Intervention Review

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Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression

  1. Cindy-Lee Dennis1,*,
  2. Therese Dowswell2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 30 MAY 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001134.pub3


How to Cite

Dennis CL, Dowswell T. Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD001134. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001134.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Toronto and Women's College Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  2. 2

    The University of Liverpool, Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Liverpool, UK

*Cindy-Lee Dennis, University of Toronto and Women's College Research Institute, 155 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1P8, Canada. cindylee.dennis@utoronto.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Armstrong 1999 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Austin 2008 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Austin MP, Frilingos M, Lumley J, Hadzi-Pavlovic D, Roncolato W, Acland S, et al. Brief antenatal cognitive behaviour therapy group intervention for the prevention of postnatal depression and anxiety: a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders 2008;105(1-3):35-44.
Brugha 2000 {published data only}
  • Brugha T, Wheatley S, Taub N, Culverwell A, Friedman T, Kirwan P, et al. Pragmatic randomized trial of antenatal intervention to prevent post-natal depression by reducing psychosocial risk factors. Psychological Medicine 2000;30(6):1273-81.
  • Wheatley SL, Brugha TS, Shapiro DA. Exploring and enhancing engagement to the psychosocial intervention 'preparing for parenthood'. Archives of Women's Mental Health 2003;6(4):275-85.
Cupples 2011 {published data only}
  • Cupples ME, Stewart MC, Percy A, Hepper P, Murphy C, Halliday HL. A RCT of peer-mentoring for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas (the MOMENTS Study). Archives of Disease in Childhood 2011;96(3):252-8.
Dennis 2009 {published data only}
  • Dennis CL, Hodnett E, Kenton L, Weston J, Zupancic J, Stewart DE, et al. Effect of peer support on prevention of postnatal depression among high risk women: multisite randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2009;338:a3064.
  • Dukhovny D, Dennis CL, Hodnett E, Kenton L, Weston J, Stewart DE, et al. Prospective economic evaluation of a peer support intervention for prevention of postpartum depression among high risk women in Ontario, Canada. American Academy of Pediatrics Annual Meeting; 2010 October 2-5; San Francisco, California, USA. 2010.
  • Dukhovny D, Dennis CL, Hodnett E, Kenton L, Weston J, Stewart DE, et al. Prospective economic evaluation of a peer support intervention for prevention of postpartum depression amongst high risk women. Pediatric Academic Societies' 2010 Annual Meeting; 2010 May 1-4; Vancouver, Canada. 2010.
Feinberg 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Feinberg ME, Kan ML. Establishing family foundations: intervention effects on coparenting, parent/infant well-being, and parent-child relations. Journal of Family Psychology 2008;22(2):253-63.
Gamble 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Creedy D. Reducing postpartum emotional distress: a randomised controlled trial. 10th International Conference of Maternity Care Researchers; 2004 June 13-16; Lund, Sweden. 2004:24.
  • Gamble J, Creedy D. Reducing postpartum emotional distress: a randomised controlled trial. [abstract]. Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand. 7th Annual Congress; 2003 March 9-12; Tasmania, Australia. 2003:A29.
  • Gamble J, Creedy D, Moyle W, Webster J, McAllister M, Dickson P. Effectiveness of a counseling intervention after a traumatic childbirth: a randomized controlled trial. Birth 2005;32(1):11-9.
Gao 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gao L, Chan S, Li X, Chen S, Hao Y. Evaluation of an interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented childbirth education programme for Chinese first-time childbearing women: a randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2010;47:1208-16.
Gjerdingen 2002 {published data only}
  • Gjerdingen DK, Center B. A randomized controlled trial testing the impact of a support/work-planning intervention on first-time parents' health, partner relationship, and work responsibilities. Behavioral Medicine 2002;28(3):84-91.
Gorman 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gorman L. Prevention of Postpartum Difficulties in a High Risk Sample [dissertation]. University of Iowa, 1997.
Gunn 1998 {published and unpublished data}
Harris 2006 {unpublished data only}
  • Harris T, Brown GW, Hamilton V, Hodson S, Craig TKJ. The Newpin antenatal and postnatal project: a randomised controlled trial of an intervention for perinatal depression. Personal communication 2011 March 21.
Heinicke 1999 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Ickovics 2011 {published data only}
  • Ickovics JR, Kershaw T, Westdahl C, Magriples U, Massey Z, Reynolds H, et al. Group prenatal care and perinatal outcomes: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2007;110(2):330-9.
