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Intervention Review

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Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults

  1. Helen HG Handoll1,*,
  2. Benjamin J Ollivere2,
  3. Katie E Rollins3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group

Published Online: 12 DEC 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 18 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000434.pub3


How to Cite

Handoll HHG, Ollivere BJ, Rollins KE. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD000434. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000434.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Teesside University, Health and Social Care Institute, Middlesbrough, Tees Valley, UK

  2. 2

    Queen's Medical Centre, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Nottingham, UK

  3. 3

    Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of General Surgery, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, UK

*Helen HG Handoll, Health and Social Care Institute, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, Tees Valley, TS1 3BA, UK. h.handoll@tees.ac.uk. H.Handoll@ed.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 12 DEC 2012

SEARCH

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (11 NOV 2015)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Agorastides 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Agorastides I, Sinopidis C, El Meligy M, Yin Q, Brownson P, Frostick SP. Early versus late mobilization after hemiarthroplasty for proximal humeral fractures. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2007;16(3 Suppl):S33-8.
  • Frostick S. Randomised prospective study to evaluate sling immobilisation versus early active assisted mobilisation following hemiarthroplasty for fractures of the proximal humerus. http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/trial/483871 (accessed August 6 2010).
  • Frostick S. Randomised prospective study to evaluate sling immobilisation versus early active assisted mobilisation following hemiarthroplasty for fractures of the proximal humerus. In: National Research Register, Issue 1, 2003. Oxford; Update Software.
Bertoft 1984 {published data only}
  • Bertoft ES, Lundh I, Ringqvist I. Physiotherapy after fracture of the proximal end of the humerus. Comparison between two methods. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 1984;16(1):11-6.
Fialka 2008 {published data only}
  • Fialka C, Stampfl P, Arbes S, Reuter P, Oberleitner G, Vecsei V. Primary hemiarthroplasty in four-part fractures of the proximal humerus: Randomized trial of two different implant systems. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2008;17(2):210-5.
Fjalestad 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Fjalestad T. personal communication April 12 2010.
  • Fjalestad T. personal communication December 3 2006.
  • Fjalestad T. Comminuted proximal humeral fractures. A randomised study of surgical versus conservative treatment. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00863473 (accessed June 24 2009).
  • Fjalestad T, Hole MO, Hovden IA, Blucher J, Stromsoe K. Surgical treatment with an angular stable plate for complex displaced proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients: a randomized controlled. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 2012;26(2):98-106.
  • Fjalestad T, Hole MO, Jorgensen JJ, Stromsoe K, Kristiansen IS. Health and cost consequences of surgical versus conservative treatment for a comminuted proximal humeral fracture in elderly patients. Injury 2010;41(6):599-605.
  • Fjalestad T, Stromsoe K, Blucher J, Tennoe B. Fractures in the proximal humerus: functional outcome and evaluation of 70 patients treated in hospital. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 2005;125(5):310-6.
  • Fjalsted T. personal communication April 27 2012.
  • Kristiansen IS, Jorgensen JJ, Fjalestad T, Stromsoe K. Fracture of the proximal humerus. Randomised clinical study at the Aker University Hospital - economic evaluation [Fraktur i øvre humuserende. Randomisert klinisk studie ved Aker Universitetssykehus HF- Økonomisk evaluering]. Univerity of Oslo website: http://www.hero.uio.no/prosjekter/prosjekt6.13.html (Accessed November 13 2006).
Hodgson 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Campbell M. Early versus late physiotherapy in fractured proximal neck of humerus: a randomised controlled study. In: National Research Register, Issue 3, 2000. Oxford: Update Software.
  • Hodgson S, Stanley D. A randomised controlled trial investigating functional outcome, with early and late physiotherapy, on patients sustaining a fractured proximal humerus. British Elbow and Shoulder Society (BESS) Annual Scientific Meeting and Instructional Course; 2000 May 4-5; Nottingham (UK). 2000.
