albendazole 1 x treatment -0.10; albendazole 2 x treatments 0.01.
Change in height-for-age z-score: placebo 0.01; pyrantel 1 x treatment 0.00; pyrantel 2 x treatments 0.04; albendazole 1 x treatment -0.07; albendazole 2 x treatments 0.01.
Change in weight-for-height z-score: placebo 0.02; pyrantel 1 x treatment 0.08; pyrantel 2 x treatments 0.05; albendazole 1 x treatment -0.07; albendazole 2 x treatments 0.03.
Change mid-arm circumference z-score: placebo -0.09; pyrantel 1 x treatment -0.11; pyrantel 2 x treatments -0.11; albendazole 1 x treatment -0.07; albendazole 2 x treatments -0.01.
|Le Huong 2007 |
|No obvious trend in nutrition variable.|
Anthropometric indices were calculated using WHO/NCHS reference data. Being wasted, stunted and underweight was defined by z-scores ,< - 2SD for weight-for-height, height-for-age and weight-for-age, respectively.
Percentage underweight: At baseline Fe 41·9, Fe + MEB 51·9, MEB 50·6, Placebo 45·1; after treatment Fe 33·7, Fe + MEB 46·8, MEB 38, Placebo 35·4.
Percentage stunted: At baseline Fe 30·2, Fe + MEB 31·6, MEB 41·8, Placebo 31·7; after treatment Fe 29·1, Fe + MEB 27·8, MEB 29·1, Placebo 29·3.
Percentage wasted: At baseline Fe 9·3, Fe + MEB 16·5, MEB 13·9, Placebo 12·2; after treatment Fe 5·8, Fe + MEB 17·7, MEB 13·9, Placebo 13·4.
|Miguel 2004 (Cluster)||No effect on nutrition or haemoglobin demonstrated|
Data from published paper including praziquantel treated clusters (25 treatment schools versus 25 control schools in 1998 comparison):
It is unclear how many children were followed up for nutritional outcomes. For haemoglobin a sample of around 4% (778/20,000) of the quasi-randomized comparison of group 1 versus group 2 in 1998 was analysed. It is unclear how this group was selected.
Difference in weight-for age Z score (treatment - control): 0.00 (SE 0.04).
Difference in height-for-age Z score end value (treatment - control): 0.09 (SE 0.05).
Difference in haemoglobin (g/L) (treatment - control): 1.6 (SE 1.4).
|Stoltzfus 2001 |
|Mebendazole is reported as significantly reducing the prevalence of mild wasting malnutrition in a subgroup of children aged < 30 months only|
adjusted odds ratio for mebendazole 0.38 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.90) for weight-for-height z-score < -1. Mebendazole is reported as significantly reducing the prevalence of poor appetite across the whole group (adjusted odds ratio for mebendazole 0.52 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.89) for weight-for-height z-score < -1). Mebendazole had no impact on iron indices. Adjusted effect on motor scores had a tendency to favour mebendazole, but this was not significant.
|Willett 1979 |
|No statistical difference in nutrition in terms of height and weight differences between the 2 groups.|
Growth rates presented are adjusted for a number of variables. Weight gain (kg/year) in levamisole group 2.08 versus 1.92 in placebo group (P = 0.06). Height gain (cm/year) in levamisole group 7.58 versus 7.73 in placebo group (no significance quoted).
|Stoltzfus 1997 (Cluster) |
|Weight gain: in a subgroup of under 10 year olds, the twice-yearly treated group experienced significantly greater weight gain (kg) compared to control (2.38 (SE 0.08) versus 2.11 (SE 0.08), P < 0.05).|
In the thrice yearly treatment group the difference was not significant (2.31 (SE 0.08) versus 2.11 (SE 0.08), no P value stated).
Height gain: in under 10 year olds the thrice-yearly treated group experienced significantly greater height gain (cm) compared to control (4.59 (SE 0.07) versus 4.29 (SE 0.07), P < 0.01). In the twice-yearly treatment group the difference in height gain was not significant (4.42 (SE 0.07) versus 4.29 (SE 0.07), no P value stated). There were no significant differences found in the subgroup of children aged over 10 years.
Haemoglobin change: deworming had no effect on haemoglobin change in an adjusted analysis presented for the whole study group (g/L): control 11.3 (SE 1.7); twice-yearly treatment group 10.3 (SE 1.7); and thrice-yearly group 12.7 (SE 1.7).
|Whole target population treated - multiple dose (outcome measured > 1 year)|
|Awasthi 2008 (Cluster)||During the study there were 23 deaths, 13 were in the usual care arm and 10 were in the treatment arm. |
These data were not adjusted for cluster randomization.
|Lai 1995 |
Mebendazole plus pyrantel
|No difference in height or weight between treatment and control group at the end of 2-year follow up. Standard deviations not provided. Results stratified for males and females: |
Females: change in height in treatment arm 12.2 cm versus change in height in placebo arm 12.4 cm; change in weight in treatment arm 5.6 kg versus change in weight in placebo arm 5.6 kg.
Males: change in height in treatment arm 11.8 cm versus change in height in placebo arm 11.4cm; change in weight in treatment arm 5.7 kg versus change in weight in placebo arm 4.7 kg.
|Hall 2006 (Cluster) |
|Trial authors reported no difference in final and change in height.|
Mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness improved significantly in the control group compared to the albendazole group (7.87 versus 7.61, P = 0.005 and 1.22 versus 1.05, P = 0.005 respectively). These results do not appear to have been adjusted for cluster randomization. The results that show no effect, however, will not remain non-significant even after appropriate adjustment, though the CIs may change.
|Rousham 1994 (Cluster) |
|ANOVAS of the change in z-scores revealed no significant improvement with treatment.|
Change in weight-for-age and weight-for-height z-scores were significantly worse in the treatment group. Height-for-age z-score (mebendazole 0.25 v 0.17 in placebo group, P 'non-significant'), weight-for-age z-score (mebendazole 0.03 versus 0.12 in placebo group, P < 0.05), weight-for-height z-score (mebendazole -0.25 versus -0.05 in placebo group, P < 0.001), and mid-upper arm circumference were presented (mebendazole 0.33 versus 0.23 in placebo group, P 'non-significant').