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Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes

  1. Sara Kenyon1,*,
  2. Michel Boulvain2,
  3. James P Neilson3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 2 DEC 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 26 NOV 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001058.pub3


How to Cite

Kenyon S, Boulvain M, Neilson JP. Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD001058. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001058.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Birmingham, School of Health and Population Sciences, Edgbaston, UK

  2. 2

    Maternité Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Département de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique, Unité de Développement en Obstétrique, Genève 14, Switzerland

  3. 3

    The University of Liverpool, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Liverpool, UK

*Sara Kenyon, School of Health and Population Sciences, University of Birmingham, Public Health Building, Edgbaston, B15 2TT, UK. s.kenyon@bham.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 2 DEC 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Amon 1988a {published data only}
  • Amon E, Lewis S, Sibai BM, Moretti M. Ampicillin prophylaxis in preterm premature rupture of the membranes: a prospective randomized study. Proceedings of 8th Annual Meeting of the Society of Perinatal Obstetricians; 1988 Feb 3-6; Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. 1988:51.
  • Amon E, Lewis SV, Sibai BM, Villar MA, Arheart KL. Ampicillin prophylaxis in preterm premature rupture of the membranes: a prospective randomized study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1988;159:539-43.
Camli 1997 {published data only}
  • Camli L, Mavunagacioglu S, Bostanci A, Camli S, Soylu F. Antibiotherapy in preterm premature rupture of membrane. Does it affect the latent period and infectious morbidity?. Jinekoloji Ve Obstetrik Dergisi 1997;11:138-42.
Christmas 1992 {published data only}
  • Christmas JT, Cox SM, Andrew W, Dax J, Leveno KJ, Gilstrap LC. Expectant management of preterm ruptured membranes: effects of antimicrobial therapy. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1992;80:759-62.
  • Christmas JT, Cox SM, Gilstrap LC, Leveno KJ, Andrews W, Dax J. Expectant management of preterm ruptured membranes: effects of antimicrobial therapy on interval to delivery. Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting of Society of Perinatal Obstetricians; 1990 Jan 23-27; Houston, Texas, USA. 1990:19.
Cox 1995 {published data only}
  • Cox SM, Leveno KJ, Sherman ML, Travis L, De Plama R. Ruptured membranes at 24 to 29 weeks: a randomized double blind trial of antimicrobials versus placebo. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995;172:412.
Ernest 1994 {published data only}
  • Ernest JM, Givner LB. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of penicillin in preterm premature rupture of membranes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1994;170(2):516-21.
Fuhr 2006 {published data only}
  • Fuhr NA, Becker C, van Baalen A, Bauer K, Hopp H. Antibiotic therapy for preterm premature rupture of membranes - results of a multicenter study. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 2006;34(3):203-6.
Garcia-Burguillo 1995 {published data only}
  • Garcia-Burguillo A, Hernandez-Garcia JM, de la Fuente P. Erythromycin prophylaxis in preterm pregnancies with rupture of amniotic membranes [Profilaxis con eritromicina en gestaciones pretermino con rotura prematura de las membranas amnioticas]. Clinica e Investigacion en Ginecologia y Obstetricia 1995;23(3):96-100.
Grable 1996 {published data only}
  • Grable IA, Garcia PM, Perry D, Socol ML. Group B streptococcus and preterm premature rupture of membranes: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial of antepartum ampicillin. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1996;175:1036-42.
Johnston 1990 {published data only}
  • Johnston MM, Sanchez-Ramos L, Vaughan AJ, Todd MW, Benrubi GI. Antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a randomized, prospective, double-blind trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1990;163(3):743-7.
  • Sanchez-Ramos L, Johnston M, Vaughn A, Benrubi GI, Todd M. High dose antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of the membranes: a double blind, randomized, prospective study. Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting of Society of Perinatal Obstetricians; 1990 Jan 23-27; Houston, Texas, USA. 1990:18.
Kenyon 2001 {published data only}
  • Gilbert RE, Pike K, Kenyon SL, Tarnow-Mordi W, Taylor DJ. The effect of prepartum antibiotics on the type of neonatal bacteraemia: insights from the MRC ORACLE trials. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 2005;112(6):830-2.