  • Hodgson S, Stanley S, Mawson S. Timing of physiotherapy in management of fractured proximal humerus: Randomised controlled trial [Abstract]. Physiotherapy 2002;88(12):763.
  • Hodgson S, Stanley S, Mawson S. Timing of physiotherapy in the management of the fractured proximal humerus: a randomised controlled trial. Extending the boundaries. Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Congress 2001; 2001 Oct 19-21; Birmingham (UK). 2001.
  • Hodgson SA. A controlled, randomised study investigating functional outcome, with early and late physiotherapy, on patients following a fractured proximal humerus. National Research Register (http://www.update-software.com/National/nrr-frame.html) 2000, issue 3.
  • Hodgson SA, Mawson SJ, Saxton JM, Stanley D. Rehabilitation of two-part fractures of the neck of the humerus (two-year follow-up). Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2007;16(2):143-5.
  • Hodgson SA, Mawson SJ, Stanley D. Rehabilitation after two-part fractures of the neck of the humerus. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume 2003;85(3):419-22.
  • Stanley D. A prospective, controlled, randomised study investigating functional outcome, with early and late physiotherapy, on patients following a fractured proximal humerus. In: National Research Register, Issue 2, 2001. Oxford: Update Software.
  • Stanley D. A prospective, controlled randomised study investigating functional outcome, with early and late physiotherapy, on patients following a fractured proximal humerus. http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/trial/485287 (accessed August 06 2010).
Hoellen 1997 {published data only}
  • Bauer G, Hoellen I, Hohlbein O. Primary prosthetic humerus head replacement in dislocated multiple fragment fracture of the humerus head in over 60-year-olds [Der primare prothetische Humeruskopfersatz bei der dislozierten Humeruskopfmehrfragmentfraktur bei uber 60jahrigen]. Hefte zur der Unfallchirurg 1999;272:169-70.
  • Hoellen IP, Bauer F, Holbein O. Primary endoprosthesis in comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus - an alternative treatment for elderly patients? [Der prothetische humeruskipfersatz bei der dislozierten humerusmehrfragmentfraktur des alten menschen - eine alternative zur minimalosteosynthese]. Zentralblatt fur Chirurgie 1997;122(11):994-1001.
  • Hoellen IP, Holbein O, Bauer G. Prosthetic humerus head replacement in dislocated humerus head multiple fracture in older people: An alternative to minimal osteosynthesis? [Der prothetische Humeruskopfersatz bei der dislozierten Humeruskopfmehrfragmentfraktur des alten Menschen: Eine Alternative zur Minimalosteosynthese?]. Hefte zur der Unfallchirurg 1997;268:49-51.
  • Holbein O, Bauer G, Hoellen I, Keppler P, Hehl G, Kinzl L. Is primary endoprosthetic replacement of the humeral head an alternative treatment for comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly patients? [Stellt die primare Implantation einer Humeruskopfprothese bei der dislozierten Humeruskopfmehrfragmentfraktur des alten Menschen eine Alternative zur Minimalosteosynthese dar?]. Osteosynthese International 1999;7 Suppl 2:207-10.
  • Holbein O, Hehl G, Keppler P, Kinzl L. Treatment of proximal humerus multiple fracture in old and very old people [Die Behandlung der Mehrfragmentfraktur des proximalen Humerus bei alten und uralten Menschen]. Hefte zur der Unfallchirurg 2000;275:207-8.
  • Pokar S, Holbein O, Kinzl L, Hehl G. Primary head of humerus prosthetic vs. minimal osteosynthesis in the treatment of head of humerus multiple-fragment fractures in older patients [Primare Humeruskopfprothese vs. Minimalosteosynthese in der Behandlung von Humeruskopfmehrfragmentfrakturen des alteren Patientenatients]. Hefte zur der Unfallchirurg 2001;283:375-6.
Kristiansen 1988 {published data only}
  • Kristiansen B, Kofoed H. Transcutaneous reduction and external fixation of displaced fractures of the proximal humerus. A controlled clinical trial. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume 1988;70(5):821-4.
Kristiansen 1989 {published data only}
  • Kristiansen B, Angermann P, Larsen TK. Functional results following fractures of the proximal humerus. A controlled clinical study comparing two periods of immobilization. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 1989;108(6):339-41.
Lefevre-Colau 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lefevre-Colau M-M. Efficacy of shoulder mobilisation versus conventional immobilisation for nonsurgically proximal humerus fracture. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00326794 (accessed September 22 2006).
  • Lefevre-Colau MM, Babinet A, Fayad F, Fermanian J, Anract P, Roren A, et al. Immediate mobilization compared with conventional immobilization for the impacted nonoperatively treated proximal humeral fracture. A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - American Volume 2007;89(12):2582-90.
Livesley 1992 {published data only}
Lundberg 1979 {published data only}
