This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (20 FEB 2014)

Intervention Review

Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold

  1. Klaus Linde1,*,
  2. Bruce Barrett2,
  3. Rudolf Bauer3,
  4. Dieter Melchart4,
  5. Karin Woelkart5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group

Published Online: 25 JAN 2006

Assessed as up-to-date: 27 SEP 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000530.pub2

How to Cite

Linde K, Barrett B, Bauer R, Melchart D, Woelkart K. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD000530. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000530.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Technische Universität München / Klinikum rechts der Isar, Institut für Allgemeinmedizin / Institute of General Practice, München, Germany

  2. 2

    University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Family Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

  3. 3

    Karl-Franzens-University, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacognosy, Graz, Austria

  4. 4

    Technical University Munich, Centre for Complementary Medicine Research, Department of Internal Medicine II, Munich, Germany

  5. 5

    Institute of Pharmaceuticals Sciences, Department of Pharmacognosy, Graz, Austria

*Klaus Linde, Institut für Allgemeinmedizin / Institute of General Practice, Technische Universität München / Klinikum rechts der Isar, Wolfgangstr. 8, München, 81667, Germany. Klaus.Linde@lrz.tu-muenchen.de.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 25 JAN 2006

SEARCH

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (20 FEB 2014)

 

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Background

Echinacea plant preparations (family Compositae) are widely used in Europe and North America for common colds. Most consumers and physicians are not aware that products available under the term Echinacea differ appreciably in their composition, mainly due to the use of variable plant material, extraction methods and the addition of other components.

Objectives

To assess whether there is evidence that Echinacea preparations are 1) more effective than no treatment; 2) more effective than placebo; 3) similarly effective to other treatments in the prevention and treatment of the common cold.

Search methods

We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3); PubMed (1997 to September 2007); EMBASE (1998 to April 2007); AMED (to August 2005) and the Centre for Complementary Medicine Research (1988 to September 2007).

Selection criteria

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing mono-preparations of Echinacea with placebo, no treatment, or another treatment for prevention or treatment of common colds. Trials on combinations of Echinacea and other herbs were excluded.

Data collection and analysis

At least two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality, and extracted data. Outcomes of interest in prevention trials were numbers of individuals with one or more colds, and the severity and duration of colds. In treatment trials outcomes were total symptom scores, nasal symptoms, and duration of colds.

Main results

Sixteen trials including a total of 22 comparisons of Echinacea preparations and a control group (19 placebo, 2 no treatment, 1 another herbal preparation) met the inclusion criteria. All trials except one were double-blinded. The majority had reasonable to good methodological quality. Three comparisons investigated prevention; 19 comparisons investigated treatment of colds. A variety of different Echinacea preparations were used. None of the prevention trials showed an effect over placebo. Comparing an Echinacea preparation with placebo as treatment, a significant effect was reported in nine comparisons, a trend in one, and no difference in six. Evidence from more than one trial was available only for preparations based on the aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea).

Authors' conclusions

Echinacea preparations tested in clinical trials differ greatly. There is some evidence that preparations based on the aerial parts of E. purpurea might be effective for the early treatment of colds in adults but the results are not fully consistent. Beneficial effects of other Echinacea preparations, and Echinacea used for preventative purposes might exist but have not been shown in independently replicated, rigorous RCTs.

 

Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold

Preparations of the plant Echinacea are widely used in some European countries and in North America for common colds. Echinacea preparations available on the market differ greatly as different types (species) and parts (herb, root, or both) of the plant are used, different manufacturing methods (drying, alcoholic extraction, or pressing out the juice from fresh plants) are used, and sometimes also other herbs are added. We reviewed 16 controlled clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of several different Echinacea preparations for preventing and treating common colds. Two trials investigated whether taking Echinacea preparations for 8 to 12 weeks prevents colds but found no clear effect. The majority of trials investigated whether taking Echinacea preparations after the onset of cold symptoms shortens the duration or decreases the severity of symptoms, compared with placebo. It seems that some preparations based on the herb of Echinacea purpurea might be effective for this purpose in adults, while there is no clear evidence that other preparations are effective or that children benefit. Side effects were infrequent but rashes were reported in one trial in children.

 

摘要

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

背景

紫錐花(Echinacea)對於預防和治療感冒之效果

紫錐花(一種菊科植物)的製劑,在北美及一些歐洲國家被廣泛用來治療感冒。由於使用材料的種類、萃取方法以及其他添加成分的不同,即使主要的成分標示為紫錐花,大多數消費者和醫生都不知道其組成成分可能有很大差異。

目標

本回顧的目的是評估,是否有證據顯示紫錐花製劑在治療及預防感冒,1)比沒有給予治療有效,2)比安慰劑有效;3)與其他藥物治療有相似的療效。

搜尋策略

我們搜尋了the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library2005年,第3期); PubMed (1997年至2005年4月), EMBASE (1998年至2005年6月), AMED (至2005年8月), Centre for Complementary Medicine Research (in Munich) (1998年至2005年5月),我們也請教專家的意見以及搜尋一些回顧性文章的參考文獻。

選擇標準

我們選取比較單一紫錐花製劑與安慰劑、沒有治療或其他治療對於預防或治療感冒效果的隨機對照實驗。排除混合紫錐花與其他藥草製劑的研究。

資料收集與分析

所有的研究至少有兩位作者來評估研究品質和是否納入分析,並摘錄其數據。關於預防的效果,我們將重點放在感冒的人數,嚴重程度和持續時間;關於治療的效果,重點則在將其全部症狀加總評分,鼻部症狀和感冒持續時間。

主要結論

有16個臨床試驗,共包括22個關於紫錐花製劑和對照組(19個為安慰劑,2個為沒有治療,1個為另一中草藥製劑)的比較符合納入分析的標準,只有一個臨床試驗不是雙盲試驗,大部分試驗的研究方法為合理至良好。有3個比較預防感冒,19個比較治療感冒的效果。研究使用了多種不同的紫錐花製劑。所有預防感冒的比較,其效果和安慰劑相同,而在治療感冒的比較方面,有9個比安慰劑有效,1個似乎較好,而有6個顯示沒有差異。不只一個試驗僅以紫錐花(Echinacea purpurea)之地上部分作為製劑。

作者結論

臨床試驗測試的紫錐花製劑差異很大。有一些實驗認為紫錐花地上部分的製劑在成人感冒的早期可能有療效,但結果並不完全一致。其他的紫錐花製劑也許有幫助好處及預防感冒的功效可能存在,但尚未經獨立、相同設計的嚴謹隨機試驗證明。

翻譯人

本摘要由慈濟醫院謝至鎠翻譯。

此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院(National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan)統籌。

總結

紫錐花對於預防和治療感冒之效果紫錐花的製劑,在北美及一些歐洲國家被廣泛用來治療感冒。市面上的紫錐花製劑,因為使用的紫錐花種、紫錐花部位(地上部位,根或兩者都使用),及製造方法(乾燥,酒精萃取或新鮮植物榨汁)不同而有很大的差異,有時也會加入其他草藥。我們回顧了16個包含對照組的臨床試驗以觀察紫錐花預防和治療感冒的效果。有兩個研究發現,使用紫錐花8至12週以預防感冒並沒有明顯的效果。大多數研究想了解在感冒症狀出現後使用紫錐花製劑,是否比安慰劑能有效縮短感冒的時間或減少症狀的嚴重程度。某紫錐花的製劑可能對成人較有效,但其他製劑以及對兒童的療效則缺乏明確證據支持。副作用並不常見,但其中一個臨床試驗曾報導有些兒童出現皮疹。