  • Ickovics JR, Reed E, Magriples U, Westdahl C, Schindler Rising S, Kershaw TS. Effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial risk in pregnancy: results from a randomised controlled trial. Psychology & Health 2011;26(2):235-50.
Lavender 1998 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Le 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Le HN, Perry DF, Stuart EA. Randomized controlled trial of a preventive intervention for perinatal depression in high-risk Latinas. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2011;79(2):135-41.
Lumley 2006 {published data only}
  • Lumley J, Small R, Brown S, Watson L, Gunn J, Mitchell C, et al. Prism (program of resources, information and support for mothers) protocol for a community-randomised trial [isrctn03464021]. BMC Public Health 2003;3:36.
  • Lumley J, Watson L, Small R, Brown S, Mitchell C, Gunn J. Prism (program of resources, information and support for mothers): a community-randomised trial to reduce depression and improve women's physical health six months after birth. BMC Public Health 2006;6:37.
MacArthur 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • MacArthur C, Winter H, Bick D, Knowles H, Liford R, Henderson C, et al. Effects of redesigned community postnatal care on women's health 4 months after birth: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;359(9304):378-85.
  • MacArthur C, Winter HR, Bick DE, Lilford RJ, Lancashire RJ, Knowles H, et al. Redesigning postnatal care: a randomised controlled trial of protocol-based midwifery-led care focused on individual women's physical and psychological health needs. Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England) 2003;7(37):1-98.
Morrell 2000 {published data only}
  • Morrell C, Spiby H, Stewart P, Walters S, Morgan A. Costs and effectiveness of community postnatal support workers: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2000;321(7261):593-8.
  • Morrell CJ, Spiby H, Stewart P, Walters S, Morgan A. Costs and benefits of community postnatal support workers: a randomised controlled trial. Health Technology Assessment (South Hampton, NY) 2000;4(6):1-100.
Priest 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Henderson J, Sharp J, Priest S, Hagan R, Evans S. Postnatal debriefing: what do women feel about it?. 4th Annual Congress of the Perinatal Society of Australia & New Zealand; 1998 March 30-April 4; Alice Springs, Australia. 1998:38.
  • Priest S, Henderson J, Evans S, Hagan R. Stress debriefing after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial. Medical Journal of Australia 2003;178:542-5.
Reid 2002 {published data only}
  • Reid M, Glazener C, Connery L, Mackenzie J, Ismail D, Prigg A, et al. Two interventions for postnatal support. British Journal of Midwifery 2003;11(5):294-8.
  • Reid M, Glazener C, Murray G, Taylor G. A two-centred pragmatic randomized controlled trial of two interventions for postnatal support. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 2002;109(10):1164-70.
Sen 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Sen DM. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Midwife-Led Twin Antenatal Program - The Newcastle Twin Study [thesis]. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: University of Newcastle, 2006.
  • Sen DM, Robson SC, Bond S. Peripartum depression and anxiety in mothers expecting uncomplicated twin infants - an antenatal model of care in the North East of England. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 2004;22(3):239.
Small 2000 {published data only}
Stamp 1995 {published data only}
Tam 2003 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Tripathy 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Tripathy P, Nair N, Barnett S, Mahapatra R, Borghi J, Rath S, et al. Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes and maternal depression in Jharkhand and Orissa, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2010;375(9721):1182-92.
Waldenstrom 2000 {published and unpublished data}
Weidner 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Weidner K, Bittner A, Junge-Hoffmeister J, Zimmermann K, Siedentopf F, Richter J, et al. A psychosomatic intervention in pregnant in-patient women with prenatal somatic risks. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 2010;31(3):188-98.
Zlotnick 2001 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Zlotnick C, Johnson S, Miller I, Pearlstein T, Howard M. Postpartum depression in women receiving public assistance: pilot study of an interpersonal-therapy-oriented group intervention. American Journal of Psychiatry 2001;158(4):638-40.
Zlotnick 2006 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Zlotnick C, Miller IW, Pearlstein T, Howard M, Sweeney P. A preventive intervention for pregnant women on public assistance at risk for postpartum depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 2006;163(8):1443-5.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Ajh 2006 {published data only}
  • Ajh N, Unesian, Fili A, Abasi Motejaded. The study of supportive activities during pregnancy on postpartum depression. HAYAT 2006;12(3):73-80.
