Intervention Review

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Psychosocial interventions for people with both severe mental illness and substance misuse

  1. Glenn E Hunt1,*,
  2. Nandi Siegfried2,
  3. Kirsten Morley3,
  4. Thiagarajan Sitharthan1,
  5. Michelle Cleary4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Schizophrenia Group

Published Online: 3 OCT 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001088.pub3


How to Cite

Hunt GE, Siegfried N, Morley K, Sitharthan T, Cleary M. Psychosocial interventions for people with both severe mental illness and substance misuse. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD001088. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001088.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Sydney, Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney, NSW, Australia

  2. 2

    University of Cape Town, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Cape Town, South Africa

  3. 3

    The University of Sydney, Addiction Medicine, Sydney, Australia

  4. 4

    University of Western Sydney, School of Nursing and Midwifery, NSW, Australia

*Glenn E Hunt, Discipline of Psychiatry, The University of Sydney, Concord Centre for Mental Health, Hospital Road, Sydney, NSW, 2139, Australia. glenn.hunt@sydney.edu.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 3 OCT 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Baker 2002 {published data only}
Baker 2006 {published data only}
  • Baker A, Bucci S, Kay-Lambkin F. Intervention for alcohol, cannabis and amphetamine use among people with a psychotic illness. NDARC Technical Report No. 193. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, 2004:1-100. [ISBN:1 887027 84 7]
  • Baker A, Bucci S, Lewin TJ, Kay-Lambkin F, Constable PM, Carr VJ. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for substance use disorders in people with psychotic disorders - Randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2006;188(5):439-48.
  • Baker A, Bucci S, Lewin TJ, Richmond R, Carr VJ. Comparisons between psychosis samples with different patterns of substance use recruited for clinical and epidemiological studies. Psychiatry Research 2005;134(3):241-50.
Barrowclough 2001 {published data only}
  • Barrowclough C, Haddock G, Tarrier N, Lewis SW, Moring J, O'Brien R, et al. Randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing, cognitive behavior therapy and family intervention for patients with comorbid schizophrenia and substance use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 2001;158(10):1706-13.
  • Haddock G. Dual diagnosis project: evaluation of family support and cognitive behaviour therapy for recent onset schizophrenia sufferers with substance misuse problems. National Research Register 2001; Vol. 1. [N0244032344]
  • Haddock G, Barrowclough C, Tarrier N, Moring J, O'Brien R, Schofield N, et al. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational intervention for schizophrenia and substance misuse: 18-month outcomes of a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2003;183(November):418-26.
Barrowclough 2010 {published data only}
  • Barrowclough C. A pilot study to assess the impact of motivational intervention on schizophrenia patients with associated substance misuse. National Research Register 2004; Vol. 3:1-4.
  • Barrowclough C. A randomized controlled trial of integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive behavior therapy (mi-cbt) for people with a schizophrenia diagnosis and substance misuse - the MIDAS trial. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2011;37 Suppl 1:295.
  • Barrowclough C. An evaluation of motivational (MI) plus cognitive therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia and substance misuse. http://www.controlled-trials.com 2003.
  • Barrowclough C. An evaluation of motivational interventions (MI) plus cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia and substance misuse - MIDAS. National Research Register 2004; Vol. 1.
  • Barrowclough C, Haddock G, Beardmore R, Conrod P, Craig T, Davies L, et al. Evaluating integrated MI and CBT for people with psychosis and substance misuse: recruitment, retention and sample characteristics of the MIDAS trial. Addictive Behaviors 2009;34(10):859-66.
  • Barrowclough C, Haddock G, Fitzsimmons M, Johnson R. Treatment development for psychosis and co-occurring substance misuse: a descriptive review. Journal of Mental Health 2006;15(6):619-32.
  • Barrowclough C, Haddock G, Wykes T, Beardmore R, Conrod P, Craig T, et al. Integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy for people with psychosis and comorbid substance misuse: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2010;341(7784):6325. [MEDLINE: 21106618]
  • Barrowclough C, Meier P, Beardmore R, Emsley R. Predicting therapeutic alliance in clients with psychosis and substance misuse. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 2010;198(5):373-7.
  • Haddock G, Beardmore R, Earnshaw P, Fitzsimmons M, Nothard S, Butler R, et al. Assessing fidelity to integrated motivational interviewing and CBT therapy for psychosis and substance use: the MI-CBT fidelity scale (MI-CTS). Journal of Mental Health 2012;21(1):38-48 2012;21(1):38-48.
  • Hartley S, Haddock G, Barrowclough C. Anxiety and depression and their links with delusions and hallucinations in people with a dual diagnosis of psychosis and substance misuse: A study using data from a randomised controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2012;50(1):65-71.
  • Johnson R. MIDAS - mental health clinical trials - information for service users and carers. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ 2005.
  • Shabaruddin FH, Davies LM. Cost of delivering psychiatric inpatient care to mental health patients with psychosis and co-occuring substance use: A UK based study. Value in Health 2011;14:A291.
Bechdolf 2011 {published data only}
  • Bechdolf A, Pohlmann B, Guttgemanns J, Geyer C, Lindner K, Ferber C, et al. State-dependent motivational interviewing for people with schizophrenia and substance use : Results of a randomised controlled trial [Motivationsbehandlung für patienten mit der doppeldiagnose psychose und sucht]. Nervenarzt 2011;83(7):888-96. [MEDLINE: 21720841]
Bellack 2006 {published data only}
  • Bellack AS, Bennett ME, Gearon JS, Brown CH, Yang Y. A randomized clinical trial of a new behavioral treatment for drug abuse in people with severe and persistent mental iIlness. Archives of General Psychiatry 2006;63(4):426-32.
