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Physical training for asthma

  1. Kristin V Carson1,*,
  2. Madhu G Chandratilleke2,
  3. Joanna Picot3,
  4. Malcolm P Brinn4,
  5. Adrian J Esterman5,
  6. Brian J Smith1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Airways Group

Published Online: 30 SEP 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 25 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001116.pub4


How to Cite

Carson KV, Chandratilleke MG, Picot J, Brinn MP, Esterman AJ, Smith BJ. Physical training for asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD001116. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001116.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Department of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

  2. 2

    The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Respiratory Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

  3. 3

    University of Southampton, Southampton Health Technology Assessments Centre, Southampton, Hampshire, UK

  4. 4

    The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Clinical Practice Unit, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

  5. 5

    University of South Australia, Division of Health Sciences, Adelaide, Australia

*Kristin V Carson, Department of Medicine, University of Adelaide, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide, Australia. kristin.carson@health.sa.gov.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 30 SEP 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ahmaidi 1980 {published data only}
  • Ahmaidi SB, Varray AL, Savy-Pacaux AM, Prefaut CG. Cardiorespiratory fitness evaluation by the shuttle test in asthmatic subjects during aerobic training. Chest 1993;104(4):1135-41.
Boyd 2012 {published data only}
  • Boyd AW, Estell K, Dransfield M, Schwiebert L. The effect of aerobic exercise on asthma-related responses in adults. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2011;127(2 Suppl 1):AB223.
  • Boyd AW, Yang CT, Estell K, Ms CT, Dransfield M, Bamman M, et al. Feasibility of exercising adults with asthma: a randomized pilot study. Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology 2012;8(1):1-13. [http://www.aacijournal.com/content/8/1/13]
Cochrane 1990 {published data only}
  • Cochrane LM, Clark CJ. Benefits and problems of a physical training programme for asthmatic patients. Thorax 1990;45:345-51.
  • Cochrane LM, Clark CJ. Physical training improves perception of breathlessness during exercise in asthmatics. European Respiratory Journal 1988;1 Suppl 2:192.
  • Cochrane LM, Clark CJ. The metabolic and ventilatory consequences of an exercise rehabilitation programme for adult asthmatics. European Respiratory Journal 1990;3 Suppl 10:182.
Counil 2003 {published data only}
Fanelli 2007 {published data only}
Farid 2005 {published data only}
  • Farid R, Azad FJ, Atri AE, Rahimi MB, Khaledan A, Talaei-Khoei M, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise training on pulmonary function and tolerance of activity in asthmatic patients. Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 2005;4(3):133-8.
Girodo 1992 {published data only}
  • Girodo M, Ekstrand KA, Metivier GJ. Deep diaphragmatic breathing: rehabilitation exercises for the asthmatic patient. Archives of Physiology, Medicine and Rehabilitation 1992;73:717-20.
Gonçalves 2008 {published data only}
  • Gonçalves RC, Nunes MPT, Cukier A, Stelmach R, Martins MA, Carvalho CRF. Effects of an aerobic physical training program on psychosocial characteristics, quality-of-life, symptoms and exhaled nitric oxide in individuals with moderate or severe persistent asthma [Efeito de um programa de condicionamento físico aeróbio nos aspectos psicossociais, na qualidade de vida, nos sintomas e no óxido nítrico exalado de portadores de asma persistente moderada ou grave]. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia 2008;12(2):127-35.