Appleby 1998 {published data only}
  • Appleby L. A controlled study of fluoxetine and cognitive -behavioural counselling in the treatment of postnatal depression. 9th Congress of the Association of European Psychiatrists; 1998 Sept 20-24; Copenhagen, Denmark. 1998:178s.
Armstrong 2004 {published data only}
  • Armstrong K, Edwards H. The effectiveness of a pram-walking exercise programme in reducing depressive symptomatology for postnatal women. International Journal of Nursing Practice 2004;10:177-94.
Bang 2009 {published data only}
  • Bang KS. Effects of an early nursing intervention program for infants' development and mother's child rearing in poverty. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing 2009;39(6):796-804.
Barnes 2009 {published and unpublished data}
Bastani 2005 {published data only}
  • Bastani F, Hidarnia A, Kazemnejad A, Vafaei M, Kashanian M. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of applied relaxation training on reducing anxiety and perceived stress in pregnant women. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health 2005;50(4):e36-40.
Buist 1999 {published data only}
  • Buist A, Westley D, Hill C. Antenatal prevention of postnatal depression. Archives of Women's Mental Health 1999;1:167-73.
Bulgay-Morschel 2010 {published data only}
  • Bulgay-Morschel M, Langlotz F, Ekkehard S. Influence of progressive muscle relaxation training on anxiety and depression levels during pregnancy and puerperium [conference abstract]. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2010;282:S83.
Chabrol 2002 {published data only}
  • Chabrol H, Teissedre F, Saint-Jean M, Teisseyre N, Roge B, Mullet E. Prevention and treatment of post-partum depression: a controlled randomized study on women at risk. Psychological Medicine 2002;32(6):1039-47.
  • Chabrol H, Teissedre F, Saint-Jean M, Teisseyre N, Sistac C, Michaud C, et al. Detection, prevention and treatment of postpartum depression: a controlled study of 859 patients. Encephale 2002;28(1):65-70.
Chabrol 2007 {published data only}
Cho 2008 {published data only}
Cooper 2002 {published data only}
  • Cooper PJ, Landman M, Tomlinson M, Molteno C, Swartz L, Murray L. Impact of a mother-infant intervention in an indigent peri-urban South African context: pilot study. British Journal of Psychiatry 2002;180:76-81.
D'Andrea 1994 {published data only}
  • D'Andrea M. The family development project: a comprehensive mental health counseling program for pregnant adolescents. Journal of Mental Health Counseling 1994;16:184-95.
Dennis 2003 {published data only}
  • Dennis CL. The effect of peer support on postpartum depression: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry - Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie 2003;48(2):115-24.
Duggan 2009 {published data only}
  • Duggan AK, Berlin LJ, Cassidy J, Burrell L, Tandon SD. Examining maternal depression and attachment insecurity as moderators of the impacts of home visiting for at-risk mothers and infants. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2009;77(4):788-99.
Elliott 2000 {published data only}
  • Elliott S, Leverton T, Sanjack M, Turner H, Cowmeadow P, Hopkins J, et al. Promoting mental health after childbirth: a controlled trial of primary prevention of postnatal depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 2000;39:223-41.
  • Elliott SA, Sanjack M, Leverton TJ. Parents groups in pregnancy. A preventive intervention for postnatal depression?. In: Gottlieb BM editor(s). Marshalling Social Support: Formats, Processes and Effects. Beverley Hills: Sage, 1988:87-97.
El-Mohandes 2006 {published data only}
  • El-Mohandes AAE. A psycho-behavioral intervention on African American pregnant women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) improves birth weight distribution of their newborns [abstract]. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2006 April 29-May 2; San Francisco, CA, USA. 2006.
El-Mohandes 2008 {published data only}
  • El-Mohandes AA, Kiely M, Blake SM, Gantz MG, El-Khorazaty MN. An intervention to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure improves pregnancy outcomes. Pediatrics 2010;125(4):721-8.
  • El-Mohandes AA, Kiely M, Joseph JG, Subramanian S, Johnson AA, Blake SM, et al. An intervention to improve postpartum outcomes in African-American mothers: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2008;112(3):611-20.
  • Joseph JG, El-Mohandes AA, Kiely M, El-Khorazaty MN, Gantz MG, Johnson AA, et al. Reducing psychosocial and behavioral pregnancy risk factors: results of a randomized clinical trial among high-risk pregnant African American women. American Journal of Public Health 2009;99(6):1053-61.