  • Jones DR, Pike K, Kenyon S, Pike L, Henderson B, Brocklehurst P, et al. Routine educational outcome measures in health studies: Key Stage 1 in the ORACLE Children Study follow-up of randomised trial cohorts. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2011;96(1):25-9.
  • Kenyon S, Brocklehurst P, Jones D, Marlow N, Salt A, Taylor D. MRC ORACLE children study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes. BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth 2008;8:14.
  • Kenyon S, Pike K, Jones DR, Brocklehurst P, Marlow N, Salt A, et al. Childhood outcomes after prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with preterm rupture of the membranes: 7-year follow-up of the ORACLE I trial. Lancet 2008;372(9646):1310-8.
  • Kenyon S, Taylor DJ, Tarnow-Mordi W. ORACLE-antibiotics for preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes: short and long term outcomes. Acta Paediatrica Supplement 2002;91(437):12-5.
  • Kenyon SL, Taylor DJ, Tarnow-Mordi W, for the ORACLE Collaborative Group. Broad-spectrum antibiotics for preterm, prelabour rupture of fetal membranes: the ORACLE 1 randomised trial. Lancet 2001;357:979-88.
Kurki 1992 {published data only}
  • Kurki T, Hallman M, Zilliacus R, Teramo K, Ylikorkala O. Premature rupture of the membranes; effect of penicillin prophylaxis and long-term outcome of the children. American Journal of Perinatology 1992;9:11-6.
Lewis 2003 {published data only}
  • Lewis DF, Adair CD, Robichaux AG, Jaekle RK, Moore JA, Evans AT, et al. Antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: are seven days necessary? A preliminary randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2003;188(6):1413-6.
Lockwood 1993a {published data only}
  • Lockwood CJ, Costigan K, Ghidini A, Wein R, Cetrulo C, Alvarez M, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of piperacillin sodium in preterm membrane rupture. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;168(1 Pt 2):378.
  • Lockwood CJ, Costigan K, Ghidini A, Wein R, Chien D, Brown BL, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of piperacillin prophylaxis in preterm membrane rupture. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;169:970-6.
Magwali 1999 {published data only}
  • Magwali TL, Cipato T, Majoko F, Rusakaniko S, Mujaji C. Prophylactic augmentin in prelabour preterm rupture of the membranes. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1999;65:261-5.
McGregor 1991 {published data only}
  • McGregor JA, French JI. Double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, prospective evaluation of the efficacy of short course erythromycin in prolonging gestation among women with preterm rupture of membranes. Proceedings of 9th Annual Meeting of the Society of Perinatal Obstetricians; 1989 Feb 1-4; New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. 1989.
  • McGregor JA, French JI, Seo K. Antimicrobial therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: results of a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of erythromycin. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1991;165:632-40.
Mercer 1992 {published data only}
  • Mercer BM, Moretti ML, Prevost RR, Sibai BM. Erythromycin therapy in preterm premature rupture of the membranes: a prospective, randomized trial of 220 patients. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1992;166:794-802.
Mercer 1997 {published data only}
  • Beazley D. Impact of amnionitis and antepartum antibiotic treatment on neonatal outcome after PPROM. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1998;178(1 Pt 2):S15.
  • Hauth JC. The NICHD-MFMU antibiotic treatment of PROM study: correlation with acute placental inflammation and prenatal morbidity. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;176(1 Pt 2):S53.
  • Hnat MD, Mercer BM, Thurnau G, Goldenberg R, Thom EA, Meis PJ, et al. Perinatal outcomes in women with preterm rupture of membranes between 24 and 32 weeks of gestation and a history of vaginal bleeding. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2005;193:164-8.
  • Mercer B. The NICHD-MFMU antibiotic treatment of PPROM study: evaluation of factors associated with successful outcome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;176(1 Pt 2):S8.
  • Mercer B, Miodovnik M, Thurnau G, Goldenberg R, Das A, Merenstein G, et al. A multicentre randomized controlled trial of antibiotic therapy versus placebo therapy after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1996;174(1 Pt 2):304.
  • Mercer BM, Crouse DT, Goldenberg RL, Miodovnik M, Mapp DC, Meis PJ, et al. The antibiotic treatment of PPROM study: systemic maternal and fetal markers and perinatal outcomes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012;206(2):145.e1-9.