Matsumoto 1999 {published data only}
  • Matsumoto I, Araki H, Tsuda K, Odajima H, Nishima S, Higaki Y, et al. Effects of swimming training on aerobic capacity and exercise induced bronchoconstriction in children with bronchial asthma. Thorax 1999;54(3):196-201.
Mendes 2010 {published data only}
  • Mendes F, Cukier A, Stelmach R, Martins M, Carvalho C. Which asthmatic patients benefits most from aerobic training program? European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2010 Sep 18-22; Barcelona.
  • Mendes F, Goncalves R, Nunes M, Cukier A, Stelmach R, Martins M, et al. Effects of an aerobic training on psychosocial morbidity in asthmatic patients. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2009 Sep 12-16; Vienna.
  • Mendes FA, Gonçalves RC, Nunes MP, Saraiva-Romanholo BM, Cukier A, Stelmach R, et al. Effects of aerobic training on psychosocial morbidity and symptoms in patients with asthma: a randomized clinical trial. Chest 2010;138(2):331-7.
  • NCT00989365. Effect of Aerobic Training on Asthmatic Patients. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00989365 (accessed 18 August 2010).
Mendes 2011 {published data only}
  • Mendes F, Goncalcves R, Saraiva-Romanholo B, Nunes M, Cukier A, Stelmach R, et al. Effect of aerobic training on airway inflammation and asthma symptoms in asthmatic patients. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2009 Sep 12-16; Vienna.
  • Mendes FAR, Almeida FM, Cukier A, Stelmach R, Jacob-Filho W, Martins MA, et al. Effects of aerobic training on airway inflammation in asthmatic patients. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2011;43(2):197-203. [DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ed0ea3; PUBMED: 20581719]
Moreira 2008 {published and unpublished data}
Silva 2006 {published data only}
  • Silva CS, Torres LAGMM, Rahal A, Terra Filho J, Vianna EO. Comparison of morning and afternoon exercise training for asthmatic children. Brazillian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 2006;39(1):71-8.
Swann 1983 {published data only}
  • Swann IL, Hanson CA. Double-blind prospective study of the effect of physical training on childhood asthma. In: Oseid S, Edwards AM editor(s). The asthmatic child - In play and sport. London: Pitman Books Limited, 1983:318-25.
Turner 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Turner S, Eastwood P, Cook A, Jenkins S. Improvements in symptoms and quality of life following exercise training in older adults with moderate/severe persistent asthma. Respiration 2011;81(4):302-10.
  • Turner S, Eastwood P, Cook A, Jenkins S. Improvements in symptoms and quality of life following exercise training in older adults with moderate/severe persistent asthma. Respiration epub 2010 May 22:1-9. [DOI: 10.1159/000315142]
Van Veldhoven 2001 {published data only}
  • Van Veldhoven NH, Vermeer A, Bogaard JM, Hessels MGP, Wijnroks L, Colland VT, et al. Children with asthma and physical exercise: effects of an exercise programme. Clinical Rehabilitation 2001;15(4):360-70.
Varray 1991 {published and unpublished data}
  • Varray AL, Mercier JG, Terral CM, Prefaut CG. Individualised aerobic and high intensity training for asthmatic children in an exercise readaptation program - Is training always helpful for better adaptation to exercise?. Chest 1991;99(3):579-86.
Varray 1995 {published and unpublished data}
Wang 2009 {published and unpublished data}
Weisgerber 2003 {published data only}
  • Weisgerber MC, Guill M, Weisgerber JM, Butler H. Benefits of swimming in asthma: effect of a session of swimming lessons on symptoms and PFTs with review of the literature. Journal of Asthma 2003;40(5):453-64.
Wicher 2010 {published data only}
