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Non-neuroleptic catecholaminergic drugs for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia

  • Review
  • Intervention

Authors


Abstract

Background

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disabling movement disorder associated with the prolonged use of neuroleptic medication. Several strategies have been examined in the treatment of TD. Currently, however, there is no clear evidence of the effectiveness of these drugs in TD and they have been associated with many side effects. One particular strategy would be to use pharmaceutical agents which are known to influence the catecholaminergic system at various junctures.

Objectives

To determine whether catecholaminergic drugs for people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illnesses are associated with a reduction in neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia.

Search methods

We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (January 1996), Biological Abstracts (1982-1995), EMBASE (1980-1995), LILACS (1982-1996), MEDLINE (1966-1995) and PsycLIT (1974-1995). We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register again in December 2002 and September 2005. We also searched references of all relevant studies for further trial citations and contacted principal authors of trials.

Selection criteria

We selected studies if they were randomised controlled trials focusing on people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illnesses who also suffered from neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. We compared the use of catecholaminergic interventions versus placebo or no intervention.

Data collection and analysis

We independently extracted data. For homogenous dichotomous data, we calculated the random effects, relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) and, where appropriate, the numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD).

Main results

We excluded 20 studies, mainly due to an inability to extract data from the first arm of the study crossover. One included study has shown that patients on placebo were no more likely to leave the study early than those on tiapride (n=24). The other included study (n=35) also reported equivocal data (RR 5.28 CI 0.3 to 102.6) for leaving the study early when participants were randomised to either celiprolol or placebo. However, in both studies, sample size was limited.

Authors' conclusions

Although there has been a large amount of research in this area, most studies were excluded due to inherent problems in the nature of their crossover designs. Usually data are not reported before the crossover and the nature of TD and its likely response to treatments makes it imprudent to use this data. The review provides little usable information for service users or providers and more well designed and reported studies are indicated.

Plain language summary

Non-neuroleptic catecholaminergic drugs for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Tardive dyskinesia is a disfiguring and disabling movement disorder which is often caused by drugs used to treat schizophrenia. Several of the Cochrane reviews have summarised the effects of the many treatments used to manage these involuntary movements and this one summarises the trials-based evidence of a group of compounds which are known to influence a specific set of brain chemicals called the catecholaminergic system.

For this review we only found two short small studies with only one outcome which was 'leaving the study early'. We did not find any useful information for measures of tardive dyskinesia, mental state and adverse effects. We cannot recommend these drugs (non-neuroleptic catecholaminergics) as a treatment intervention for tardive dyskinesia. Their use is purely experimental.

Laienverständliche Zusammenfassung

Nicht-neuroleptische (nicht-antipsychotische) katecholaminerge Medikamente für Neuroleptika (Antipsychotika)-ausgelöste Spätdyskinesie

Spätdyskinesie ist eine entstellende und schwer beeinträchtigende Bewegungsstörung, die häufig durch Medikamente, die zur Behandlung von Schizophrenie eingesetzt werden, verursacht werden. Mehrere Cochrane-Übersichtsarbeiten haben die Wirkungen der verschiedenen Behandlungsansätze, die für das Management dieser unwillkürlichen Bewegungen angewendet werden, zusammengefasst; diese Übersichtsarbeit fasst die Evidenz aus Studien für eine Gruppe von Verbindungen zusammen, von denen man weiss, dass sie eine bestimmte Gruppe von Chemikalien im Gehirn beeinflussen, das sog. katecholaminerge System (Steuerung von Organen durch Catecholamine, sprich Hormonen und Neurotransmitter) .

Für diese Übersichtsarbeit haben wir nur zwei kurze kleine Studien gefunden mit lediglich dem Endpunkt "vorzeitiges Verlassen der Studie”. Wir fanden keine nützlichen Informationen in Hinblick auf Spätdyskinesien, psychische Verfassung und Nebenwirkungen. Wir können diese Medikamente (nicht-neuroleptische katecholaminerge Medikamente) nicht für die Behandlung von Spätdyskinesien empfehlen. Ihre Verwendung ist rein experimentell.

Anmerkungen zur Übersetzung

J. Meerpohl, Koordination durch Cochrane Schweiz

Laički sažetak

Ne-neuroleptični katekolaminergički lijekovi za tardivnu diskineziju uzrokovanu neurolepticima

Tardivna diskinezija je poremećaj kretanja koji je često uzrokovan lijekovima koji se koriste za liječenje shizofrenije. Obilježena je nevoljnim ponavljanim pokretima, uglavnom područja oko usta, ali povremeno i udova. U nekoliko Cochrane sustavnih pregleda sažeti su učinci brojnih terapija koja se koriste za liječenje tih nevoljnih pokreta. Ovaj Cochrane sustavni pregled literature sažima dokaze iz istraživanja o skupini lijekova koje utječu na specifičan skup kemikalija u mozgu koji se nazivaju katekolaminergički sustav.

Sustavnim pretraživanjem literature pronađene su samo dvije male kratkotrajne studije sa samo jednim ishodom koji je bio "rano napuštanje studije". Nisu pronađeni nikakvi korisni podaci za mjerenje tardivne diskinezije, mentalnog stanja i nuspojava. Stoga ne možemo preporučiti te lijekove (ne-neuroleptične katekolaminergike) kao terapijsku intervenciju za liječenje tardivne diskinezije. Njihova upotreba je potpuno eksperimentalna.

Bilješke prijevoda

Hrvatski Cochrane
Preveo: Adam Galkovski
Ovaj sažetak preveden je u okviru volonterskog projekta prevođenja Cochrane sažetaka. Uključite se u projekt i pomozite nam u prevođenju brojnih preostalih Cochrane sažetaka koji su još uvijek dostupni samo na engleskom jeziku. Kontakt: cochrane_croatia@mefst.hr