  • Brown CH, Bennett ME, Li L, Bellack AS. Predictors of initiation and engagement in substance abuse treatment among individuals with co-occurring serious mental illness and substance use disorders. Addictive Behaviors 2011;36(5):439-47.
Bond 1991a {published and unpublished data}
  • Bond GR, McDonel EC, Miller LD, Pensec M. Assertive community treatment and reference groups: an evaluation of their effectiveness for young adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse problems. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 1991;15(2):31-43.
Bond 1991b {published and unpublished data}
  • Bond GR, McDonel EC, Miller LD, Pensec M. Assertive community treatment and reference groups: an evaluation of their effectiveness for young adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse problems. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 1991;15(2):31-43.
Bonsack 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bonsack C. Motivational intervention to reduce cannabis use in young people with psychosis: A randomized controlled trial. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2010;4 Suppl 1:159.
  • Bonsack C, Manetti SG, Favrod J, Montagrin Y, Besson J, Bovet P, et al. Motivational intervention to reduce cannabis use in young people with psychosis: A randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2011;80(5):287-97.
Burnam 1995 {published and unpublished data}
  • Burnam MA, Morton SC, McGlynn EA, Peterson LP, Stecher BM, Hayes C, Vaccaro JV. An experimental evaluation of residential and nonresidential treatment for dually diagnosed homeless adults. Journal of Addictive Diseases 1995;14(4):111-34.
  • McGlynn EA, Boynton J, Morton SC, Stecher BM, Hayes C, Vaccaro JV, Burnam MA. Treatment for the dually diagnosed homeless: program models and implementation experience: Los Angeles. Alcohol Treatment Quarterly 1993;10(3-4):171-86.
Chandler 2006 {published data only}
  • Chandler D, Spicer G. Integrated treatment for jail recidivists with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders. Community Mental Health Journal 2006;42(4):405-25.
  • Drake RE, Morrissey JP, Mueser KT. The challenge of treating forensic dual diagnosis clients: comment on "Integrated treatment for jail recidivists with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders". Community Mental Health Journal 2006;42(4):427-32.
Drake 1998a {published and unpublished data}
  • Clark RE, Teague GB, Ricketts SK, Bush PW, Xie H, McGuire TG, et al. Cost-effectiveness of assertive community treatment versus standard case management for persons with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders. Health Services Research 1998;33(5):1285-8.
  • Drake RE. Ten year follow up of dual diagnosis treatment. CRISP database accessed 10/05/02 2002.
  • Drake RE, McHugo GJ, Clark RE, Teague GB, Xie H, Miles K. Assertive community treatment for patients with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorder: a clinical trial. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1998;68(2):201-15.
Edwards 2006 {published data only}
Essock 2006 {published data only}
  • Essock SM, Mueser KT, Drake RE, Covell NH, McHugo GJ, Frisman LK, et al. Comparison of ACT and Standard Case Management for Delivering Integrated Treatment for Co-occurring Disorders. Psychiatric Services 2006;57(2):185-96.
  • Kanter J. Clinical case management, case management and ACT. Psychiatric Services 2006; Vol. 57, issue 4:578.
  • Manuel JI. A longitudinal analysis of psychiatric medication adherence and provider continuity among individuals with co-occurring disorders. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 2009;69(10A):4126.
  • Manuel JI, Covell NH, Jackson CT, Essock SM. Does assertive community treatment increase medication adherence for people with co-occurring psychotic and substance use disorders?. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association 2011;17(1):51-6.
Godley 1994 {published data only}
  • Godley SH, Hoewing-Roberson R, Godley MD. Final MISA Report. Bloomington, IN: Lighthouse Institute, 1994.
Graeber 2003 {published data only}
  • Graeber DA, Moyers TB, Griffith G, Guajardo E, Tonigan S. A pilot study comparing motivational interviewing and an educational intervention in patients with schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders. Community Mental Health Journal 2003;39(3):189-202.
Hellerstein 1995 {published data only}
Hickman 1997 {unpublished data only}
  • Hickman ME. The effects of personal feedback on alcohol intake in dually diagnosed clients: an empirical study of William R. Miller's motivational enhancement therapy. Unpublished thesis. University Graduate School, Dept. Counseling Psychology, Indiana University 1997.
Hjorthoj 2013 {published and unpublished data}
  • Fohlmann AH, Hjorthoej C, Larsen A, Nordentoft M. CapOpus. randomized clinical trial: Specialized addiction treatment (MI & CBT) versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2010;4 Suppl 1:159.
  • Fohlmann AH, Hjorthoej C, Larsen A, Nordentoft M. CapOpus. randomized clinical trial: Specialized addiction treatment (MI & CBT) versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2010;4 Suppl 1:160.
  • Hjorthaj CR. Validity of self-reported cannabis use as measured by the timeline follow-back instrument in a trial randomizing people with comorbid cannabis use disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2010;4 Suppl 1:160.
  • Hjorthoj C, Fohlmann A, Larsen A-M, Madsen MTR, Vesterager L, Gluud C, et al. Design paper: the CapOpus trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis. Trials 2008;9:42.
  • Hjorthoj CR, Fohlmann A, Larsen A-M, Madsen MTR, Vesterager L, Gluud C, et al. Interim analysis of the CapOpus trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 2010;117(2-3):190.