  • Mercer BM, Miodovnik M, Thurnau GR, Goldenberg RL, Das AF, Ramsey RD, et al. Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. JAMA 1997;278:989-95.
  • Ramsey P. Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM): latency and neonatal outcome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;187(6 Pt 2):S113.
  • Thurnau G. The NICHD-MFMU antibiotic treatment of PROM study: impact of initial amniotic fluid volume on pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;176(1 Pt 2):S53.
Morales 1989 {published data only}
  • Morales WJ, Angel JL, Knuppel RA. Comparison of various parameters as predictors of chorioamnionitis in preterm patients with premature rupture of membranes. Southern Medical Journal 1988;81:40.
  • Morales WJ, Angel JL, O'Brien WF, Knuppel RA. Use of ampicillin and corticosteroids in premature rupture of membranes: a randomized study. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1989;73(5):721-6.
Ovalle-Salas 1997 {published data only}
  • Ovalle A, Martinez M, Gomez R, Valderrama O, Lira P, Rubio R, et al. Preterm premature rupture of membranes: a prospective randomized placebo controlled trial of antibiotic treatment. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1996;174(1 Pt 2):401.
  • Ovalle A, Martinez M, Kakarieka E, Rubio R, Valderrama O, Villablanca E, et al. Antibiotic administration in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes reduces the rate of histological chorioamnionitis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1999;180(1 Pt 2):S83.
  • Ovalle-Salas A, Gomez R, Martinez MA, Rubio R, Fuentes A, Valderrama O, et al. Antibiotic therapy in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study with microbiological assessment of the amniotic cavity and lower genital tract. Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine 1997;2:213-22.
Owen 1993a {published data only}
  • Owen J, Groome LJ, Hauth JC. Randomised trial of prophylactic therapy after preterm amnion rupture. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;169(4):976-81.
  • Owen J, Groome LJ, Hauth JC. Randomized trial of prophylactic antibiotic therapy after preterm amnion rupture. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;168(1 Pt 2):379.
Segel 2003 {published data only}
  • Segel S, Miles A, Clothier B, Parry S, Macones G. Optimal duration of antibiotic therapy after PPROM. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;187(6 Pt 2):S72.
  • Segel SY, Miles AM, Clothier B, Parry S, Macones GA. Duration of antibiotic therapy after preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2003;189:799-802.
Svare 1997a {published data only}
  • Svare J. Preterm delivery and subclinical uro-genital infection [thesis]. Denmark: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, 1997.
  • Svare J, Langhoff-Roos J, Andersen LF, Baggesen NK, Christensen HB, Heisterberg L, et al. Antibiotic treatment in preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes - a randomized controlled double-blind trial. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica Supplement 1996;75(Suppl 162):36.
  • Svare J, Langhoff-Roos J, Andersen LF, Kryger-Baggesen N, Borch-Christensen H, Heisterberg L, et al. Ampicillin-metronidazole treatment in threatening preterm delivery. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1997;76(167:1):86.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Almeida 1996 {published data only}
  • Almeida L, Schmauch A, Bergstrom S. A randomised study on the impact of peroral amoxicillin in women with prelabour rupture of membranes preterm. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 1996;41:82-4.
Bergstrom 1991 {published data only}
  • Bergstrom S. A prospective study on the perinatal outcome in Mozambican pregnant women with preterm rupture of membranes using two different methods of clinical management. Gynecologic & Obstetric Investigation 1991;32:217-9.
Blanco 1993 {published data only}
  • Blanco J, Iams J, Artal R, Baker J, Hibbard J, McGregor J, et al. Multicenter double-blind prospective random trial of ceftizoxime vs placebo in women with preterm premature ruptured membranes (pPROM). American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;168:378.
Cardamakis 1990 {published data only}
  • Cardamakis E, Minaretzis D, Papageorgiou J, Karaiskakis P, Kioses E, Michalas S. Premature rupture of the membranes. II. Chemioprophylaxis. Proceedings of 12th European Congress of Perinatal Medicine; 1990 Sept 11-14; Lyon, France. 1990:45.