  • Kiely M, El-Khorazaty MN, El-Mohandes AAE. Depression and smoking during pregnancy impact the efficacy of an integral behavioral intervention to resolve risks. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2007 May 5-8; Toronto, Canada. 2007.
Fagan 2010 {published data only}
  • Fagan J, Lee Y. Perceptions and satisfaction with father involvement and adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2010;39(9):1109-21.
Gordon 1960 {published data only}
Gordon 1999 {published data only}
  • Gordon N, Walton D, McAdam E, Derman J, Gallitero G, Garrett L. Effects of providing hospital-based doulas in health maintenance organization hospitals. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1999;93(3):422-6.
Goyal 2009 {published data only}
  • Goyal D, Gay C, Lee K. Fragmented maternal sleep is more strongly correlated with depressive symptoms than infant temperament at three months postpartum. Archives of Women's Mental Health 2009;12(4):229-37.
Grote 2009 {published data only}
  • Grote NK, Swartz HA, Geibel SL, Zuckoff A, Houck PR, Frank E. A randomized controlled trial of culturally relevant, brief interpersonal psychotherapy for perinatal depression. Psychiatric Services 2009;60(3):313-21.
Hayes 2001 {published data only}
  • Hayes B, Muller R, Bradley B. Perinatal depression: a randomized controlled trial of an antenatal education intervention for primiparas. Birth 2001;28(1):28-35.
  • Hayes BA, Muller R. Prenatal depression: a randomized controlled trial in the emotional health of primiparous women. Research & Theory for Nursing Practice 2004;18(2/3):165-83.
Heh 2003 {published data only}
Hiscock 2001 {published data only}
  • Hiscock H, Wake M. Randomised controlled trial of behavioural infant sleep intervention to improve infant sleep and maternal mood. BMJ 2002;324(7345):1062-5.
  • Hiscock H, Wake M. The impact of an infant sleep intervention on postnatal depression: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health 2001;37(6):A1.
Ho 2009 {published data only}
  • Ho S-M, Heh S-S, Jevitt CM, Huang L-H, Fu Y-Y, Wang L-L. Effectiveness of a discharge education program in reducing the severity of postpartum depression. A randomized controlled evaluation study. Patient Education and Counseling 2009;77(1):68-71.
Hodnett 2002 {published data only}
  • Hodnett E, Lowe N, Hannah M, Willan AR, Stevens B, Weston JA, et al. Effectiveness of nurses as providers of birth labor support in North American hospitals. JAMA 2002;288(11):1373-81.
Imura 2006 {published data only}
  • Imura M, Misao H, Ushijima H. The psychological effects of aromatherapy-massage in healthy postpartum mothers. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health 2006;51(2):e21-7.
Izzo 2005 {published data only}
  • Izzo CV, Eckenrode JJ, Smith EG, Henderson CR, Cole R, Kitzman H, et al. Reducing the impact of uncontrollable stressful life events through a program of nurse home visitation for new parents. Prevention Science 2005;6(4):269-74.
Katz 2009 {published data only}
  • Katz KS, Gantz M, Rodan M, Blake S, El-Khorazaty N, Kiely M, et al. Depression reduction and adherence to treatment in pregnant African American women. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2009 May 2-5; Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2009.
Katz 2009a {published data only}
  • Katz KS, Rodan M, Blake S, El-Khorazaty N, Gantz M, Kiely M, et al. Depression treatment for low income African American women in prenatal care: who fails to benefit?. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2009 May 2-5; Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2009.
Kealy 2003 {published data only}
  • Kealy M, Small R, Lumley J. Health and recovery after caesarean - is it as straightforward as we might want to believe?. Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand. 7th Annual Congress; 2003 March 9-12; Tasmania, Australia. 2003:A28.
Keller 2011 {published data only}
  • Keller C, Records K, Ainsworth B, Belyea M, Permana P, Coonrod D, et al. Madres para la Salud: design of a theory-based intervention for postpartum Latinas. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2011;32(3):418-27.
Kershaw 2005 {published data only}
King 2009 {published data only}
  • King E. The effectiveness of an internet-based stress management program in the prevention of postpartum stress, anxiety and depression for new mothers [thesis]. Kentucky: Walden University, 2009.
