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Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

  1. Suzanna C Rose1,*,
  2. Jonathan Bisson2,
  3. Rachel Churchill3,
  4. Simon Wessely4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group

Published Online: 22 APR 2002

Assessed as up-to-date: 2 DEC 2001

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000560


How to Cite

Rose SC, Bisson J, Churchill R, Wessely S. Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD000560. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000560.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Berkshire Healthcare NHS Trust, UK., Berkshire Traumatic Stress Service, Reading, Berks, UK

  2. 2

    Cardiff University, Department of Psychological Medicine, Cardiff, UK

  3. 3

    University of Bristol, Academic Unit of Psychiatry, Community Based Medicine, Bristol, Avon, UK

  4. 4

    Guy's, King's & St Thomas School of Medicine & Institute of Psychiatry, Academic Dept of Psychological Medicine, London, UK

*Suzanna C Rose, Berkshire Traumatic Stress Service, Berkshire Healthcare NHS Trust, UK., Erleigh Road Clinic, 25 Erleigh Road, Reading, Berks, RG1 5LR, UK. suzanna.rose@berkshire.nhs.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 22 APR 2002

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Bisson 1997 {published and unpublished data}
Bordow 1979 {published data only}
Bunn 1979 {published data only}
Campfield 2001 {published data only}
Conlon 1999 {published and unpublished data}
  • Conlon L, Fahy T, Conroy R. PTSD in ambulant RTA victims: prevalence, predictors and a randomised controlled trial of psychological debriefing in prophylaxis. Journal of Pschosomatic Research 1999;46(1):37-44.
Dolan {unpublished data only}
  • Dolan L, Bowyer D, Freeman C, Little K. Critical incident stress debriefing after trauma: is it effective?. Unpublished.
Hobbs 1996 {published and unpublished data}
Lavender 1998 {published data only}
Lee 1996 {published and unpublished data}
Litz 2004 {unpublished data only}
  • Litz BT, Adler AB, Castro CA, Wright K, Thomas J, Suvak M, et al. A controlled trial of group debriefing. 20th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, November 14-18, New Orleans, LA. 2004.
Priest 2003 {published data only}
Rose 1999 {published data only}
Sijbrandij 2002 {unpublished data only}
  • Sijbrandij M, Olff M, Gersons B. Predicting PTSD anxiety and depression from symptoms of acute stress. 20th Annual Meeting, International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, November 14 - November 18, New Orleans, LA. 2004.
  • Sijbrandij M, Olff M, Gersons B, Carlier I. A closer look at debriefing: Emotional ventilation vs. psychoeducation. 18th Annual Meeting, International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, November 7 - 10, Baltimore, MD. 2002.
  • Sijbrandij ME, Olff M, Reitsma JB, Carlier IV, Gersons BP. Early intervention after psychological trauma: I. Emotional or educational debriefing, a randomized controlled trial. Submitted for publication.
Small 2000 {published data only}
  • Small R, Lumley J, Donohue L, Potter A, Walderstrom U. Midwife-led debriefing to reduce maternal depression following operative birth: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2000; Vol. 321, issue 7268:1043-7.
Stevens 1996 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hobbs G, Adshead G. Preventive psychological intervention for road crash victims. In: Mitchell M editor(s). The aftermath of road accidents: Psychological, social and legal perspectives. London: Routledge, 1997:159-71.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Amir 1998 {published data only}
Andre 1997 {published data only}
  • Andre C, Lelord F, Legeron P, Reignier A, Delattre A. Controlled study of outcome after 6 months to early intervention of bus driver victims of aggression [Etude controlee sur l'efficacite a 6 mois d'une prise en charge precoce de 132 conducteurs d'authobus victimes d'agression]. Encephale 1997;23(1):65-71.
Brom 1993 {published data only}
Bryant 1998 {published data only}
  • Bryant R, Harvey A, Dang S, Sackville T, Basten C. Treatment of acute stress disorder: a comparison of cognitive behavior therapy and supportive counselling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1998;66(5):862-6.
  • Bryant R, Harvey A, Dang S, Sackville T. Assessing Acute Stress Disorder: Psychometric Properties of a Structured Clinical Interview. Psychological Assessment 1998;10(3):215-20.
Carlier {published data only}
  • Carlier I, Lamberts R, Van Uchelen A, Gersons B. Effectiveness of psychological debriefing: a controlled study of traumatised police officers. submitted.
Chemtob 1997 {published data only}