  • Lundberg BJ, Svenungson-Hartvig E, Wikmark R. Independent exercises versus physiotherapy in nondisplaced proximal humeral fractures. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 1979;11(3):133-6.
Ockert 2010 {published data only}
  • Biberthaler P, Braunstein V, Kirchoff C, Kroetz M, Kettler M, Mutschler W. Surgical therapy of humeral head fractures with a locking plate: analysis of 176 cases. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume 2009;91(Suppl 1):40.
  • Ockert B. personal communication June 18 2012.
  • Ockert B, Braunstein V, Kirchhoff C, Korner M, Kirchhoff S, Kehr K, et al. Monoaxial versus polyaxial screw insertion in angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures: radiographic analysis of a prospective randomized study. Journal of Trauma 2010;69(6):1545-51.
Olerud 2011a {published data only}
  • Olerud P. personal communication April 19 2012.
  • Olerud P. personal communication May 22 2012.
  • Olerud P, Ahrengart L, Ponzer S, Saving J, Tidermark J. Internal fixation versus nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2011;20(5):747-55.
Olerud 2011b {published data only}
  • Olerud P. personal communication April 19 2012.
  • Olerud P. personal communication May 22 2012.
  • Olerud P, Ahrengart L, Ponzer S, Saving J, Tidermark J. Hemiarthroplasty versus nonoperative treatment of displaced 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2011;20(7):1025-33.
Revay 1992 {published data only}
  • Revay S, Dahlstrom M, Dalen N. Water exercise versus instruction for self-training following a shoulder fracture. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 1992;15(4):327-33.
Rommens 1993 {published data only}
  • Deldycke J, Rommens PM, Heyvaert G, Broos PL. Conservative treatment of sub-capital humerus fractures. A comparative study between the classical Desault-bandage and the new Gilchrist-bandage [Die konservative Behandlung von subkapitalen Humerusfrakturen. Eine vergleichende Studie zwischen dem klassischen Desault-Verband und der neuen Gilchrist-Bandage]. Hefte zur der Unfallchirurg 1993;232:145-6.
  • Rommens PM, Heyvaert G. Conservative treatment of subcapital humerus fractures. A comparative study of the classical Desault bandage and the new Gilchrist bandage [Die konservative behandlung subkapitaler humerusfrakturen. Eine vergleichende studie zwischen dem klassischen Desault-verband und der neuen Gilchrist-bandage]. Unfallchirurgie 1993;19(2):114-8.
Smejkal 2011 {published data only}
  • Smejkal K, Didek T, Zvak I, Trlica J, Folvarsky J. Operation treatment of 2-3 fragments proximal humeral fractures using Zifko versus Philos [abstract]. European Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery 2008;34(Suppl 1):44-5.
  • Smejkal K, Lochman P, Dedek T, Trlica J, Koci J, Zvak I. Surgical treatment for proximal humerus fracture [Czech] [Operacni lecba zlomenin proximalniho humeru]. Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca 2011;78(4):321-7.
Stableforth 1984 {published data only}
Voigt 2011 {published data only}
  • Voigt C. personal communication May 30 2012.
  • Voigt C, Geisler A, Hepp P, Schulz AP, Lill H. Are polyaxially locked screws advantageous in the plate osteosynthesis of proximal humeral fractures in the elderly? A prospective randomized clinical observational study. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 2011;25(10):596-602.
Wirbel 1999 {published data only}
  • Wirbel R, Knorr V, Saur B, Duhr B, Mutschler W. Minimally invasive fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures. Orthopaedics and Traumatology 1999;7(1):44-53.
  • Wirbel RJ, Knorr V, Mutschler W. Minimal invasive therapy in dislocated proximal humerus fractures. Influence of post-operative immobilisation on the function outcome [Minimal invasive Therapie bei dislozierten proximalen Humerusfrakturen. Einfluss der postoperativen Immobilisation auf das funktionelle Ergebnis]. Hefte zur der Unfallchirurg 1997;268:678-81.
Zhang 2011 {published data only}
  • Zhang D. personal communication May 14 2012.
  • Zhang L, Zheng J, Wang W, Lin G, Huang Y, Zheng J, et al. The clinical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures: a prospective randomized study. International Orthopaedics 2011;35(11):1655-61.
Zhu 2011 {published data only}
  • Zhu Y, Lu Y, Shen J, Zhang J, Jiang C. Locking intramedullary nails and locking plates in the treatment of two-part proximal humeral surgical neck fractures: a prospective randomized trial with a minimum of three years of follow-up. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 2011;93(2):159-68.
Zyto 1997 {published data only}
  • Karladani HA. Treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients [Letter and reply]. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume 1999;81(1):181-2.
  • Tornkvist H, Ahrengart L, Sperber A. Tension band wiring vs. non-operative treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures. A prospective randomized study [abstract]. Orthopaedic Transactions 1997;21(2):592.