Kleeb 2005 {published data only}
  • Kleeb B, Rageth CJ. Influence of prophylactic information on the frequency of baby blues [Einfluss eines prophylaktischen Aufklarungsgesprachs auf den Baby Blues.]. Zeitschrift fur Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie 2005;209(1):22-8.
Koltyn 1997 {published data only}
  • Koltyn KF, Schultes SS. Psychological effects of an aerobic exercise session and a rest session following pregnancy. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness 1997;37(4):287-91.
Lara 2010 {published data only}
  • Lara MA, Navarro C, Navarrete L. Outcome results of a psycho-educational intervention in pregnancy to prevent PPD: a randomized control trial. Journal of Affective Disorders 2010;122(1-2):109-17.
  • Lara MA, Navarro C, Navarrete L, Le HN. Retention rates and potential predictors in a longitudinal randomized control trial to prevent postpartum depression. Salud Mental 2010;33:429-36.
Leung 2011 {published data only}
  • Leung SSK, Lee AM, Chiang VCL, Wong DFK, Lam SK. Efficacy of a brief cognitive-behavioural intervention on pregnant women to prevent postnatal depression. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2011;31(Suppl 1):19.
Lewis 2011 {published data only}
  • Lewis B, Avery M, Gjerdingen D, Sirard J. Innovative methods for recruiting pregnant and postpartum women for behavioral intervention trials. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2011;41 Suppl 1:S114.
Lieu 2000 {published data only}
  • Lieu T, Braveman P, Escobar G, Fischer A, Jensvold N, Capra A. A randomized comparison of home and clinic follow-up visits after early postpartum hospital discharge. Pediatrics 2000;105(5):1058-65.
Logsdon 2005 {published data only}
Marks 2003 {published data only}
  • Marks MN, Siddle K, Warwick C. Can we prevent postnatal depression? A randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of continuity of midwifery care on rates of postnatal depression in high-risk women. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2003;13:119-27.
McKee 2006 {published data only}
  • McKee MD, Zayas LH, Fletcher J, Boyd RC, Nam SH. Results of an intervention to reduce perinatal depression among low-income minority women in community primary care. Journal of Social Service Research 2006;32(4):63-81.
  • Zayas LH, McKee MD, Jankowski KR. Adapting psychosocial intervention research to urban primary care environments: a case example. Annals of Family Medicine 2004;2(5):504-8.
Milgrom 2010 {published data only}
  • Milgrom J. Toward parenthood: delivering an antenatal self-help intervention with telephone support for depression, anxiety and parenting difficulties - facilitating the perinatal health journey. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) (accessed 19 February 2008).
  • Milgrom J, Ericksen J, Leigh B, Romeo Y, Loughlin E, McCarthy R, et al. Development and Feasibility Study of a Monitored Self-Help Antenatal Intervention Program to Enhance Emotional Health and Reduce Parenting Stress. Parent Infant Research Institute, Victoria, Australia (http://www.piri.org.au/Research_Findings_and_Publications.php) (accessed 26 Jan 2011).
Milgrom 2011 {published data only}
  • Milgrom J, Schembri C, Ericksen J, Ross J, Gemmill AW. Towards parenthood: an antenatal intervention to reduce depression, anxiety and parenting difficulties. Journal of Affective Disorders 2011;130(3):385-94.
Mohammadi 2010 {published data only}
  • Mohammadi F. Effect of exercise on postnatal depression and fatigue in clients of health centers: a randomized controlled clinical trial. IRCT Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir) (accessed 6 December 2010) 2010.
Morrell 2009 {published data only}
  • Brugha TS, Morrell CJ, Slade P, Walters SJ. Universal prevention of depression in women postnatally: cluster randomized trial evidence in primary care. Psychological Medicine 2011;41(4):739-48.
  • Morrell CJ, Slade P, Warner R, Paley G, Dixon S, Walters SJ, et al. Clinical effectiveness of health visitor training in psychologically informed approaches for depression in postnatal women: pragmatic cluster randomised trial in primary care. BMJ 2009;338:a3045.
  • Morrell CJ, Warner R, Mathers N, Parry G, Dixon S, Slade P, et al. PoNDER: postnatal depression economic evaluation and randomised trial. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 2004;22(3):236.
  • Morrell CJ, Warner R, Mathers N, Parry G, Dixon S, Slade P, et al. The PoNDER Trial - the early evidence. Society for Academies in Primary Care (SAPC) Annual Scientific Meeting; 2004 July 14-16; Glasgow, Scotland. 2004.