  • Hjorthoj CR, Fohlmann A, Larsen AM, Arendt M, Nordentoft M. Correlations and agreement between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in blood plasma and timeline follow-back (tlfb)-assisted self-reported use of cannabis of patients with cannabis use disorder and psychotic illness attending the CapOpus randomized clinical trial. Addiction 2011;107(6):1123-31. [MEDLINE: 22151583]
  • Hjorthoj CR, Vesterager L, Nordentoft M. Test-retest reliability of the Danish adult reading test in patients with comorbid psychosis and cannabis-use disorder. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 2013;67(3):159-63. [MEDLINE: 22624828]
  • Hjorthøj CR, Fohlmann A, Larsen A-M, Gluud C, Arendt M, Nordentoft M. Specialized psychosocial treatment plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU for patients with cannabis use disorder and psychosis: the CapOpus randomized trial. Psychological Medicine 2013;43(7):1499-1510. [PUBMED: 23040144]
  • NCT00484302. Cannabis and psychosis randomized clinical trial: specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2007.
  • Nordentoft M, Hjorthoj C, Fohlmann A. Capopus trial: An observer-blinded rct of specialized addiction treatment versus standard treatment for young patients with cannabis. Proceedings of the 17th European Psychiatric Association, EPA Congress; 2009 Jan 24-28; Lisbon Portugal 2009;24:S1178.
Jerrell 1995a {unpublished data only}
Jerrell 1995b {unpublished data only}
  • Jerrell JM, Ridgely MS. Comparative effectiveness of three approaches to serving people with severe mental illness and substance abuse disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1995;183(9):566-76.
Kavanagh 2004 {published data only}
Kemp 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kemp R, Harris A, Vurel E, Sitharthan T. Stop using stuff: trial of a drug and alcohol intervention for young people with comorbid mental illness and drug and alcohol problems. Australasian Psychiatry 2007;15(6):490-3. [MEDLINE: 17852064]
Lehman 1993 {published data only}
  • Lehman AF, Herron JD, Schwartz RP, Myers CP. Rehabilitation for adults with severe mental illness and substance use disorders: a clinical trial. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1993;181(2):86-90.
Madigan 2013 {published data only}
  • Madigan K, Brennan D, Lawlor E, Turner N, Kinsella A, O'Connor JJ, et al. A multi-center, randomized controlled trial of a group psychological intervention for psychosis with comorbid cannabis dependence over the early course of illness. Schizophrenia Research 2013;143(1):138-42.
Maloney 2006 {unpublished data only}
  • Maloney MP. Reducing criminal recidivism in jail-incarcerated mothers with co-occurring disorders. Manuscript kindly provided by Dr Maloney - no further details given.
McDonell 2013 {published and unpublished data}
  • McDonell MG, Srebnik D, Angelo F, McPherson S, Lowe JM, Sugar A, et al. Randomized controlled trial of contingency management for stimulant use in community mental health patients with serious mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry 2013;170(1):94-101.
  • NCT00809770. Contingency management of psychostimulant abuse in the severely mentally ill. ClinicalTrials.gov 2008.
  • Weiss RD. Contingency management for patients with serious mental illness and stimulant dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry 2013;170(1):6-8.
Morse 2006 {published data only}
  • Calsyn RJ, Yonker RD, Lemming MR, Morse GA, Klinkenberg WD. Impact of assertive community treatment and client characteristics on criminal justice outcomes in dual disorder homeless individuals. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 2005;15(4):236-48.
  • Fletcher TD, Cunningham JL, Calsyn RJ, Morse GA, Klinkenberg WD. Evaluation of treatment programs for dual disorder individuals: modeling longitudinal and mediation effects. Administration and Policy in Mental Health 2008;35(4):319-36. [MEDLINE: 18506618]
  • Morse GA, Calsyn RJ, Klinkenberg WD, Cunningham J, Lemming MR. Integrated treatment for homeless clients with dual disorders: a quasi-experimental evaluation. Journal of Dual Diagnosis 2008;4(3):219-37.
  • Morse GA, Calsyn RJ, Klinkenberg WD, Helminiak TW, Wolff N, Drake RE, et al. Treating homeless clients with severe mental illness and substance use disorders: costs and outcomes. Community Mental Health Journal 2006;42(4):377-404.
Naeem 2005 {published data only}
  • Naeem F, Kingdon D, Turkington D. Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia in patients with mild to moderate substance misuse problems. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 2005;34(4):207-15.
  • Turkington D, Kingdon D, Turner T. Effectiveness of a brief cognitive-behavioural therapy intervention in the treatment of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 2002;180:523-7.
Nagel 2009 {published data only}
Swanson 1999 {published data only}
Tracy 2007 {published data only}
  • Tracy K, Babuscio T, Nich C, Kiluk B, Carroll KM, Petry NM, Rounsaville BJ. Contingency management to reduce substance use in individuals who are homeless with co-occurring psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 2007;33(2):253-8. [MEDLINE: 17497548]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Audier 2011 {published data only}
  • Audier C, Mulder CL, Staring A, Van Der Hoorn BE, Hakkaart-vanRoijen L, Blanken P. Money for medication: A randomized controlled study on the effectiveness of financial incentives to improve medication adherence in patients with a psychotic disorder and co-morbid substance abuse. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2011;1:294-5.
Bachman 1997 {published data only}
Bagoien 2013 {published data only}
  • Bagoien G, Bjorngaard J, Ostensen C, Romundstad P, Morken G. Motivational interviewing to patients with comorbid substance use admitted to an acute psychiatric department. Psychiatrische Praxis 2011;38:S10.