Carroll 2000 {published data only}
  • Carroll E, Heywood P, Besinger R, Muraskas J, Fisher S, Gianopoulos JG. A prospective randomized double blind trial of ampicillin with and without sulbactam in preterm premature rupture of the membranes [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000;182(1 Pt 2):S61.
Debodinance 1990 {published data only}
  • Debodinance P, Parmentier D, Devulder G, Closset P, Querleu D, Crepin G. Can one reduce the risk of neonatal infection after premature rupture of membranes? [Peut-on reduire le risque infectieux neonatal dans les ruptures prematurees des membranes?]. Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 1990;19:533-7.
Dunlop 1986 {published data only}
Fortunato 1990 {published data only}
  • Fortunato SJ, Welt SI, Eggleston M, Cole J, Bryant EC, Dodson MG. Prolongation of the latency period in preterm premature rupture of the membranes using prophylactic antibiotics and tocolysis. Journal of Perinatology 1990;3:252-6.
Gordon 1974 {published data only}
  • Gordon M, Weingold AB. Treatment of patients with premature rupture of the fetal membranes: (a) prior to 32 weeks; (b) after 32 weeks. Premature rupture of the membranes - a rational approach to management. In: Reid DE, Christian CD editor(s). Controversy in Obstetrics & Gynecology II. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1974:42-4.
Haas 2010 {published data only}
  • Haas D. Preterm premature rupture of membranes: erythromycin versus azithromycin a randomized trial comparing their efficacy to prolong latency (PEACE trial). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01556334 (accessed 25 June 2012) 2010.
Halis 2001 {published data only}
  • Halis, Ragosch, Hundertmark, Weitzel, Hopp. Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes - a randomized controlled trial. 11th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; 2001 April 1-4; Istanbul, Turkey. 2001.
Hernandez 2011 {published data only}
  • Hernandez y Ballinas A, Lopez Faran JA, Gamez Guevara C. [Comparison of maternal and perinatal outcomes in the conservative treatment preterm premature membrane rupture between the use of erythromycin and clindamycin]. [Spanish]. Ginecologia y Obstetricia de Mexico 2011;79(7):403-10.
Julien 2002 {published data only}
  • Julien S, Khandelwal M, Olasewere T. Randomised trial comparing long term versus short term antibiotic prophylaxis in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;187(6 Pt 2):S66.
Kim 2008 {published data only}
  • Kim YH, Song TB, Kim CH, Kim JW, Cho MY, Yang SY, et al. Changes of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls formation by antibiotic therapy in the maternal venous plasma of preterm premature rupture of membranes. 55th Annual Meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Investigation; 2008 March 26-29; San Diego, USA 2008:Abstract no: 398.
Kwak 2013 {published data only}
  • Kwak HM, Shin MY, Cha HH, Choi SJ, Lee JH, Kim JS, et al. The efficacy of cefazolin plus macrolide (erythromycin or clarithromycin) versus cefazolin alone in neonatal morbidity and placental inflammation for women with preterm premature rupture of membranes. Placenta 2013;34(4):346-52.
Lebherz 1963 {published data only}
  • Lebherz TB, Hellman LP, Madding R, Anctil A, Arje SL. Double-blind study of premature rupture of the membranes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1963;87(2):218-25.
Lewis 1995 {published data only}
  • Lewis DF, Fontenot MT, Brooks GG, Wise R, Perkins MB, Heymann AR. Latency period after preterm premature rupture of membranes: a comparison of ampicillin with and without sulbactam. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1995;86(3):392-5.
Lewis 1996 {published data only}
  • Lewis DF, Brody K, Edwards MS, Brouillette RM, Burlison S, London S. Preterm premature ruptured membranes: a randomized trial of steroids after treatment with antibiotics. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1996;88(5):801-5.
Lovett 1997 {published data only}
  • Lovett S, Weiss J, Diogo M, Williams P, Garite T. A prospective randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for preterm premature rupture of membranes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1996;174:306.
  • Lovett SM, Weiss JD, Diogo MJ, Williams PT, Garite TJ. A prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial of ampicillin-sulbactam for preterm premature rupture of membranes in women receiving antenatal corticosteroid therapy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;176(5):1030-8.
