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Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems

  1. G Justus Hofmeyr1,*,
  2. Álvaro N Atallah2,
  3. Lelia Duley3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 19 JUL 2006

Assessed as up-to-date: 1 MAR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001059.pub2


How to Cite

Hofmeyr GJ, Atallah ÁN, Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD001059. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001059.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of the Witwatersrand, University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape Department of Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East London Hospital Complex, East London, Eastern Cape, South Africa

  2. 2

    Universidade Federal de São Paulo / Escola Paulista de Medicina, Brazilian Cochrane Centre, São Paulo, SP, Brazil

  3. 3

    University of Leeds, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK

*G Justus Hofmeyr, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East London Hospital Complex, University of the Witwatersrand, University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape Department of Health, Frere and Cecilia Makiwane Hospitals, Private Bag X 9047, East London, Eastern Cape, 5200, South Africa. gjh@global.co.za.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 19 JUL 2006

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Belizan 1991 {published and unpublished data}
  • Belizan JM. Prevention of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with calcium supplementation. 8th World Congress on Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1992 November 8-12; Buenos Aires. 1992:93.
  • Belizan JM, Villar J, Bergel E, del Pino A, Di Fulvio S, Galliano SV, et al. Long term effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on the blood pressure of offspring: follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1997;315:281-5.
  • Belizan JM, Villar J, Gonzalez L, Campodonico L, Bergel E. Calcium supplementation to prevent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine 1991;325:1399-405.
  • Stephens IF. Effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on blood pressure of offspring. Authors cannot be sure of effect's generalisability to all children aged 5-9 [letter; comment]. BMJ 1998;316(7126):234.
  • Villar J, Belizan JM, Repke J. The effect of calcium supplementation on the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and prematurity. 7th World Congress of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1990; Perugia, Italy. 1990:54.
  • Villar J, Belizan JM, Repke JT. Does calcium supplementation reduce pregnancy-induced hypertension and prematurity?. Proceedings of the International Symposium on advances in the prevention of low birthweight; 1988 May 8-11; Cape Cod, Massachusetts. 1988:187-95.
CPEP 1997 {published data only}
  • Hatton DC, Harrison-Hohner J, Coste S, Reller M, McCarron D. Gestational calcium supplementation and blood pressure in the offspring. American Journal of Hypertension 2003;16:801-5.
  • Levine RJ, Esterlitz JR, Raymond EG, DerSimonian R, Hauth JC, Ben Curet L, et al. Trial of calcium for preeclampsia prevention (CPEP): rationale, design, and methods. Controlled Clinical Trials 1996;17:442-69.
  • Levine RJ, Hauth JC, Curet LB, Sibai BM, Catalano PM, Morris CD, et al. Trial of calcium to prevent preeclampsia. New England Journal of Medicine 1997;337(2):69-76.
  • Levine RJ for the CPEP Study Group. Calcium for preeclampsia prevention (CPEP): a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy nulliparas. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;176:S2.
  • Levine RJ for the CPEP Study Group. The trial of calcium for preeclampsia prevention (CPEP). 8th World Congress on Hypertension in Pregnancy - Protagonists and Presentations; 1992 November 8-12; Buenos Aires, Argentina. 1992:94.
Crowther 1999 {published data only}
  • Crowther C, Hiller J, Pridmore B, Bryce R, Duggan P, Hague W, et al. Calcium supplementation in nulliparous women for the prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia and preterm birth: an Austailian randomized trial. 2nd Annual Congress of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand; 1998 March 30-April 4, Alice Springs, Australia. 1998:101.
  • Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Pridmore B, Bryce R, Duggan P, Hague WM, et al. Calcium supplementation in nulliparous women for the prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm birth: an Australian randomized trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1999;39(1):12-8.
L-Jaramillo 1989 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lopez-Jaramillo P, Narvaez M, Weigel RM, Yepez R. Calcium supplementation reduces the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in an Andes population. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1989;96:648-55.