  • Bagoien G, Bjorngaard JH, Ostensen C, Reitan SK, Romundstad P, Morken G. The effects of motivational interviewing on patients with comorbid substance use admitted to a psychiatric emergency unit - a randomised controlled trial with two year follow-up. BMC Psychiatry 2013;13:93. [PUBMED: 23517244]
Barrowclough 2006b {published data only}
Bechdolf 2004 {published data only}
Beebe 2012 {published data only}
  • Beebe LH, Smith K, Burk R, McIntyre K, Dessieux O, Tavakoli A, et al. Motivational intervention increases exercise in schizophrenia and co-occurring substance use disorders. Schizophrenia Research 2012;135(1-3):204-5.
Bell 2011 {published data only}
  • Bell MD. Cognitive remediation with work therapy in the initial phase of substance abuse treatment. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2011;Suppl 1:296.
Bennett 2001 {published data only}
Berk 1999 {published data only}
  • Berk M, Brook S, Trandafir AI. A comparison of olanzapine with haloperidol in cannabis-induced psychotic disorder: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 1999;14(3):177-80.
Biegel 2009 {published data only}
  • Biegel DE, Beimers D, Stevenson LD, Ronis RJ, Boyle P. Predictors of referral to supported employment among consumers with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. Community Mental Health Journal 2009;45(6):427-38.
Bowen 2000 {published data only}
  • Bowen RC, D'Arcy C, Keegan D, Senthilselvan A. A controlled trial of cognitive behavioural treatment of panic in alcoholic inpatients with comorbid panic disorder. Addictive Behaviours 2000;25(4):593-97.
Caplan 2006 {published data only}
  • Caplan B, Schutt RK, Turner WM, Goldfinger SM, Seidman LJ. Change in neurocognition by housing type and substance abuse among formerly homeless seriously mentally ill persons. Schizophrenia Research 2006;83(1):77-86. [MEDLINE: 16504484]
Carey 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Carey KB, Purnine DM, Maisto SA, Carey MP. Enhancing readiness-to-change substance abuse in persons with schizophrenia. A four-session motivation-based intervention. Behaviour Modification 2001;25(3):331-84.
  • Carey MP, Carey KB, Maisto SA, Gordon CM, Schroder KEE, Vanable PA. Reducing HIV-risk behavior among adults receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2004;72(2):252-68.
Carroll 1991 {published data only}
  • Carroll KM, Rounsaville BJ, Gawin FH. A comparative trial of psychotherapies for ambulatory cocaine abusers: relapse prevention and interpersonal psychotherapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1991;17(3):229-47.
Carroll 1998 {published data only}
Ceron 2000 {unpublished data only}
  • Ceron D, Mondoni S, Malbergier A, Silva G. Schizophrenia: the influence of acupuncture on cocaine addicted patients. Conference presentation to 153rd Annual Meeting of the APA, May 13-18, Chicago. 2000.
Cheng 2007 {published data only}
  • Cheng AL, Lin H, Kasprow W, Rosenheck RA. Impact of supported housing on clinical outcomes: analysis of a randomized trial using multiple imputation technique. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 2007;195(1):83-8. [MEDLINE: 17220745]
Clark 2001 {published data only}
Clarke 2000 {published data only}
  • Clarke GN, Herinckz HA, Kinney RF, Paulson RI, Cutler DL, Lewis K, Oxman E. Psychiatric hospitalizations, arrests, emergency room visits, and homelessness of clients with serious and persistent mental illness: Findings from a randomized trial of two ACT programs vs. usual care. Mental Health Services Research 2000;2(3):155-64.
Conrad 2006 {published data only}
  • Conrad KJ, Lutz G, Matters MD, Donner L, Clark E, Lynch P. randomized trial of psychiatric care with representative payeeship for persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services 2006;57(2):197-204. [MEDLINE: 16452696]
Craig 2008 {published data only}
  • Craig TKJ, Johnson S, McCrone P, Afuwape S, Hughes E, Gournay K, et al. Integrated care for co-occurring disorders: psychiatric symptoms, social functioning, and service costs at 18 months. Psychiatric Services 2008;59(3):276-82. [MEDLINE: 18308908]
Crump 1996 {published data only}
D'Ercole 1997 {published data only}
Dalack 1999 {published data only}
  • Dalack GW, Becks L, Hill E, Pomerleau OF, Meador-Woodruff JH. Nicotine withdrawal and psychiatric symptoms in cigarette smokers with schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 1999;21(2):195-202.
Daley 1998 {published data only}
  • Daley DC, Ihsan MSW, Salloum MPH, Zuckoff MA, Kirisci L, Thase ME. Increasing treatment adherence among outpatients with depression and cocaine dependence: Results of a pilot study. American Journal of Psychiatry 1998;155(11):1611-3.
DeMarce 2008 {published data only}
  • DeMarce JM, Lash SJ, Stephens RS, Grambow SC, Burden JL. Promoting continuing care adherence among substance abusers with co-occurring psychiatric disorders following residential treatment. Addictive Behaviors 2008;33(9):1104-12. [MEDLINE: 18573617]
Drake 2004a {published data only}
  • Drake R E, Xie X, McHugo GJ, Shumway M. Three-year outcomes of long-term patients with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders. Biological Psychiatry 2004;56(November 15):749-56.
Drake 2006 {published data only}
  • Drake RE, McHugo GJ, Xie H, Fox M, Packard J, Helmsetter B. Ten-year recovery outcomes for clients with co-occurring schizophrenia and substance use disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2006;32(3):464-73.