  • Tornkvist H, Ahrengart L, Sperber A. Tension band wiring vs. nonoperative treatment of proximal humerus fractures - a prospective randomized study [Abstract]. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica. Supplementum 1995;66(265):40-1.
  • Zyto K. personal communication March 21 1997.
  • Zyto K, Ahrengart L, Sperber A, Tornkvist H. Treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume 1997;79(3):412-7.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Bing 2002 {unpublished data only}
  • Armstrong A. personal communication July 17 2010.
  • Bing AJF, Eastwood G, Sharma R, Cross R, Taylor GJS, Harper WM. A randomised prospective trial comparing Polarus nail and Rush pins for fixation of proximal humeral fractures - Poster A5. British Orthopaedic Association Annual Congress; 2002 Sept 18-20; Cardiff (UK). London: British Orthopaedic Association, 2002:2.
  • Sharma R. A prospective, randomised clinical trial to compare Rush pins fixation with Polaris nail fixation of displaced two part fractures of the proximal humerus. In: National Research Register, Issue 2, 2000. Oxford: Update Software.
Bolano 1995 {published data only}
  • Bolano LE. Operative treatment of humeral shaft fractures: A prospective, randomized study of intramedullary nailing versus dynamic compression plating [abstract]. Orthopaedic Transactions 1995;19(1):33.
Brownson 2001 {unpublished data only}
  • Brownson P. A prospective randomised trial comparing conservative treatment and the Halder Humeral Nail for displaced fractures of the surgical neck and shaft of the humerus. In: National Research Register, Issue 2, 2000. Oxford: Update Software.
Carbone 2012 {published data only}
  • Carbone S, Tangari M, Gumina S, Postacchini R, Campi A, Postacchini F. Percutaneous pinning of three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly patients in poor general condition: MIROS® versus traditional pinning. International Orthopaedics 2012;36(6):1267-73.
Chapman 1997 {published data only}
  • Chapman J, Weber TG, Henley B, Benca PJ. Randomized prospective study of humerus fixation: nails vs. plates [abstract]. Orthopaedic Transactions 1997;21(2):594.
  • Chapman J, Weber TG, Henley MB, Benca P. Randomized prospective study of humerus fixation: Nails vs. plates [abstract]. Orthopaedic Transactions 1996;20(1):10.
Chiu 1997 {published data only}
de Boer 2003 {unpublished data only}
  • Booth C. personal communication March 20 2003.
  • de Boer P. personal communication March 12 2003.
  • De Boer P. Plating of proximal humerus fracture: a blind comparative study. In: National Research Register, Issue 1, 2003. Oxford: Update Software.
Dias 2001 {unpublished data only}
  • Armstrong A. personal communication July 17 2010.
  • Der Tavitian J. The management of comminuted proximal humeral fractured, a randomised prospective trial. https://portal.nihr.ac.uk/Profiles/NRR.aspx?Publication_ID=N0123137861) (accessed Aug 09 2010).
  • Dias J. personal communication November 16 2001.
Edelson 2008 {published data only}
  • Edelson G, Safuri H, Salami J, Vigder F, Militianu D. Natural history of complex fractures of the proximal humerus using a three-dimensional classification system. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2008;17(3):399-409.
Flannery 2006 {unpublished data only}
  • Flannery M. personal communication November 16 2006.
  • Flannery M. A prospective randomised trial for the treatment of four part fractures of proximal humerus: "conservative vs hemiarthroplasty". In: National Research Register, Issue 3, 2006. Oxford; Update Software.
  • Turner R. personal communication November 19 2006.
Gradl 2009 {published data only}
  • Gradl G, Dietze A, Kaab M, Hopfenmuller W, Mittlmeier T. Is locking nailing of humeral head fractures superior to locking plate fixation?. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 2009;467(11):2986-93.
Hems 2000 {unpublished data only}
  • Hems T. A prospective randomised trial comparing conservative treatment and the Halder Humeral Nail for displaced fractures of the surgical neck and shaft of the humerus. In: National Research Register, Issue 3, 2000. Oxford: Update Software.
Liao 2009 {published data only}
  • Liao C, Wang P, Xie Y, Fan T, Li P, Liang W. Different surgical methods for treatment of senile osteoporotic comminuted proximal humerus fracture. Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery 2009;23(12):1443-6.
Martin 2000 {published data only}
  • Heath C. The effect of interfential current on pain followiing proximal fracture of the humerus. A single blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial. In: National Research Register, Issue 4, 2001. Oxford: Update Software.
  • Martin D, Palmer S, Heath C. Interferential current as an adjunct to exercise and mobilisation in the treatment of proximal humerus fracture pain: Lack of evidence of an additional effect [Abstract]. Physiotherapy 2000;86(3):147.