  • Lopez-Jaramillo P, Narvaez M, Yepez R. Effect of calcium supplementation on the vascular sensitivity to angiotensin II in pregnant women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1987;156:261-2.
  • Narvaez M, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Weigel M. Calcium (Ca++) supplementation reduces the risk for pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). World Contress of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 1988 October 23-28; Brazil. 1988:180-1.
L-Jaramillo 1990 {published data only}
  • Lopez-Jaramillo P, Narvaez M, Felix C, Lopez A. Dietary calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy hypertension. Lancet 1990;335:293.
  • Narvaez M, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Weigel M. Calcium (Ca++) supplementation reduces the risk for pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 1988 October 23-28; Brazil. 1988:180-1.
L-Jaramillo 1997 {published data only}
  • Lopez-Jaramillo P, Delgado F, Jacome P, Teran E, Ruano C, Rivera J. Calcium supplementation and the risk of preeclampsia in Ecuadorian pregnant teenagers. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1997;90:162-7.
Niromanesh 2001 {published data only}
Purwar 1996 {published data only}
  • Purwar M, Kulkarni H, Motghare V, Dhole S. Calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 1996;22(5):425-30.
  • Purwar M, Motghare V, Kulkarni H. Calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension: randomized double blind controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1996; Vol. 49, issue Suppl 1:28S.
S-Ramos 1994 {published data only}
  • Sanchez-Ramos L, Briones DK, Kaunitz AM, Delvalle GO, Gaudier FL, Walker KD. Prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension by calcium supplementation in angiotensin II-sensitive patients. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1994;84:349-53.
  • Sanchez-Ramos L, Delvalle GO, Briones D, Walker C, Delke I, Gaudier F. Prevention of preeclampsia by calcium supplementation in angiotensin-sensitive patients. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1994;170:408.
Villar 1987 {published and unpublished data}
  • Repke JT, Villar J, Anderson C, Pareja G, Dubin N, Belizan JM. Biochemical changes associated with blood pressure reduction induced by calcium supplementation during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1989;160:684-90.
  • Villar J, Repke J, Belizan JM, Pareja G. Calcium supplementation reduces blood pressure during pregnancy: results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1987;70:317-22.
Villar 1990 {published and unpublished data}
  • Villar J, Belizan JM, Repke J. The effect of calcium supplementation on the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and prematurity. 7th World Congress of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1990; Perugia, Italy. 1990:54.
  • Villar J, Belizan JM, Repke JT. Does calcium supplementation reduce pregnancy-induced hypertension and prematurity?. Advances in the prevention of low birthweight; 1988 May 8-11; Cape Cod, Massachusetts. 1998:187-95.
  • Villar J, Repke JT. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may reduce preterm delivery in high-risk populations. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1990;163:1124-31.
WHO 2006 {unpublished data only}
  • Villar J, Abdel-Aleem H, Merialdi M, Mathai M, Ali M, Zavaleta N, et al. World Health Organisation randomized trial of calcium supplementation among low calcium intake pregnant women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2006;194:639-49.
  • Villar J, Aleem HA, Merialdi M, Mathai M, Ali M, Zavaleta N, et al. WHO randomized trial of calcium supplementation among low calcium intake pregnant women [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2005;193(6 Suppl):S2.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Almirante 1998 {published data only}
  • Almirante CY. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy in the prevention of EPH gestosis. Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine 1998;3 Suppl 1:24.
August 2002 {published data only}
  • August P, Sison M, Helseth G. Identification of prognostic indices and impact of calcium supplementation in women at high risk for pre-eclampsia: data from a randomized clinical trial [abstract]. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2002;21(Suppl 1):44.
  • August P, Sison MC, Helseth G. Clinical outcomes of African Americans with chronic hypertension during pregnancy. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2002; Vol. 21, issue Suppl 1:55.
Belizan 1983 {published data only}
  • Belizan JM, Villar J, Zalazar A, Rojas L, Chan D, Bryce GF. Preliminary evidence of the effect of calcium supplementation on blood pressure in normal pregnant women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1983;146:175-80.
Boggess 1997 {published data only}