Matsuda 1993a {published data only}
  • Matsuda Y, Ikenoue T, Ibara S, Sameshima H, Kuraya K, Hokanishi H. The efficacy of prophylactic antibiotic and tocolytic therapy for premature rupture of the membranes. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Japonica 1993;45(10):1109-14.
Matsuda 1993b {published data only}
  • Matsuda Y, Ikenoue T, Hokanishi H. Premature rupture of the membranes - aggressive versus conservative approach: effect of tocolytic and antibiotic therapy. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 1993;36:102-7.
Mbu 1998 {published data only}
  • Mbu RE, Tchio R, Leke RG, Tamba NE, Njoh N. Premature rupture of membranes: maternal and fetal outcome in the absence of antibiotic prophylaxis [Rupture prematuree des membranes: devenir maternal et foetal en l'absence de la prophylaxie antibiotique]. African Journal of Reproductive Health 1998;2:26-31.
McCaul 1992 {published data only}
  • McCaul JF, Perry KG, Moore JL, Martin RW, Bucovaz ET, Morrison JC. Adjunctive antibiotic treatment of women with preterm rupture of membranes or preterm labor. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1992;38:19-24.
Norri 1991 {published data only}
  • Norri L, Yla-Outinen A, Tuimala R. Prophylactic antibiotics in premature rupture of membranes. Proceedings of 13th World Congress of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO);1991 September; Singapore. 1991:80.
Ogasawara 1996 {published data only}
  • Ogasawara KK, Goodwin TM. The efficacy of treating ureaplasma urealyticum in patients with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1996;174(1 Pt 2):401.
Ogasawara 1997 {published data only}
Ogasawara 1999 {published data only}
  • Ogasawara KK, Goodwin TM. Efficacy of azithromycin in reducing lower genital ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in women at risk for preterm delivery. Journal of Maternal Fetal Medicine 1999;8:12-6.
Ovalle 2002 {published data only}
  • Ovalle A, Martinez MA, Kakarieka E, Gomez R, Rubio R, Valderrama O, et al. Antibiotic administration in patients with preterm premature rupture of the membranes reduces the rate of histological chorioamnionitis: a prospective, randomised, controlled study. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2002;12:35-41.
Spitzer 1993 {published data only}
  • Spitzer D, Zajc M, Gregg A, Steiner H, Staudach A. Antepartum antibiotic therapy and subsequent neonatal morbidity in patients with preterm premature rupture of the membranes. International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Chemotherapy 1993;6(1):35-8.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Alderson 2004
  • Alderson P, Green S, Higgins JPT, editors. Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook 4.2.2 [updated March 2004]. The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Amon 1988b
  • Amon E, Lewis S, Sibai BM, Moretti M. Ampicillin prophylaxis in preterm premature rupture of the membranes: a prospective randomized study. Proceedings of 8th Annual Meeting of the Society of Perinatal Obstetricians; 1988 Feb 3-6; Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. 1988:51.
Beazley 1998
  • Beazley D. Impact of amnionitis and antepartum antibiotic treatment on neonatal outcome after PPROM. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1998;178(1 Pt 2):S15.
Bejar 1981
Christmas 1990
  • Christmas JT, Cox SM, Gilstrap LC, Leveno KJ, Andrews W, Dax J. Expectant management of preterm ruptured membranes: effects of antimicrobial therapy on interval to delivery. Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting of Society of Perinatal Obstetricians; 1990 Jan 23-27; Houston, Texas, USA. 1990:19.
Costeloe 2012
  • Costeloe KL, Hennessy EM, Haider S, Stacey F, Marlow N, Draper ES. Short term outcomes after extreme preterm birth in England: comparison of two birth cohorts in 1995 and 2006 (the EPICURE studies). BMJ 2012;345:e7976.
Dale 1989
  • Dale PO, Tanbo T, Bendvold E, Moe N. Duration of the latency period in preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Maternal and neonatal consequences of expectant management. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 1989;30:257-62.
Dammann 1997
Dammann 2005
Elbourne 2002
Gilbert 2005
Goldenberg 2008
Hauth 1997
  • Hauth JC. The NICHD-MFMU antibiotic treatment of PROM study: correlation with acute placental inflammation and prenatal morbidity. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;176(1 Pt 2):S53.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Hnat 2005
  • Hnat MD, Mercer BM, Thurnau G, Goldenberg R, Thom EA, Meis PJ, et al. Perinatal outcomes in women with preterm rupture of membranes between 24 and 32 weeks of gestation and a history of vaginal bleeding. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2005;193:164-8.