  • Morrell CJ, Warner R, Mathers N, Parry G, Dixon S, Slade P, et al. The PoNDER trial - depression in session. Society for Social Medicine 48th Annual Scientific Meeting; 2004 September 15-17; Birmingham, UK. 2004.
  • Morrell CJ, Warner R, Slade P, Dixon S, Walters S, Paley G, et al. Psychological interventions for postnatal depression: cluster randomised trial and economic evaluation. The PoNDER trial. Health Technology Assessment 2009;13(30):iii-iv, xi-xiii, 1-153.
  • Slade P, Morrell CJ, Rigby A, Ricci K, Spittlehouse J, Brugha TS. Postnatal women's experiences of management of depressive symptoms: a qualitative study. British Journal of General Practice 2010;60(580):e440-8.
  • Slade P, Morrell J, Walters SJ, Dixon S, Brugha T, Paley G, et al. The PoNDER trial: a cost-effectiveness trial of psychological intervention by health visitors for postnatal depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology 2007;28(S1):64.
Munoz 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Munoz RF, Le HN, Ippen CG, Diaz MA, Urizar Jr GG, Soto J, et al. Prevention of postpartum depression in low-income women: development of the mamas y bebes/mothers and babies course. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 2007;14:70-83.
Murphy 1989 {published data only}
  • Murphy FL. Effects of Post-Discharge Nursing Visits on Emotional and Parental Adjustment of Postpartum Women [thesis]. Denton, Texas: Texas Woman's University, 1989.
Ngai 2009 {published data only}
  • Ngai FW, Chan SW, Ip WY. The effects of a childbirth psychoeducation program on learned resourcefulness, maternal role competence and perinatal depression: a quasi-experiment. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2009;46(10):1298-306.
Norman 2010 {published data only}
  • Norman E, Sherburn M, Osborne RH, Galea MP. An exercise and education program improves well-being of new mothers: a randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy 2010;90(3):348-55.
Oakley 1991 {published data only}
  • Oakley AR. Trial to reduce depression among mothers of young children - an intervention study. Personal communication 1991.
Okano 1998 {published data only}
  • Okano T, Nagata S, Hasegawa M, Nomura J, Kumar R. Effectiveness of antenatal education about postnatal depression: a comparison of two groups of Japanese mothers. Journal of Mental Health 1998;7(2):191-8.
Parry 2010 {published data only}
  • Parry B, Meliska C, Sorenson D, Lopez A, Orff H, Martinez F. Early versus late wake therapy effects on mood and sleep in pregnancy and postpartum depression. Journal of Sleep Research 2010;19:272.
Rees 1995 {published data only}
  • Rees BL. Effect of relaxation with guided imagery on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in primiparas. Journal of Holistic Nursing 1995;13(3):255-67.
Roman 2009 {published data only}
  • Roman LA, Gardiner JC, Lindsay JK, Moore JS, Luo Z, Baer LJ, et al. Alleviating perinatal depressive symptoms and stress: a nurse-community health worker randomized trial. Archives of Women's Mental Health 2009;12(6):379-91.
Ryding 2004 {published data only}
Saisto 2001 {published data only}
Selkirk 2006 {published data only}
  • Selkirk R, McLaren S, Ollerenshaw A, McLachlan AJ. The longitudinal effects of midwife-led postnatal debriefing on the psychological health of mothers. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 2006;24(2):133-47.
Serwint 1991 {published data only}
  • Serwint J, Wilson M, Duggan A, Mellits E, Baumgardner R, DeAngelis C. Do postpartum nursery visits by the primary care provider make a difference?. Pediatrics 88;3:444-9.
Shields 1997 {published data only}
  • Shields N, Reid M, Cheyne H, Holmes A. Impact of midwife-managed care in the postnatal period: an exploration of psychosocial outcomes. Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology 1997;15(2):91-108.
Spinelli 1997 {published data only}
Spinelli 2003 {published data only}
  • Spinelli MG, Endicott J. Controlled clinical trial of interpersonal psychotherapy versus parenting education program for depressed pregnant women. American Journal of Psychiatry 2003;160(3):555-62.
Sun 2004 {published data only}
  • Sun Y, Li H. Influence of psychological intervention on role adaption of mother in primipara. Chinese Nursing Research 2004;18(11B):2023-4.