Drebing 2005 {published data only}
Drebing 2007 {published data only}
  • Drebing CE, Van Ormer EA, Mueller L, Hebert M, Penk WE, Petry NM, et al. Adding contingency management intervention to vocational rehabilitation: outcomes for dually diagnosed veterans. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 2007;44(6):851-65. [MEDLINE: 18075942]
Eberhard 2009 {published data only}
  • Eberhard S, Nordstrom G, Hoglund P, Ojehagen A. Secondary prevention of hazardous alcohol consumption in psychiatric out-patients: a randomised controlled study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2009;12:1013-21.
Essock 1995 {published data only}
Faber 2012 {published data only}
  • Faber G, Smid HGOM, Van Gool AR, Wunderink L, Van Den Bosch RJ, Wiersma D. Continued cannabis use and outcome in first-episode psychosis: Data from a randomized, open-label, controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2012;73(5):632-8.
Fisher 1996 {published data only}
French 1999 {published data only}
  • De Leon G, Sacks S, Staines G, McKendrick K. Modified therapeutic community for homeless mentally ill chemical abusers: treatment outcomes. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 2000;26(3):461-80.
  • French MT, Sacks S, De Leon G, Staines G, McKendrick K. Modified therapeutic community for mentally ill chemical abusers: outcomes and costs. Evaluation and the Health Professions 1999;22(1):60-85.
Giannini 2000 {published data only}
  • Giannini AJ, Underwood NA, Condon M. Acute ketamine intoxication treated by haloperidol: a preliminary study. American Journal of Therapeutics 2000;7(6):389-91.
Godley 2000 {published data only}
  • Godley SH, Finch M, Dougan L, McDonnell M, McDermeit M, Carey A. Case management for dually diagnosed individuals involved in the criminal justice system. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2000;18(2):137-48.
Goldstein 2005 {published data only}
  • Goldstein G, Haas GL, Shemansky WJ, Barnett B, Salmon-Cox S. Rehabilitation during alcohol detoxication in comorbid neuropsychiatric patients. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 2005;42(2):225-34. [MEDLINE: 15944887]
Green 2001 {unpublished data only}
  • Green A, Tohen M, Strakowski SM, Lieberman JA, Glick ID, Clarke SW, HGDG study group. Comorbid substance use disorder and first episode schizophrenia: acute effects of olanzapine versus haloperidol. CSG Register of Trials. 2001.
Havassy 2000 {published data only}
Hayes 2003 {published data only}
  • Hayes RA, Andrews N, Baron-Jeffrey M, Conley C, Gridley K, Norman R, Wright G. Service enhancement to a dual-diagnosis population: Mental Illness/Substance Abuse (MISA). Quality Management in Health Care 2003;12(3):133-50.
Hein 2004 {published data only}
Herman 2000 {published and unpublished data}
  • Herman SE, BootsMiller B, Jordan L, Mowbray CT, Brown G, Deiz N, et al. Immediate outcomes of substance abuse treatment within a state psychiatric hospital. Journal of Mental Health Administration 1997;24(2):126-38.
  • Herman SE, Frank KA, Mowbray CT, Ribisl K, Davidson WS, BootsMiller B, et al. Longitudinal effects of integrated treatment on alcohol use for persons with serious mental illness and substance use disorders. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research 2000;27(3):286-302.
Hulse 2002 {published data only}
Hurlburt 1996 {published data only}
ISRCTN58667926 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN58667926. Impact - improving physical health and reducing substance use in severe mental illness: randomised controlled trial of a health promotion intervention. http://public.ukcrn.org.uk/ 2011.
James 2004 {published data only}
  • James W, Preston NJ, Koh G, Spencer C, Kisely SR, Castle DJ. A group intervention which assists patients with dual diagnosis reduce their drug use: a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine 2004;34(6):983-90.
Jerrell 2000 {published data only}
Jones 2011 {published data only}
Judd 2003 {published data only}
  • Judd PH, Thomas N, Schwartz T, Outcalt A, Hough R. A dual diagnosis demonstration project: treatment outcomes and cost analysis. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2003;35 Suppl 1:181-92.
Kasprow 1999 {published data only}
Keet 2006 {published data only}
  • Keet IPM, Hulstijn KP, de Haan L, Schippers G, Linszen D. Family motivational intervention: training motivational interviewing for family members of patients with schizophrenia, cannabis use and poor compliance. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86 Suppl 1:S149.
Kelly 2002 {published data only}
Lasser 2000 {published data only}
  • Lasser R, Matkovits-Gupta T, Cucchiaro J, Fairweather D, Young F, El-Bizri H, et al. The unique aspects of the realise program - a global development programme to assess the safety, efficacy and long-term impact of iloperidone in schizophrenia. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 2000;3(1):S123.
Linehan 1999 {published data only}
Linehan 2002 {published data only}
  • Linehan MM, Dimeff LA, Reynolds SK, Comtois KA, Welch SS, Heagerty P, Kivlahan DR. Dialectical behavior therapy versus comprehensive validation therapy plus 12-step for the treatment of opioid dependent women meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2002;67(1):13-26.
Magura 2003 {published data only}
  • Magura S, Laudet AB, Mahmood D, Rosenblum A, Vogel HS, Knight EL. Role of self-help processes in achieving abstinence among dually diagnosed persons. Addictive Behaviours 2003;28(3):399-413.
Mangrum 2006 {published data only}
  • Mangrum LF, Spence RT, Lopez M. Integrated versus parallel treatment of co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2006;30(1):79-84.
Martino 2000 {published and unpublished data}
Martino 2006 {published data only}
McGeary 2000 {published data only}
  • McGeary KA, Sacks S, McKendrick K, De Leon G. Service use and cost by mentally ill chemical abusers: differences by retention in a therapeutic community. Journal of Substance Abuse 2000;11(3):265-79.