  • Boggess KA, Samuel L, Schmuckler BC, Waters J, Easterling TR. A randomised controlled trial of the effect of third trimester calcium supplementation on maternal hemodynamic function. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1997;90:157-61.
Chames 2002 {published data only}
  • Chames M, Bendich A, Bogden J, Sibai B, Prada J. A randomized trial of calcium supplementation effects on blood lead levels in pregnancy [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;187(6 Pt 2):S137.
Cong 1995 {published data only}
  • Cong KJ, Chi SL, Liu GR. Calcium and pregnancy induced hypertension. Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;28:657-9.
  • Cong KJ, Chi SL, Liu GR. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for reducing pregnancy induced hypertension. Chinese Medical Journal 1995;108:57-9.
  • Cong KJ, Chi SL, Liu GR. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy to reduce pregnancy induced hypertension. Beijing Medical Journal 1992;5:268.
Felix 1991 {published data only}
  • Felix C, Jacome P, Lopez A, Moya W, Narvaez M, Lopez-Jaramillo P. The hypotensive effect of calcium supplementation during normal pregnancy in Andean women is not related to vascular production of prostacyclin by umbilical arteries. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1991;11(2):93-6.
Herrera 1998 {published data only}
Kawasaki 1985 {published data only}
  • Kawasaki N, Matsui K, Ito M, Nakamura T, Yoshimura T, Ushijima H, et al. Effect of calcium supplementation on the vascular sensitivity to angiotensin II in pregnant women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1985;153:576-82.
Knight 1992 {published data only}
Lavin 1986 {unpublished data only}
  • Lavin JP. The effect of calcium supplementation on pregnancy induced hypertension. Personal communication 1986.
Marya 1987 {published and unpublished data}
Montanaro 1990 {published data only}
  • Montanaro D, Boscutti G, Antonucci F, Messa P, Mioni G, Driul P, et al. Prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and pre-eclampsia (PE) by oral calcium supplementation. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Nephrology; 1987 July 26-31; London, UK. 1987:281.
  • Montanaro D, Boscutti G, Mioni G, Driul P, Tosolini G. Calcium supplementation decreases the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and pre-eclampsia (PE). 7th World Congress of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1990; Perugia, Italy. 1990:267.
Prada 2001 {published data only}
  • Prada J, Tsang R, Guo S. Reduction of blood pressure from calcium supplementation in adolescent pregnancy: a randomized trial [abstract]. American Journal of Hypertension 2001;14(4 Pt 2):179A.
Prada 2002 {published data only}
  • Prada JA, Sibai BM, Guo S. Effect of calcium supplementation on the maternal blood pressure of adolescents and twins [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;187(6 Pt 2):S217.
Raman 1978 {published data only}
  • Raman L, Rajalakshmi K, Krishnamachari K, Gowrinath Sastry J. Effect of calcium supplementation to undernourished mothers during pregnancy on the bone density of neonates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1978;31:466-9.
Repke 1989 {published data only}
  • Repke J, Villar J, Bergel E, Belizan JM. The effect of iron absorption in patients receiving calcium supplementation. 9th Annual Meeting of the Society of Perinatal Obstetricians; 1989 February 1-4; New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. 1989:512.
Rogers 1999 {published data only}
S-Ramos 1995 {published data only}
  • Sanchez-Ramos L, Adair CD, Delvalle GO, Gaudier F, Delke I. Calcium supplementation in mild preeclampsia remote from term: a prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;168:385.
  • Sanchez-Ramos L, Adair D, Kaunitz AM, Briones DK, Delvalle GO, Delke I. Calcium supplementation in mild pre-eclampsia remote from term: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1995;85:915-8.
Suzuki 1996 {published data only}
  • Suzuki Y, Itoh Y, Hayashi Y, Murakami I, Yamaguchi K, Ohshima T, et al. Calcium supplementation to prevent gestational hypertension. 10th World Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1996 August 4-8; Seattle, Washington. 1996:113.
Taherian 2002 {published data only}
  • Taherian AA, Taherian A, Shirvani A. Prevention of pre-eclampsia with low-dose aspirin or calcium supplementation. Archives of Iranian Medicine 2002;5(3):151-6.
Tamas 1997 {published data only}
  • Tamas P, Szabo I, Szekely J, Csermely T, Prievara FT, Nemeth L, et al. Effects of Doxium 500 (R) in gestational hypertension [A doxium 500 (R) Hatasanak vizsgalata terhessegi Hypertoniaban (kettos vak, placebo-kontrollalt tanulmany)]. Magyar Noorvosok Lapja 1997;60(3):181-7.
Wanchu 2001 {published data only}
  • Wanchu M, Malhotra S, Khullar M. Calcium supplementation in pre-eclampsia. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2001;49:795-8.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Abdel-Aleem 2009 {published data only}