 

Deahl 1994 {published data only}
  • Deahl MP, Earnshaw NM, Jones N. Psychiatry and war. Learning lessons from the former Yugoslavia. British Journal of Psychiatry 1994;164:441-2.
  • Deahl MP, Gillham AB, Thomas J, Searle MM, Srinivasan M. Psychological sequelae following the Gulf War. Factors associated with subsequent morbidity and the effectiveness of psychological debriefing. British Journal of Psychiatry 1994;165:60-5.
Deahl 2000 {published data only}
Doctor 1994 {published data only}
Foa 1995 {published data only}
  • Foa E, Ikeda D, Perry K. Evaluation of a brief cognitive-behavioral program for the prevention of chronic PTSD in recent assault victims. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 1995;63(6):948-55.
Greenberg 1996 {published data only}
  • Greenberg MA, Wortman CB, & Stone AA. Emotional expression and physical health: revising traumatic memories or fostering self-regulation?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1996;71(3):588-602.
Hytten 1989 {published data only}
Kenardy 1996 {published data only}
Matthews 1998 {published data only}
  • Matthew, L. Effect of staff debriefing on posttraumatic stress symptoms after assaults by community housing residents. Psychiatric Services 1998;49(2):207-12.
McFarlane 1988 {published data only}
Polak 1975 {published data only}
Resnick 1999 {published data only}
  • Resnick H, Acierno R, Holmes M, Kilpatrick DG, & Jager N. Prevention of post-rape psychopathology: preliminary findings of a controlled acute rape treatment study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 1999;13(4):359-70.
Richards 2001 {published data only}
  • Richards D. A field study of critical incident stress debriefing versus critical incident stress management. Journal of Mental Health 2001;10(3):351-62.
Robinson 1993 {published data only}
Saari 1996 {published data only}
  • Saari S, Lindeman M, Verkasalo M, Prytz H. The Estonia disaster: A description of the crisis intervention in Finland. European Psychologist 1996;1(2):135-9.
Tadmor 1987 {published data only}
  • Tadmor C, Brandes J, Hofman J. Preventive intervention for a caesarian birth population. British Journal of Preventive Psychology 1987;3:343-64.
Viney 1985 {published data only}
  • Viney L, Clarke A, Bunn T, Benjamin Y. Crisis-intervention counseling: An evaluation of long- and short-term effects. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 1985;3(1):29-39.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Frommberger 2002 {unpublished data only}
  • Frommberger U, Nyberg E, Angenendt J, Stieglitz R, Nowotny-behrens U, & Berger M. Manualized early cognitive-behavioral intervention program in accident victims. A prospective study. XII World Congress of Psychiatry. Aug 24-9, 2002, Yokohama, Japan. Abstract S-17-4. 2002.
Gamble 2005 {published data only}
Macnab 2003 {published data only}
  • Macnab A, Sun C, Lowe J. RCT of three levels of critical incident stress intervention. Prehospital Disaster Medicine 2003;18(4):365-69.
Marchand 2004 {published data only}
  • Marchand A, Quay S, St-Hilaire MH, Boyer R, Martin A, & Iucci S. A randomized controlled trial of CISD for convenience store employees. 20th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. November 14-18, New Orleans, LA . 2004..