McGurk 2009 {published data only}
  • McGurk SR, Mueser KT, Derosa TJ, Wolfe R. Work, recovery, and comorbidity in schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial of cognitive remediation. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2009;35(2):319-35.
McHugo 1999 {published data only}
McMurran 2000 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • McMurran M. Mental disorder, alcohol intoxification and violence. National Research Register 2002; Vol. Publication number #M0007054877, issue 2.
Mercer 1997 {published data only}
  • Mercer McFadden C, Drake RE, Brown NB, Fox RS. The Community Support Program demonstrations of services for young adults with severe mental illness and substance use disorders, 1987-1991. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 1997;20(3):13-24.
Milby 2000 {published data only}
  • Milby JB, Schumacher JE, McNamara C, Wallace D, Usdan S, McGill T, Michael M. Initiating abstinence in cocaine abusing dually diagnosed homeless persons. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2000;60(1):55-67.
Morse 1997 {published data only}
  • Morse GA, Calsyn RJ, Klinkenberg WD, Trusty ML, Gerber F, Smith R, et al. An experimental comparison of three types of case management for homeless mentally ill persons. Psychiatric Services 1997;48(4):497-503.
Mowbray 1999 {published data only}
Mueser 2001 {published data only}
Mueser 2009 {published data only}
  • Mueser KT, Glynn SM, Cather C, Zarate R, Fox L, Feldman J, et al. Family intervention for co-occurring substance use and severe psychiatric disorders: participant characteristics and correlates of initial engagement and more extended exposure in a randomized controlled trial. Addictive Behaviors 2009;34(10):867-77. [MEDLINE: 19375870]
Mueser 2010 {published data only}
  • Mueser K, Glynn SM, Xie H, Zarate R, Cather C, Fox L, et al. Family psychoeducation with patients who have co-occurring substance use disorders and severe mental illness. Schizophrenia Research 2010;117(2-3):121.
Mueser 2013 {published data only}
  • Mueser KT, Glynn SM, Cather C, Xie H, Zarate R, Smith LF, et al. A randomized controlled trial of family intervention for co-occurring substance use and severe psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2013;39(3):658-72. [MEDLINE: 22282453]
NCT00043693 {published data only}
  • NCT00043693. Family intervention for SMI and substance use disorder. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2002.
NCT00316303 {published data only}
  • NCT00316303. Effectiveness of the screen, test, immunize, reduce risk, and refer (stirr) intervention for people with both a mental and substance abuse disorder. http://clinicaltrials.gov 2009.
NCT00447720 {published data only}
  • NCT00447720. HIV prevention among substance abusing SMI. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2007.
NCT00495911 {published data only}
  • NCT00495911. A randomized controlled trial of individual therapy for first episode psychosis. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2007.
NCT01167556 {published data only}
  • NCT01167556. Family motivational intervention in schizophrenia. http://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT01167556 2006.
NCT01361698 {published data only}
  • NCT01361698. Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) in Danish community mental health centres. http://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT01361698 2011.
Nuijten 2012 {published data only}
  • Nuijten M, Blanken P, Van Der Hoorn B, Van Den Brink W, Hendriks V. A randomised controlled trial of outpatient versus inpatient integrated treatment of dual diagnosis patients: A failed but informative study. Mental Health and Substance Use: Dual Diagnosis 2012;5(2):132-47.
Nuttbrock 1998 {published data only}
Otto-Salaj 2001 {published data only}
  • Otto-Salaj LL, Kelly JA, Stevenson LY, Hoffman R, Kalichman SC. Outcomes of a randomized small-group HIV prevention intervention trial for people with serious mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal 2001;37(2):123-43.
Penn 2000 {published data only}
  • Brooks AJ, Penn PE. Comparing treatments for dual diagnosis: Twelve-step and self-management and recovery training. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 2003;29(2):359-83.
  • Penn PE, Brooks AJ. Five years, twelve steps, and REBT in the treatment of dual diagnosis. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 2000;18(4):197-208.
Petersen 2006 {published data only}
  • Petersen L, Jeppesen P, Thorup A, Ohlenschlaeger J, Christensen T, Krarup G, et al. Substance abuse in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86 Suppl 1:S44.
Petersen 2007 {published data only}
  • Petersen L, Nordentoft M, Bertelsen M, Thorup A. Does cannabis abuse determine outcome among patients with first episode psychosis. Results from the OPUS-trial. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):453.
Petersen 2007a {published data only}
Petrakis 2005 {published data only}
  • Petrakis IL, Poling J, Levinson C, Nich C, Carroll C, Rounsaville B. Naltrexone and disulfiram in patients with alcohol dependence and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Biological Psychiatry 2005;57(10):1128-37.
Rahav 1995 {published data only}
  • Rahav M, Rivera JJ, Nuttbrock L, Ng-Mak D, Sturz EL, Link BG, et al. Characteristics and treatment of homeless, mentally ill, chemical-abusing men. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1995;27(1):93-103. [MEDLINE: 95325981]
Randall 2001 {published data only}
Ries 2004 {published data only}
  • Ries RK, Dyck DG, Short R, Srebnik D, Fisher A, Comtois KA. Outcomes of managing disability benefits among patients with substance dependence and severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services 2004;55(4):445-7.