  • Abdel-Aleem H, Merialdi M, Elsnosy ED, Elsedfy GO, Abdel-Aleem MA, Villar J. The effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on fetal and infant growth: a nested randomized controlled trial within WHO calcium supplementation trial. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2009;22(2):94-100.
Carroli 2009 {published data only}
  • Carroli G, Merialdi M, Wojdyla D, Abalos E, Campodonico L, Yao SE, et al. Effects of calcium supplementation on uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood flow in low-calcium-intake mothers: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2009 in press.
de Souza 2006 {published data only}
  • de Souza EV. Aspirin and calcium to prevent preeclampsia in chronic hypertensive women with abnormal uterine artery Doppler ultrasound [abstract] [Acido acetilalicilico associado ao calcio na prevencao da pre-eclampsia em gestantes hipertensas cronicas selecionadas pela dopplervelocimetria das arterias uterinas]. Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia y Obstetricia 2006;28(2):136.
de Souza 2006a {published data only}
  • de Souza EV, Sass N, Atallah AN, Kular Jr L. Aspirin and calcium to prevent pre eclampsia in chronic hypertension women with abnormal uterine artery doppler ultrasound [abstract]. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2006;25(Suppl 1):152.
Dizavandy 1998 {published data only}
  • Dizavandy EB, Alavi GS, Cordi M. The effect of calcium supplementation in the prevention of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in nulliparous women. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran 1998;12(1):11-4.
Habli 2007 {published data only}
  • Habli M, Levine RJ, Qian C, Sibai B. Neonatal outcomes in pregnancies with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension and in normotensive pregnancies that delivered at 35, 36, or 37 weeks of gestation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2007;197(4):406.e1-7.e7.
Herrera 2004 {published data only}
  • Herrera JA, Shahabuddin AKM, Faisal M, Ersheng G, Wei Y, Lixia D, et al. Effects of supplementation with oral calcium and linoleic acid in primigravidas at high risk [Efectos de la supplementacion oral con calcio y acido linoleico conjugado en primigravidas de alto riesgo]. Colombia Medica 2004;35(1):31-7.
Herrera 2005 {published data only}
  • Herrera JA, Shahabuddin AK, Ersheng G, Wei Y, Garcia RG, Lopez-Jaramillo P. Calcium plus linoleic acid therapy for pregnancy-induced hypertension. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2005;91(3):221-7.
Herrera 2006 {published data only}
  • Herrera JA, Arevalo-Herrera M, Shahabuddin AK, Ersheng G, Herrera S, Garcia RG, et al. Calcium and conjugated linoleic acid reduces pregnancy-induced hypertension and decreases intracellular calcium in lymphocytes. American Journal of Hypertension 2006;19(4):381-7.
Hiller 2007 {published data only}
Hofmeyr 2008 {published data only}
  • Hofmeyr GJ, Mlokoti Z, Nikodem VC, Mangesi L, Ferreira S, Singata M, et al. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders is not associated with changes in platelet count, urate, and urinary protein: a randomized control trial. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2008;27(3):299-304.
Karandish 2003 {published data only}
  • Karandish M, Djazayery A, Mahmoudi M, Behrooz A. The effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on birth weight. Medical Journal of Reproduction and Infertility 2003;4(3):184.
Kumar 2009 {published data only}
MacDonald 1986 {unpublished data only}
  • MacDonald HN. Fetal and maternal benefits from calcium and vitamin D supplementation of pregnant Asians. Personal communication 1986.
Zhang 2007 {published data only}
  • Zhang J, Villar J, Sun W, Merialdi M, Abdel-Aleem H, Mathai M, et al. Blood pressure dynamics during pregnancy and spontaneous preterm birth. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2007;197(2):162.e1-6.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Mahomed 1998 {unpublished data only}
  • Mahomed K, Marume A, Hammond N, Madzima M. Calcium supplementation for the prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension and preterm labour in twin pregnancies: a randomised controlled trial. Personal communication 1998.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Belizan 1980
  • Belizan JM, Villar J. The relationship between calcium intake and edema, proteinuria, and hypertension-gestosis: an hypothesis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1980;33:2202-10.
Belizan 1988
  • Belizan JM, Villar J, Repke J. The relationship between calcium intake and pregnancy-induced hypertension: up-to-date evidence. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1988;158:898-902.
Belizan 1997
  • Belizan JM, Villar J, Bergel E, del Pino A, Di Fulvio S, Galliano SV, et al. Long term effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on the blood pressure of offspring: follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1997; Vol. 315:281-5.