  • Palmer S. personal communication May 9 2003.
Mechlenburg 2009 {unpublished data only}
  • Mechlenburg I. Comparison of the Philos plate and cemented hemiprosthesis (Bigliani) in the treatment of three- and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus: a prospective, randomised migration and bone density study. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00408291 (assessed June 24 2009).
  • Mechlenburg I. Evaluation of the Winsta PH osteosynthesis device in the treatment of three- and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus: a prospective migration and bone density study. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00408291 (assessed May 17 2010).
  • Mechlenburg IB. personal communication May 25 2010.
Parnes 2005 {published data only}
  • Parnes N, Pritsch T, Mozes G. Is surgery the best choice in the treatment of complex fractures of proximal humerus? Preliminary study on 50 cases [Abstract]. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume 2005;87(Suppl 3):384.
Pullen 2007 {unpublished data only}
  • Pullen H. Comparison of the T2 procimal humeral nail and PHILOS system in the treatment of 2+3 part proximal humeral fractures. https://portal.nihr.ac.uk/Profiles/NRR.aspx?Publication_ID=M0044170200 (accessed Aug 09 2010).
Rodriguez-Merchan 95 {published data only}
Shah {unpublished data only}
  • Shah N. personal communication April 1 2003.
  • Shah N. Shoulder function following four part fractures of proximal humerus: A prospective randomised trial for treatment of four part fractures of proximal humerus - conservative vs hemiarthroplasty. In: National Research Register, Issue 1, 2003. Oxford: Update Software.
Sinopidis 2010 {published data only}
  • Sinopidis C. Prospective randomised study of reverse shoulder prosthesis and hemiarthroplasty for elderly patients with proximal humeral fractures. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32335957 (accessed June 18 2010).
  • Smith M. personal communication April 27 2012.
Wallace 2000 {unpublished data only}
  • Wallace WA. A prospective randomised trial of the management of displaced surgical neck and displaced shaft fractures of the humerus with the Halder Humeral Nail. In: National Research Register, Issue 3, 2000. Oxford: Update Software.
Wan 2005 {published data only}
  • Wan L, Wang G-X. Interventional effect of improved mobilization on dysfunction of fractured shoulder joint. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu [Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation] 2005;9(26):10-1.
Warnecke 1999 {published data only}
  • Warnecke J, Jansen T, Oestern H-J. Surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures [Operative behandlung proximaler humerusfrakturen - AO multicenterstudie]. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie 1999;Suppl Kongressband II:1021-4.
Welsh 2000 {unpublished data only}
  • Kulkarni R. Welsh proximal humeral fracture project. In: National Research Register, Issue 2, 2000. Oxford: Update Software.
Yang 2006 {published data only}
  • Yang L. personal correspondence March 9 2010.
  • Yang L, Li B, Pan XY, Li C, Huang JW, Wang ZW, et al. Percutaneous reduction and fixation of osteoporotic fractures for the proximal humerus in a geriatric population. Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 2006;44(12):830-2.
Zhang 2010 {published data only}
  • Zhang JH, Di ZL, He ZY, Feng JX, Xu RM. Comparison of humeral head replacement and internal fixation for the treatment of 3 parts and 4 parts fractures of proximal humerus in the elderly. Zhongguo gu shang = China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology 2010;23(6):435-9.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Battistella 2011 {published data only}
  • Battistella F, Oldani M, Tajana MS, Prestamburgo D. Treatment of proximal humerus fractures with locking plate by minimally invasive technique. Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology 2011;12(Supplement):S15-6.
Fjalestad (RCT proposal) {unpublished data only}
  • Fjalsted T. personal communication April 27 2012.
Luo 2008 {published data only}
  • Luo KM, Hou Z, Yang L. Observation on therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture on activity disturbance of the shoulder joint after operation of fracture. Zhongguo Zhenjiu = Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion 2008;28(10):727-9.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Boyer {unpublished data only}
  • Boyer P. Randomised study between intramedullary locking nails and locking plates for treatment of proximal humerus fractures (HUMERUS). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01557413 (accessed April 10 2012).
Brorson {published data only}
  • Brorson S. personal communication June 11 2012.