Rosenheck 1998 {published data only}
Rowe 2007 {published data only}
  • Rowe M, Bellamy C, Baranoski M, Wieland M, O'Connell MJ, Benedict P, et al. A peer-support, group intervention to reduce substance use and criminality among persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services 2007;58(7):955-61. [MEDLINE: 17602012]
Sacks 2004 {published data only}
Sacks 2008 {published data only}
  • Sacks JY, Sacks S, McKendrick K, Banks S, Schoeneberger M, Hamilton Z, et al. Prison therapeutic community treatment for female offenders: profiles and preliminary findings for mental health and other variables (crime, substance use and HIV risk). Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2008;46(3-4):233-61.
  • Sullivan CJ, McKendrick K, Sacks S, Banks S. Modified therapeutic community treatment for offenders with MICA disorders: substance use outcomes. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 2007;33(6):823-32.
Samele 2002 {published data only}
  • Samele C, Walsh E, Gilvarry C, Manley C, Tattan T, Fahy T, et al. Non-alcohol substance misuse, outcome and intensive case management. European Psychiatry 2002;17 Suppl 1:216s.
Santa Ana 2007 {published data only}
  • Santa Ana EJ, Wulfert E, Nietert PJ. Efficacy of group motivational interviewing (GMI) for psychiatric inpatients with chemical dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2007;75(5):816-22. [MEDLINE: 17907864]
Schaar 2001 {published data only}
Schmitz 2002 {published data only}
  • Schmitz JM, Averill P, Sayre S, McCleary P, Moeller FG, Swann A. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of bipolar disorder and substance abuse: A preliminary randomized study. Addictive Disorders and Their Treatment 2002;1(1):17-24.
Sigmon 2000 {published data only}
  • Sigmon SC, Steingard S, Badger GJ, Anthony SL, Higgins ST. Contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness: a feasibility study. Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology 2000;8(4):509-17.
Siris 1993 {published data only}
  • Siris SG, Mason SE, Bermanzohn PC, Shuwall MA. Adjunctive imipramine in substance-abusing dysphoric schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1993;29(1):127-33.
Sitharthan 1999 {published data only}
  • Sitharthan T, Singh S, Kranitis P, Currie J, Freeman P, Murugesan G, et al. Integrated drug and alcohol intervention: development of an opportunistic intervention program to reduce alcohol and other substance use among psychiatric patients. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 1999;33(5):676-83. [MEDLINE: PMID 10544991]
Smeerdijk 2010 {published data only}
  • Smeerdijk M, Keet R, De Haan L, Schippers G, Linszen D. Family motivation intervention in early onset psychosis and cannabis abuse: a randomized clinical trial. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research; 2009 Mar 28-Apr 1; San Diego, CA. Oxford Univ Press, 371.
  • Smeerdijk M, Keet R, Dekker N, Van Raaij B, Krikke M, Koeter M, et al. Motivational interviewing and interaction skills training for parents to change cannabis use in young adults with recent onset schizophrenia. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2010;4 Suppl 1:6.
  • Smeerdijk M, Keet R, Dekker N, van RB, Krikke M, Koeter M, et al. Motivational interviewing and interaction skills training for parents to change cannabis use in young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine 2012;42(8):1627-36.
Swanson 2000 {published data only}
  • Swanson JW, Swartz MS, Borum R, Hiday VA, Wagner R, Burns BJ. Involuntary out-patient commitment and reduction of violent behaviour in persons with severe mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 2000;176:324-31.
Teague 1995 {published data only}
Thornicroft 2007 {published data only}
  • Hughes E, Wanigaratne S, Gournay K, Johnson S, Thornicroft G, Finch E, et al. Training in dual diagnosis interventions (the COMO Study): randomised controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry 2008;8:12. [MEDLINE: 18304310]
  • Johnson S, Thornicroft G, Afuwape S, Leese M, White IR, Hughes E, et al. Effects of training community staff in interventions for substance misuse in dual diagnosis patients with psychosis (COMO study): cluster randomised trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2007;191(November):451-2. [MEDLINE: 17978327]
  • Thornicroft G. Prevention of admission to psychiatric hospital. A randomised controlled trial of service use, health and social care outcomes of a community mental health team intervention specific to dual diagnosis (psychosis and substance misuse) patients. http://www.controlled-trials.com. United Kingdom, 2007.
Timko 2004 {published data only}
  • Timko C, Chen S, Sempel J, Barnett P. Dual diagnosis patients in community or hospital care: one-year outcomes and health care utilization and costs. Journal of Mental Health 2006;15(2):163-77.
  • Timko C, Sempel JM. Short-term outcomes of matching dual diagnosis patients' symptom severity to treatment intensity. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2004;26(3):209-18.
Tyrer 2011 {published data only}
  • Ranger M, Tyrer P, Miloseska K, Fourie H, Khaleel I, North B, et al. Cost-effectiveness of nidotherapy for comorbid personality disorder and severe mental illness: randomized controlled trial. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale 2009;18(2):128-36. [MEDLINE: 19526744]
  • Tyrer P, Miloseska K, Whittington C, Ranger M, Khaleel I, Crawford M, et al. Nidotherapy in the treatment of substance misuse, psychosis and personality disorder: Secondary analysis of a controlled trial. Psychiatrist 2011;35(1):9-14.
Watt 2006 {published data only}
  • Watt M, Stewart S, Birch C, Bernier D. Brief CBT for high anxiety sensitivity decreases drinking problems, relief alcohol outcome expectancies, and conformity drinking motives: evidence from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Mental Health 2006;15(6):683-95.