Bergel 2002
Bucher 1996
Carroli 1994
CLASP 1994
  • CLASP (Collaborative Low-dose Aspirin Study in Pregnancy) Collaborative Group. CLASP: a randomised trial of low-dose aspirin for the prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia among 9364 pregnant woman. Lancet 1994;343:619-29.
Duvekot 2002
  • Duvekot EJ, de Groot CJ, Bloemenkamp KW, Oei SG. Pregnant women with a low milk intake have an increased risk of developing preeclampsia. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2002;105:11-4.
Early Breast Ca 1990
  • Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group. Statistical methods. Treatment of early breast cancer: Vol 1. Worldwide evidence 1985-1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990:13-8.
ECCPA 1996
  • ECPPA (Estudo Collaborativo para Prevenção da Pre-eclampsia com Aspirina) Collaborative Group. ECPPA: randomised trial of low dose aspirin for the prevention of maternal and fetal complications in high risk pregnant woman. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1996;103:39-47.
Greenland 1994
Hamlin 1952
  • Hamlin RHJ. The prevention of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia. Lancet 1952;i:64-8.
Hamlin 1962
Hatton 2003
HMSO 1994
  • HMSO. Report on confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom 1988-1990. Department of Health Welsh Office, Scottish Office Home and Health Department, Department of Health and Social Security, Northern Ireland. London: HMSO, 1994.
Isezuo 2004
  • Isezuo SA, Ekele BA. Eclampsia and abnormal QTc. West African Journal of Medicine 2004;23:123-7.
Johnson 1993
Kazerooni 2003
  • Kazerooni T, Hamze-Nejadi S, Kazerooni T, Hamze-Nejadi S. Calcium to creatinine ratio in a spot sample of urine for early prediction of pre-eclampsia. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2003;80:279-83.
Kisters 2000
  • Kisters K, Barenbrock M, Louwen F, Hausberg M, Rahn KH, Kosch M. Membrane, intracellular, and plasma magnesium and calcium concentrations in preeclampsia. American Journal of Hypertension 2000;13:765-9.
Kumru 2003
  • Kumru S, Aydin S, Simsek M, Sahin K, Yaman M, Ay G. Comparison of serum copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium levels in preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women. Biological Trace Element Research 2003;94:105-12.
McGarvey 1991
NHMRC 1993
  • NHMRC. NHMRC Report on maternal deaths in Australia 1988-1990. Canberra: Government Publishing Service, 1993.
Repke 1991
Segovia 2004
  • Segovia BL, Vega IT, Villarreal EC, Licona NA. Hypocalciuria during pregnancy as a risk factor of preeclampsia. Ginecologia y Obstetricia de Mexico 2004;72:570-4.
Villar 1983
Villar 1989
  • Villar J, Repke J, Markush L, Calvert W, Rhoads G. The measuring of blood pressure during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1989;161:1019-24.
Villar 1993
  • Villar J, Belizan JM, Fisher PJ. Epidemiologic observation on the relationship between calcium intake and eclampsia. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1993;21:271-8.
Villar 1994
  • Villar J, Ezcurra EJ, Gurtner de la Fuente V, Campodonico L. Preterm delivery syndrome: the unmet need. Research and Clinical Forums 1994;16:9-39.
Villar 1995
Villar 1998
  • Villar J, Gulmezoglu AM, de Onis M. Nutritional and antimicrobial interventions to prevent preterm birth: an overview of randomized controlled trials. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey 1998;53(9):575-85.
Villar 2000
  • Villar J, Belizan JM. Same nutrient, different hypotheses: disparities in trials of calcium supplementation during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;71 Suppl:1375S-1379S.
Villar 2004
  • Villar J, Say L, Shennan A, Lindheimer M, Duley L, Conde-Agudelo A, et al. Methodological and technical issues related to the diagnosis, screening, prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2004;85(Suppl 1):S28-S41.
von Dadelszen 2004
  • von Dadelszen P, Magee LA, Devarakonda RM, Hamilton T, Ainsworth LM, Yin R, et al. The prediction of adverse maternal outcomes in pre-eclampsia. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC 2004;26:871-9.
Yamasmit 2004
  • Yamasmit W, Chaithongwongwatthana S, Charoenvidhya D, Uerpairojkit B, Tolosa J. Random urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio for prediction of significant proteinuria in women with preeclampsia. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2004;16:275-9.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Duley 1995
  • Duley L. Routine calcium supplementation in pregnancy. [revised 23 June 1993] In: Enkin MW, Keirse MJNC, Renfrew MJ, Neilson JP, Crowther C (eds.) Pregnancy and Childbirth Module. In: The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Database [database on disk and CDROM]. The Cochrane Collaboration; Issue 2, Oxford: Update Software; 1995.