Taghizadeh 2008 {published data only}
  • Taghizadeh Z, Jafarbegloo M, Arbabi M, Faghihzadeh S. The effect of counseling on post traumatic stress disorder after a traumatic childbirth. Hayat: Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery Quarterly 2008;13(4):23-31.
Tandon 2011 {published data only}
  • Tandon SD, Perry DF, Mendelson T, Kemp K, Leis JA. Preventing perinatal depression in low-income home visiting clients: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2011;79(5):707-12.
Tang 2009 {published data only}
  • Tang YF, Shi SX, Lu W, Chen Y, Wang QQ, Zhu YY, et al. Prenatal psychological prevention trial on postpartum anxiety and depression. Chinese Mental Health Journal 2009; Vol. 23, issue 2:83-9.
Teissedre 2004 {published data only}
  • Teissedre F, Chabrol H. Screening, prevention and postpartum treatment: a randomized comparative study on 450 women [Depistage, prevention et traitement des depressions du post-partum: une etude comparative randomisee chez 450 femmes]. Neuropsychiatrie de l'enfance et de l'adolescence 2004;52:266-73.
Tezel 2006 {published data only}
  • Tezel A, Gozum S. Comparison of effects of nursing care to problem solving training on levels of depressive symptoms in post partum women. Patient Education and Counseling 2006;63(1-2):64-73.
Tseng 2010 {published data only}
Urech 2009 {published data only}
  • Urech C, Alder J, Bitzer J, Hosli I. The effect of relaxation exercises on psychological wellbeing during pregnancy [Entspannungs-Ubungen wahrend der Schwangerschaft: Der Einfluss auf das psychobiologische Wohlbefinden]. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2009;69:163.
Vieten 2008 {published data only}
Webster 2003 {published data only}
Wiggins 2005 {published data only}
  • Wiggins M, Oakley A, Roberts I, Turner H, Rajan L, Austerberry H, et al. Postnatal support for mothers living in disadvantaged inner city areas: a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2005;59:288-95.
Wolman 1993 {published data only}
  • Nikodem C, Nolte A, Wolman W, Gulmezoglu A, Hofmeyr G. Companionship by a lay labour supporter to modify the clinical birth environment: long-term effects on mother and child. Curationis 1998;21(1):8-12.
  • Wolman W, Chalmers B, Hofmeyr J, Nikodem C. Postpartum depression and companionship in the clinical birth environment: a randomized controlled study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;168:1388-93.
Xu 2003 {published data only}
  • Xu FS, Liu JX, Zhang SP, Li J, Su Q. Effects of intervening measures on postpartum depression. Chung-Hua Fu Chan Ko Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology] 2003;38(12):724-6.
Zayas 2002 {published data only}
  • Zayas LH, Cunningham M, McKee MD, Jankowski KR. Depression and negative life events among pregnant african-american and hispanic women. Womens Health Issues 2002;12(1):16-22.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Ammaniti 2006 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Bernard 2011 {published data only}
Bittner 2009 {published data only}
  • Bittner A, Richter J, Muller C, Junge-Hoffmeister J, Weidner K. Effects of a group programme on the early intervention of symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression during pregnancy [Effekte eines Gruppenprogramms zur Fruhintervention bei Stress, Angst und depressiven Beschwerden in der Schwangerschaft]. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2009;69:162.
  • Richter J, Bittner A, Eisenhardt U, Lehmann C, Weidner K. Early intervention in the case of stress, anxiety and depressive conditions during pregnancy - proof of effectiveness by means of diurnal cortisol measurements [Fruhintervention bei Stress, Angst und depressiven Beschwarden in der Schwangerschaft: Wirksamkeitnachweis mittels Cortisolmessungen im Tagesverlauf]. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2009;69:163.
Caritis 2012 {published data only}
  • Caritis S. Effect of psycho-education in obese pregnant women on pregnancy outcomes, randomized controlled trial. Reproductive Sciences 2012;19(3 Suppl):114A.
Cook 2012 {published data only}
  • Cook F, Bayer J, Le HND, Mensah F, Cann W, Hiscock H. Baby Business: A randomised controlled trial of a universal parenting program that aims to prevent early infant sleep and cry problems and associated parental depression. BMC Pediatrics 2012;12:13.
Creedy 2011 {published data only}
  • Creedy D, Gamble J, Jarrett V. The effect of midwife-led counselling on mental health outcomes for women experiencing a traumatic childbirth: An RCT [conference abstract]. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry [abstracts from the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, RANZCP Annual Congress, May 29-Jun 2, 2011; Darwin, NT Australia] 2011;45(Suppl 1):A39.