Weaver 2009 {published data only}
  • Weaver MR, Conover CJ, Proescholdbell RJ, Arno PS, Ang A, Uldall KK, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of integrated care for people with HIV, chronic mental illness and substance abuse disorders. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 2009;12(1):33-46. [MEDLINE: 19346565]
Weiss 2000 {published data only}
  • Weiss R D, Griffin ML, Greenfield SF, Najavits LM, Wyner D, Soto JA, Hennene JA. Group therapy for patients with bipolar disorder and substance dependence: results of a pilot study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2000;61(5):361-7.
Weiss 2007 {published data only}
  • Weiss RD, Griffin ML, Kolodziej ME, Greenfield SF, Najavits LM, Daley DC, et al. A randomized trial of integrated group therapy versus group drug counseling for patients with bipolar disorder and substance dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry 2007;164(1):100-7.
Weiss 2009 {published data only}
  • Weiss RD, Griffin ML, Jaffee WB, Bender RE, Graff FS, Gallop RJ, Fitzmaurice GM. A "community-friendly" version of integrated group therapy for patients with bipolar disorder and substance dependence: a randomized controlled trial. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2009;104(3):212-9.
  • Weiss, R. Modifying group therapy for bipolar substance abusers. NCT00227838. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2005.
Worley 2010 {published data only}
  • Worley MJ, Trim RS, Tate SR, Hall JE, Brown SA. Service utilization during and after outpatient treatment for comorbid substance use disorder and depression. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2010;39(2):124-31.
Xie 2005a {published data only}
  • Xie H, McHugo GJ, Fox MB, Drake RE. Substance abuse relapse in a ten-year prospective follow-up of clients with mental and substance use disorders. Psychiatric Services 2005;56(10):1282-7.
Xie 2005b {published data only}
  • Xie H, McHugo GJ, Helmstetter BS, Drake RE. Three-year recovery outcomes for long-term patients with co-occurring schizophrenic and substance use disorders. Schizophrenia Research 2005;75(2-3):337-48.
Xie 2006 {published data only}
  • Xie H, Drake R, McHugo G. Are there distinctive trajectory groups in substance abuse remission over 10 years? An application of the group-based modeling approach. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services 2006;33(4):423-32.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Meister 2010 {published data only}
  • Meister K, Rietschel L, Burlon M, Jannsen H, Bock T, Wegscheider K, et al. A cluster-randomized, parallel group, observer blind trial of a group based motivational-behavioural therapy for young people with psychosis and substance use disorder. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2010;4 Suppl 1:163.
  • Meister, K. Comorbid psychosis and addiction. Epidemiology, explanatory models and evaluation of motivational behavioural group therapy [Komorbidität psychose und sucht. Epidemiologie, erklärungsmodelle und evaluation einer motivational-verhaltenstherapeutischen gruppentherapie]. Dissertation, University of Hamburg 2010.
Odom 2005 {published data only}
  • Odom AE. A randomized study of integrated outpatient treatment and assertive community treatment for patients with comorbid mental illness and substance use disorders: comparing treatment outcome for domiciled and homeless patients [PhD thesis]. New School University, 2005.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
ACTRN12610000249055 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • ACTRN12610000249055. A randomised control trial of a group based intervention and relapse prevention package for substance misuse and psychosis. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 2010.
Bennett 2007 {published data only}
  • Bennett M, Bellack AS, Dixon L. Treatment of alcohol use disorders in people with severe mental illness. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):421.
  • NCT00280813. Treatment of alcohol use disorders in schizophrenia. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2006.
Bennett 2011 {published data only}
  • Bennett M, Bellack A, Dixon L, Brown C. The effects of a group based behavioral approach to substance misuse and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2011;1:296.
  • NCT00295139. Behavioral treatment of drug abuse in SPMI patients. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2006.
ISRCTN33576045 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN33576045. Contingency intervention for reduction of cannabis in early psychosis -circle. http://www.controlled-trials.com 2011.
  • ISRCTN33576045. Randomised controlled trial of the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a contingency management intervention for reduction of cannabis use and of relapse in early psychosis. Circle. http://public.ukcrn.org.uk/ 2012.
NCT00783185 {published data only}
  • NCT00783185. Dual diagnosis (psychosis and cannabis misuse): comparison of specialized treatment versus unspecified treatment. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2008.
NCT00798109 {published data only}
  • NCT00798109. Effect of motivational therapy on schizophrenia with cannabis misuse. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2008.
NCT01478815 {published data only}
  • NCT01478815. Contingency management for persons with severe mental illness. http://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT01478815 2011.
NCT01567943 {published data only}
  • NCT01567943. Contingency management of alcohol abuse in the severely mentally ill. http://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT01567943 2012.
Smith 2011 {published data only}
  • Smith S, Greenwood K, Atakan Z, Sood P, Ohlsen R, Papanastasiou E, et al. The impact study - motivating a change in health behaviour. European Psychiatry. 2011.
U1111-1119-5851 {published data only}
  • U1111-1119-5851. Evaluation of an integrative therapy approach for the comorbidity of psychosis and addiction. http://www.drks.de/DRKS00000671 2011.
Verstappen 2007 {published data only}
  • Verstappen N, Henquet C. Effects and indicators of CBT for cannabis use in psychosis [Studie naar 'Behandeling cananbisgebruik en psychose']. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp 2007.
Worrell 2011 {published data only}
  • Barrowclough C, Lobbanl F, Warburton J, Choudhry I, Gregg L, Wood H, et al. Helper recap: Rethinking choices after psychosis - a phase specific psychological therapy for people with problematic cannabis use following a first episode of psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2010;4 Suppl 1:161.
  • Worrell L. Helper programme (substance misuse)- a phase-specific psychological therapy for people with problematic cannabis use following a first episode of psychosis (recap). http://public.ukcrn.org.uk 2011.

Additional references

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  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
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