  • Wicher IB, Ribeiro MA, Marmo DB, Santos CI, Toro AA, Mendes RT, et al. Effects of swimming on spirometric parameters and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children and adolescents with moderate persistent atopic asthma [Avaliação espirométrica e da hiper-responsividade brônquica de crianças e adolescentes com asma atópica persistente moderada submetidos a natação]. Jornal de Pediatria 2010;86(5):384-90.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Altintas 2003 {published data only}
  • Altintas D, Cevit O, Ergen N, Karakoc G, Inci D. The effect of swimming training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary functions in children with asthma. Allergy & Clinical Immunology International 2003;1 Suppl:O-17-6.
Arandelovic 2007 {published data only}
Basaran 2006 {published and unpublished data}
Bauer 2002 {published data only}
  • Bauer CP, Petermann F, Kiosz D, Stachow R. Long-term effect of indoor rehabilitation on children and young people with moderate and severe asthma [Langzeiteffekt der stationaren Rehabilitation bei Kindern und Jugendlichen mit mittelschwerem und schwerem Asthma bronchiale]. Pneumologie 2002;56(8):478-85.
Belanyi 2007 {published data only}
  • Belanyi K, Gyene I, Bak Z, Mezei G. Comparing the young asthmatics running fitness [Asztmás fiatalok összehasonlító futás-állóképesség vizsgálata]. Orvosi Hetilap 2007;148(8):357-61.
Bonsignore 2006 {published data only}
  • Bonsignore MR, La Grutta S, Cibella F, Cuttitta G, Messineo B, Veca M, et al. Effects of 12 week aerobic training in children with mild intermittent asthma [Abstract]. ATS International Conference; 2006 May 19-24; San Diego.
Bundgaard 1983 {published data only}
  • Bundgaard A, Ingemann-Hansen T, Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Schmidt A, Bloch I, Andersen PK. Short-term physical training in bronchial asthma. British Journal of Diseases of the Chest 1983;77:147-52.
Cambach 1997 {published data only}
  • Cambach W, Chadwick-Straver RVM, Wagenaar RC, Van Keimpema ARJ, Kemper HCG. The effects of community-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme on exercise tolerance and quality of life: a randomized controlled trial. European Respiratory Journal 1997;10:104-13.
Cox 1989 {published data only}
  • Cox NJM, Hendriks J, Folgering H, Binkhorst R, Van Herwaarden C. Results of lung rehabilitation on the short and long term [Resultaten van longrevalidatie bij behandeling op korte en lange termijn]. Nederlands Tijdschrift Geneeskunde 1989;133(52):2639-40.
Cox 1993 {published data only}
  • Cox NJ, Hendricks JC, Binkhorst RA, Van Herwaarden CL. A pulmonary rehabilitation program for patients with asthma and mild chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases COPD. Lung 1993;171(4):235-44.
Dean 1988 {published data only}
Didour 2002 {published data only}
  • Didour M, Pravosudov V, Sinitcina T. Effects of a short pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with asthma [abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2002;20 Suppl 38:183.
Dogra 2010 {published data only}
  • Dogra S, Jamnik V, Baker J. Control and adherence - Self-directed exercise improves perceived measures of health in adults with partly controlled asthma. Journal of Asthma 2010;47(9):972-7.
  • Dogra S, Kuk JL, Baker J, Jamnik V. Exercise is associated with improved asthma control in adults. European Respiratory Journal 2011;37(2):318-23.
Edenbrandt 1990 {published data only}
Emtner 1998 {published data only}
  • Emtner M, Finne M, Stalenheim G. A 3-year follow-up of asthmatic patients participating in a 10-week rehabilitation program with emphasis on physical training. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1998;79(5):539-44.