  • Brorson S. Effect of osteosynthesis, primary hemi-arthroplasty, and non-surgical management for displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly: a multi-centre, randomised clinical trial. clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00835562 (accessed June 24 2009).
  • Brorson S, Olsen BS, Frich LH, Jensen SL, Johannsen HV, Sorensen AK, et al. Effect of osteosynthesis, primary hemiarthroplasty, and non-surgical management for displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly: a multi-centre, randomised clinical trial. Trials 2009;10:51.
Engelsma {unpublished data only}
  • Engelsma Y. Arthroplasty in three- or four-part proximal humerus fracture: hemi or reverse?. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3208 (accessed April 10 2012).
Guy {unpublished data only}
  • Guy P. Operative versus non operative treatment of proximal humerus (shoulder joint) fractures. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00818987 (accessed June 24 2009).
Helsinki {unpublished data only}
  • Lähdeoja T, Paavola M. Treatment of comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus. A randomised, controlled study. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00999193 (accessed August 6 2010).
HOMERUS {unpublished data only}
  • Diercks RL, Verbeek PA. Hemiarthroplasty versus osteosynthesis in humeral fractures (HOMERUS): A multicenter randomized trial. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2461 (accessed April 10 2012).
HURA {unpublished data only}
  • Rouleau DM, Poirier M-F. Lateral mini approach vs anterior approach for plating of proximal humerus fracture (HURA). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00612391 (accessed June 18 2010).
Loma Linda {unpublished data only}
  • Phipatanakul W. Clinical outcome comparison between medial and lateral offset reverse shoulder arthroplasty. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01086202 (accessed August 6 2010).
Pelet {unpublished data only}
  • Pelet S, Arteau A. Effectiveness of intensive rehabilitation on shoulder function after a fracture of the proximal humerus treated by locked plate. A prospective randomized study. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01113411 (accessed August 6 2010).
ProCon {published and unpublished data}
  • Den Hartog D. Primary hemiarthroplasty versus conservative treatment for comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus in the elderly (ProCon) - A multicenter randomized trial. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2040] (accessed May 25 2010).
  • Den Hartog D, van Lieshout EM, Tuinebreijer WE, Polinder S, Van Beeck EF, Breederveld RS, et al. Primary hemiarthroplasty versus conservative treatment for comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus in the elderly (ProCon): A multicenter randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2010;11:97.
ProFHER {published data only}
  • Handoll H, Brealey S, Rangan A, Torgerson D, Dennis L, Armstrong A, et al. Protocol for the ProFHER (PROximal Fracture of the Humerus: Evaluation by Randomisation) trial: a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of surgical versus non-surgical treatment for proximal fracture of the humerus in adults. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorder 2009;10:140.
  • Rangan A. Multi-centre randomised trial evaluating surgery for displaced fractures of the proximal humerus. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN50850043 (accessed June 18 2010).
Ring {unpublished data only}
  • Ring D. personal communication April 16 2012.
  • Ring D. Comparison of early and late therapy for adults with non-operatively treated proximal humerus fractures. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00438633 (accessed June 18 2010).
Stanley {unpublished data only}
  • Stanley J. Minimally invasive versus standard open reduction of proximal humerus fractures. http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12610000730000.aspx (accessed April 10 2012).
TPHF {unpublished data only}
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Additional references

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  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Gibson 2001
  • Gibson JNA, Handoll HHG, Madhok R. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 1. [Art. No.: CD000434. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000434.pub3]
Gibson 2002a
  • Gibson JNA, Handoll HHG, Madhok R. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 2. [Art. No.: CD000434. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000434.pub3]
Gibson 2002b
  • Gibson JNA, Handoll HHG, Madhok R. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 3. [Art. No.: CD000434. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000434.pub3]
Handoll 2003a
  • Handoll HHG, Gibson JNA, Madhok R. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 4. [Art. No.: CD000434. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000434.pub3]
Handoll 2007
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Handoll 2010