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Alexander 2002 {unpublished data only}
  • Alexander D. Prevention of adverse reactions to trauma: clinical and psychosocial evaluation from early brief psychological intervention. National Research Register 2002.
Stallard 2003 {unpublished data only}
  • Stallard P. A randomised controlled trial to determine whether mental health problems and significant psychological distress in children involved in everyday road traffic accidents can be prevented. National Research Register 2003.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Andrews 2000
Armstrong 1991
  • Armstrong K, O'Callahan W, Marmar C. Debriefing Red Cross disaster personnel: The Multiple Stressor Debriefing Model. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1991;4(4):581-93.
Bisson
  • Bisson J, Shepherd J, Joy D, Probert R. Randomised controlled trial of a brief psychological intervention to prevent post traumatic stress disorder. submitted.
Bisson 1994
Brandon 1996
  • Brandon S. Psychological debriefing. British Journal of Psychiatry 1996;168:878.
Brewin 1999
  • Brewin C, Andrews B, Rose S, Kirk M. Acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in victms of violent crime. American Journal of Psychiatry 1999;156(3):360-6.
Brewin 2003
  • Brewin. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Malady or Myth?. USA: Yale University Press, 2003.
Bryant 1998a
  • Bryant R, Harvey A, Dang S, Sackville T, Basten C. Treatment of acute stress disorder: a comparison of cognitive behavior therapy and supportive counselling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1998;66(5):862-6.
Bryant 1998b
  • Bryant R, Harvey A, Dang S, Sackville T. Assessing acute stress disorder: psychometric properties of a structured clinical interview. Psychological Assessment 1998;10(3):215-20.
Callahan 1996
  • Callahan J. Negative effects of a school suicide postvention program- a case example. Journal of Crisis Intervention & Suicide 1996;17(3):108-15.
Deahl
  • Deahl M, Scrinivasan M, Jones N, Thomas J, Neblett C, Jolly A. Preventing psychological trauma in soldiers: the role of operational stress training and psychological debriefing. Unpublished.
Dyregov 1989
  • Dyregov A. Caring for helpers in disaster situations: Psychological debriefing. Disaster Management 1989;2(1):25-30.
Foa 1995a
  • Foa E, Heart-Ikeda D, Perry K. Evaluation of a brief cognitive-behavioural program for the prevention of chronic PTSD in recent assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1995;63(6):948-55..
Freeman in press
  • Freeman C, Graham P, Bowyer D. Psychological First Aid: A Replacement for Psychological Debriefing. Short Term Post Trauma Responses for Individuals and Groups. In Press.
Friedman 1989
Gold 1986
Horowitz 1979
Janoff-Bulman 1992
  • Janoff-Bulman R. Shattered Assumptions. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1992.
Kenardy 1996a
  • Kenardy J, Carr V. Imbalance in the debriefing debate: what we don't know far outweights what we do.. Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society 1996;17(1):4-6.
Kessler 1995
Litz 2002
  • Litz B.T, Gray M.J, Bryant R.A. Early Interventions for Trauma: Current Status and Future Directions. Clinical Psychology - Science and Practice 2002;9:112-134.
Mayou 1993
McFarlane 1987
Mitchell 1983
  • Mitchell J. When disaster strikes.... the critical incident stress debriefing procedure. Journal of Emergency Medical Services 1983;8(1):36-9.
Mitchell 1997
  • Mitchell J.T, Everly G.S. The Scientific Evidence for Critical Incident Stress Management. Journal of emergency Medical Service 1997;22:86-93.
Moncrieff 2001
  • Moncrieff J, Churchill R, Drummond C, McGuire H. Development of a quality assessment instrument for trials of treatments for depression and neurosis. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 2001;10(3):126-133.
NICE 2004
  • National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE). The Management of PTSD in Primary and Secondary Care. Draft Guideline - 2nd Consultation 2004.
NICE 2005
  • National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - The management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care. National Clinical Practice Guideline. London: Gaskell and the British Psychological Society, 2005.
Raphael 1986
  • Raphael B. When disaster strikes: a handbook for caring professionals. London: Hutchinson, 1986.
Raphael 1996
Raphael 1996a
  • Raphael B, Wilson J, Meldrum L, Mcfarlane A. Acute preventive interventions. In: Van der Kolk B, McFarland A, Weisath L editor(s). Traumatic stress: the effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body and society. New York, NY: Guilford Pres, 1996.
Rick 1998
  • Rick J, Perryman S, Young K, Guppy A, Hillage J. Workplace trauma and Its management - Review of the literature. London: Institute of Employment Studies, 1998.
Rick 2000
  • Rick J, Briner R. Trauma management vs. stress debriefing: What should responsible organisations do?. Occupational Psychology Conference of the British Psychological Society, 2000, Brighton, UK. 2000.
Rick 2000a
Robinson 1995
  • Robinson R, Mitchell J. Getting some balance back into the debriefing debate. Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society 1995;17(1):5-10.
Rose 1997
  • Rose S. Psychological debriefing: history and methods. Counselling - Journal of the British Association of Counselling 1997;8(1):48-51.
Shalev 1994
  • Shalev A. Debriefing following traumatic exposure. In: Ursano R, McCaughey B, Fullerton C editor(s). Individual and community responses to trauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994:Cambridge University Press.