  • Emtner M, Finne M, Stalenheim G. High-intensity physical training in adults with asthma. A comparison between training on land and in water. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 1998;30(4):201-9.
  • Emtner M, Hedin A, Stalenheim G. Asthmatic patients' views of a comprehensive asthma rehabilitation programme: a three-year follow-up. Physiotherapy Research International 1998;3(3):175-93.
  • Emtner M, Herala M, Stalenheim G. High-intensity physical training in adults with asthma. A 10-week rehabilitation program. Chest 1996;109(2):323-30.
Emtner 1999 {published data only}
  • Emtner M. Physiotherapy and intensive physical training in rehabilitation of adults with asthma. Physical Therapy Reviews 1999;4(4):229-40.
Fesharaki 2010 {published data only}
  • Fesharaki M, Paknejad SMJO, Kordi R. The effects of aerobic and strength exercises on pulmonary function tests and quality of life in asthmatic patients. Tehran University Medical Journal 2010;68(6):348-54.
Fitch 1986 {published data only}
Foglio 2001 {published data only}
  • Foglio K, Bianchi L, Ambrosino N. Is it really useful to repeat outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation programs in patients with chronic airway obstruction? A 2-year controlled study. Chest 2001;119(6):1696-704.
Graff-Lonnevig 1980 {published data only}
Hallstrand 2000 {published data only}
Henriksen 1983 {published data only}
Hildenbrand 2010 {published data only}
  • Hildenbrand K, Nordio S, Freson TS, Becker BE. Development of an aquatic exercise training protocol for the asthmatic population. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education 2010;4:278-99.
Hirt 1964 {published data only}
Huang 1989 {published data only}
Kendrick 2000 {published data only}
Kennedy 2002 {published data only}
Kriegel 1998 {published data only}
  • Kriegel VG. Experience with and impact of six years of judo training in ambulatory rehabilitation of childhood bronchial asthma. Rehabilitation 1998;37(1):36-43.
Lecheler 1988 {published data only}
  • Lecheler J, Biberger A, Seligmann CHR, Dorsch U, Hasse-Dorsch I. Exercise (sports) in the treatment of childhood bronchial asthma. A comparison of interval and continuous-running training [Sporttherapie in der Behandlung des kindlichen Asthma bronchiale. Vergleich von Intervall- und Dauerlauftraining]. Praxis und Klinik der Pneumologie 1988;42:475-8.
Malkia 1998 {published data only}
  • Malkia E, Impivaara O. Intensity of physical activity and respiratory function in subjects with and without bronchial asthma. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 1998;8(1):27-32.
Meyer 1999 {published data only}
  • Meyer A, Gunther S, Volmer T, Keller A, Taube K, Pforte A. Weekly training improves physical capacity in older asthmatics. Pneumologie 1999;53(SH1):S22.
Meyer 2002 {published data only}
  • Meyer A, Machnick MA, Behnke W, Braumann KM. Participation of asthmatic children in gymnastic lessons at school. Pneumologie 2002;56(8):486-92.
Muzembo 2001 {published data only}
  • Muzembo Ndundu J, Nkakudulu Bikuku H, Frans A. Respiratory rehabilitation in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Kinshasa. Revue de Pneumologie Clinique 2001;57(3):209-18.
Neder 1999 {published data only}
Orenstein 1985 {published data only}
Pin 1993 {published data only}
  • Pin L, Bozel P, Ceugniet F, Eberhard Y, Bost M, Paramelle B. Effect of 2 physical training programmes on oxygen consumption and exercise-induced asthma in asthmatic teenagers. European Respiratory Journal 1993;6 Suppl 17:613.
Postolache 2002 {published data only}
  • Postolache PA. Long-term benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic asthma. European Respiratory Journal 2002;20 Suppl 38:454.
Riegels-Nielsen 2000 {published data only}
  • Riegels-Nielsen T, Sondergaard R, Jensen JI, Pedersen PK. Improved lung function and exercise tolerance in adult asthmatics following 7 weeks of strenuous bicycle training. Journal of Sports Sciences 2000;18(7):496-7.