Hoy 2001
  • Hoy CM. The role of infection in necrotising enterocolitis. Reviews in Medical Microbiology 2001;12:121-9.
Kenyon 2008a
  • Kenyon S, Pike K, Jones DR, Brocklehurst P, Marlow N, Salt A, et al. Childhood outcomes after prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with preterm rupture of the membranes: 7-year follow-up of the ORACLE I trial. Lancet 2008;372(9646):1310-8.
Kenyon 2008b
  • Kenyon S, Pike K, Jones DR, Brocklehurst P, Marlow N, Salt A, et al. Childhood outcomes after prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with spontaneous preterm labour: 7-year follow-up of the ORACLE II trial. Lancet 2008;372(9646):1319-27.
Kenyon 2008c
  • Kenyon S, Brocklehurst P, Jones D, Marlow N, Salt A, Taylor D. MRC ORACLE children study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes. BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth 2008;8:14.
King 2002
  • King J, Flenady V. Prophylactic antibiotics for inhibiting preterm labour with intact membranes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000246]
Kotecha 1996
Lockwood 1993b
  • Lockwood CJ, Costigan K, Ghidini A, Wein R, Cetrulo C, Alvarez M, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of piperacillin sodium in preterm membrane rupture. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;168(1 Pt 2):378.
Marlow 2005
  • Marlow N, Wolke D, Bracewell MA, Samara M. Neurologic and developmental disability at six years of age after extremely preterm birth. New England Journal of Medicine 2005;352(1):9-19. [PUBMED: 15635108]
McGregor 1997
  • McGregor J, French J. Evidence-based prevention of preterm birth and rupture of membranes: infection and inflammation. Journal of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada 1997;19:835-51.
Morales 1988
  • Morales WJ, Angel JL, Knuppel RA. Comparison of various parameters as predictors of chorioamnionitis in preterm patients with premature rupture of membranes. Southern Medical Journal 1988;81:40.
Owen 1993b
  • Owen J, Groome LJ, Hauth JC. Randomized trial of prophylactic antibiotic therapy after preterm amnion rupture. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;168(1 Pt 2):379.
RevMan 2011
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.1. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
Romero 2007
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Saigal 2008
Sanchez-Ramos 1990
  • Sanchez-Ramos L, Johnston M, Vaughn A, Benrubi GI, Todd M. High dose antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of the membranes: a double blind, randomized, prospective study. Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting of Society of Perinatal Obstetricians; 1990 Jan 23-27; Houston, Texas, USA. 1990:18.
Speer 2003
  • Speer CP. Inflammation and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Seminars in Neonatology 2003;8 No. 1:29-38.
Svare 1997b
  • Svare J, Langhoff-Roos J, Andersen LF, Kryger-Baggesen N, Borch-Christensen H, Heisterberg L, et al. Ampicillin-metronidazole treatment in threatening preterm delivery. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1997;76(167:1):86.
Taylor 2001
  • Taylor HG, Klein N, Minich NM, Hack M. Long-term family outcomes for children with very low birth weights. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2001;155(2):155-61. [PUBMED: 11177090]
Thurnau 1997
  • Thurnau G. The NICHD-MFMU antibiotic treatment of PROM study: impact of initial amniotic fluid volume on pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;176(1 Pt 2):S53.
Wu 2002
Yoon 2000
  • Yoon BH, Romero R, Park JS, Kim M, Oh SY, Kin CJ, et al. The relationship among inflammatory lesions of the umbilical cord (funisitis), umbilical cord plasma interleukin 6 concentration, amniotic fluid infection, and neonatal sepsis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000;183(5):1124-9.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Crowley 1995
  • Crowley P. Antibiotics for preterm prelabour rupture of membranes. [revised 05 May 1994]. In: Enkin MW, Keirse MJNC, Renfrew MJ, Neilson JP, Crowther C (eds.) Pregnancy and Childbirth Module. In: The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Database [database on disk and CDROM]. The Cochrane Collaboration; Issue 2, Oxford: Update Software; 1995.
Kenyon 2001
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