Rosimini 2003 {published data only}
Rothe 1990 {published data only}
  • Rothe T, Kohl C, Mansfeld HJ. Controlled study of the effect of sports training on cardiopulmonary functions in asthmatic children and adolescents. Pneumologie 1990;44(9):1110-4.
Satta 2000 {published data only}
Schaar 1999 {published data only}
  • Schaar B, Platen P. Kaisser M, Jaeschke R. SITA - swimming and roller-blading for teenagers with forms of bronchial asthma - comparative observation of the effectiveness of sport intervention [SITA - Schwimmen und Lnline Skating für Teens mit Formen des Asthma bronchiale - vergleichende Berachtung der Effektivität sportlicher Interventionen]. Deutschk Zeitschrift Für Sportmedizin 1999;50:97.
Schmidt 1997 {published data only}
  • Schmidt SM, Ballke EH, Nuske F, Leistikow G, Wiersbitzky SK. Effect of ambulatory sports therapy on bronchial asthma in children. Pneumologie 1997;51(8):835-41.
Scott 2013a {published data only}
Sly 1972 {published data only}
Stiefelhagen 2003 {published data only}
  • Stiefelhagen P. Physical exercise and bronchial obstruction: sports for asthmatic patients. MMW-Fortschritte der Medizin 2003;145(12):4-8.
Svenonius 1983 {published data only}
Turchetta 2002 {published data only}
Van Veldhoven 2000 {published data only}
  • Van Veldhoven NH, Wijnroks L, Bogaard JM, Vermeer A. Effects of an exercise program (PEP) for children with asthma: results of a pilot study. Pediatric Exercise Science 2000;12(3):244-57.
Weisgerber 2004 {published data only}
  • Weisgerber M, Flores G, Meurer J, Berger S, Willis E, Danduran M, et al. A randomized trial of the effectiveness of community swimming and golf programs in improving symptoms, fitness, and quality of life of children with asthma. Abstracts of the Academy of Health Meeting; 2004 Jun 6-8; San Diego. 2004:1685.
  • Weisgerber M, Webber K, Meurer J, Danduran M, Berger S, Flores G. Moderate and vigorous exercise programs in children with asthma: safety, parental satisfaction, and asthma outcomes. Pediatric Pulmonology 2008;43:1175-82.
Weller 1999 {published data only}
  • Weller T. Exercise in the management of asthma in children. Sportex Medicine: the Multidisciplinary Journal for Professionals working with Musculoskeletal Injuries 1999;2:13-7.
Worth 2000 {published data only}
  • Worth H. Asthma training in Germany: first standardized program. Allergo Journal 2000;9(8):454.
Yüksel 2009 {published data only}
  • Yüksel H, Söğüt A, Yilmaz Ö, Günay Ö, Tikiz C, Dündar P, et al. Effects of physical exercise on quality of life, pulmonary function and symptom score in children with asthma [Astimli çocuklarda fiizik egzersizin yaşam kalitesi, solunum fonksiyonlari ve semptom skorlarina etkisi]. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 2009;7:58-65.
Zaid 2008 {published data only}
  • Zaid R, Ponce A, Mason K, Kassab D, Cueto J, Howell E, et al. Comparison of an Aerobic Conditioning Program and Medical Management to Medical Management Alone in Children with Mild to Moderate Asthma. American Thoracic Society conference; 2008 May 16-21; Toronto. 2008.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Pinto 2012 {published data only}
  • Pinto A, Mendes F, Agondi R, Saraiva-Romanholo B, Stelmach R, Cukier A, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise training on bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and health related quality of life in asthmatic patients: A pilot study. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2012 Sep 1-5; Vienna. 2012:69S [P489].
Pollart 2012 {published data only}
  • Pollart SM, Elward KS, Platts-Mills TAE. Improvements in quality of life measures in a structured exercise program for persistent asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2012;129:AB60 [231].

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Accordini 2013
  • Accordini S, Corsico AG, Braggion M, Gerbase MW, Gialason D, Gulsvik A, et al. The cost of persistent asthma in Europe: An international population-based study in adults. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 2013;160(1):93-101. [DOI: 10.1159/000338998]
AIHW 2008
  • Australian Centre for Asthma Monitoring. Asthma in Australia 2008. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2008; Vol. Series no.3; Cat. no. ACM 14 Canberra AIHW.
AIHW 2010
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia's health 2010. AIHW Australia's health series no.12; Cat. no. AUS 122 2010; Vol. Canberra.
Allard 1989
  • Allard C, Jones NL, Killian KJ. Static peripheral skeletal muscle strength and exercise capacity in patients with chronic airflow limitation. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 1989;138:A90.
Avallone 2012
  • Avallone KM, McLeish AC. Asthma and aerobic exercise: A review of the empirical literature. Journal of Asthma 2012;Online First 20/12/2012:1-23. [DOI: 10.3109/02770903.2012.759963]
Bahadori 2009
  • Bahadori K, Doyle-Waters MM, Marra C, Lynd L, Alasaly K, Swiston J, et al. Economic burden of asthma: a systematic review. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009;19:9-24.
Bouchard 2012
  • Bouchard C, Blair SN, Haskell WL. Why study physical activity and health?. In: Claude Bouchard, Steven N. Blair, William L Haskell editor(s). Physical Activity and Health. Second Edition. Human Kinetics Inc., 2012:441. [ISBN: 0736095411, 9780736095419]
Braman 2006
Brooks 1996
  • Brooks GA, Fahey TD, White TP. Exercise Physiology. Human Bioenergitics and Its Applications. 2nd Edition. California, USA: Mayfield, 1996:Chapter 16.
Clark 1988
EFA 2004
  • European Federation of Allergy and Airways Disease Patients Associations. New European asthma figures released in global report failure in asthma management reported by asthma experts. http://www.efanet.org/enews/documents/EFAAsthmainEuropeRelease_170204.doc (accessed 13 September 2011).
Eijkemans 2012
Ford 2002
Garfinkel 1992
GINA 2012
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Higgins 2008
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Huovinen 2001
Kandane-Rathayake 2009
Karras 2000
Laveneziana 2006
Mancuso 2013
  • Mancuso CA, Choi TN, Westermann H, Wenderoth S, Wells MT, Charlson ME. Improvement in asthma quality of life in patients enrolled in a prospective study to increase lifestyle physical activity. Journal of Asthma 2013;50(1):103-7. [DOI: 10.3109/02770903.2012.743150]
Masoli 2004
Morton 2011
Moxham 2009
  • Moxham J, Jolley C. Breathlessness, fatigue and the respiratory muscles. Clinical Medicine 2009;9(5):778-82.
NHLBI 2011
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Nystad 2001
Orenstein 1996
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Pawankar 2012
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Robinson 1992
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Santuz 1997
Scichilone 2012
Scott 2013b
  • Scott HA, Garg ML, Gibson PG, Wood LG. Asthma and inflammation. In: Manohar L Garg, Lisa G Wood editor(s). Nutrition and Physical Activity in Inflammatory Diseases. Boston: CAB International 2013, 2013:416.
Sonna 2001
  • Sonna LA, Angel KC, Sharp MA, Knapik JJ, Patton JF, Lilly CM. The prevalence of exercise induced bronchospasm among US Army recruits and its effects of physical performance. Chest 2001;119:1676-84.
Swallow 2007
  • Swallow EB, Gosker HR, Ward KA, Moore AJ, Dayer MJ, Hopkinson NS, et al. A novel technique for nonvolitional assessment of quadriceps muscle endurance in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 2007;103:739-46.
WHO 2011
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Williams 2008
  • Williams B, Powell A, Hoskins G, Neville R. Exploring and explaining low participation in physical activity among children and young people with asthma: a review. BMC Family Practice 2008;9(40):1-11.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ram 2000
Ram 2002
  • Ram FSF, Robinson SM, Black PN. Does regular exercise help in the treatment and management of bronchial asthma?. In: MacAuley D, Best TM editor(s). Evidence-based sports medicine. BMJ Publishing Group, 2002:165-180. [ISBN 0 7279 1584 3]
Ram 2005
  • Ram FSF, Picot J. Benefits of regular exercise in the treatment and management of bronchial asthma. In: MacAuley D, Best TM editor(s). Evidence-based sports medicine. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2005 (in press).