Crockett 2008 {published data only}
  • Crockett K, Zlotnick C, Davis M, Payne N, Washington R. A depression preventive intervention for rural low-income African-American pregnant women at risk for postpartum depression. Archives of Women's Mental Health 2008;11(5-6):319-25.
Feinstein 2000 {published data only}
  • Feinstein N. Maternal Coping with Preterm Labor: An Intervention [thesis]. New York: University of Rochester, 2000.
Fenwick 2011 {published data only}
  • Fenwick J, Gamble J, Creedy D, Barclay L. Women's experiences of the PRIME midwifery counselling intervention: Promoting Resilience in Mothers Emotions. Women and Birth 2011;24 Suppl 1:S11-2.
Fu 2012 {published data only}
  • Fu D, Yang J, Zhu R, Pan Q, Shen X, Peng Y, et al. Preoperative psychoprophylactic visiting alleviates maternal anxiety and stress and improves outcomes of cesarean patients: A randomized, double-blind and controlled trial. HealthMED 2012;6(1):263-77.
Gao 2012 {published data only}
  • Gao LL, Chan SW, Sun K. Effects of an interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented childbirth education programme for Chinese first-time childbearing women at 3-month follow up: randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2012;49(3):274-81.
Hoseininasab 2009 {published data only}
  • Hoseininasab D, Ahmadian heris S, Taghavi S. The effect of antenatal education on postpartum depression. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2009;107(Suppl 2):S607-8.
Howell 2011 {published data only}
  • Howell EA, Balbierz A, Jason W, Howard L. Mothers avoiding depression through empowerment intervention trial (made it). Journal of General Internal Medicine 2011;26:S222-3.
Howell 2012 {published data only}
  • Howell EA, Balbierz A, Wang J, Parides M, Zlotnick C, Leventhal H. Reducing postpartum depressive symptoms among black and latina mothers: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012;119(5):942-9.
Kenyon 2012 {published data only}
  • Kenyon S, Jolly K, Hemming K, Ingram L, Gale N, Dann SA, et al. Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant women with Social risk (ELSIPS): A randomised controlled trial. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2012;12:11.
Kitamura 2007 {published data only}
  • Kitamura T. Midwives' psychological group and individual support sessions as prevention of postnatal depression: a randomised trial in Japan. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology 2007;28(S1):14.
Kozinszky 2012 {published data only}
  • Kozinszky Z, Dudas RB, Devosa I, Csatordai S, Toth E, Szabo D, et al. Can a brief antepartum preventive group intervention help reduce postpartum depressive symptomatology?. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2012;81(2):98-107.
Matthey 2004 {published data only}
  • Matthey S, Kavanagh DJ, Howie P, Barnett B, Charles M. Prevention of postnatal distress or depression: an evaluation of an intervention at preparation for parenthood classes. Journal of Affective Disorders 2004;79(1-3):113-26.
Meijer 2011 {published data only}
  • Meijer JL, Bockting CL, Beijers C, Verbeek T, Stant AD, Ormel J, et al. PRegnancy Outcomes after a Maternity Intervention for Stressful EmotionS (PROMISES): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2011;12:157.
Morrell 2011 {published data only}
  • Morrell CJ, Ricketts T, Tudor K, Williams C, Curran J, Barkham M. Training health visitors in cognitive behavioural and person-centred approaches for depression in postnatal women as part of a cluster randomised trial and economic evaluation in primary care: the PoNDER trial. Primary Health Care Research & Development 2011;12(1):11-20.
Morrell 2011a {published data only}
  • Morrell J, Slade P, Walters S. The health of postnatal women's partners up to 18 months postnatally: A longitudinal survey alongside a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 2011;29(3):e12-3.
Petrou 2006 {published data only}
  • Petrou S, Cooper P, Murray L, Davidson LL. Cost-effectiveness of a preventive counseling and support package for postnatal depression. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 2006;22(4):443-53.
Phipps 2008 {published data only}
  • Phipps M. Interpersonal therapy-based treatment to prevent postpartum depression in adolescent mothers. ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/) (accessed 20 February 2008).
Phipps 2011 {published data only}
  • Phipps MG, Zlotnick C, Raker CA, Jocelyn CF. Prenatal intervention to prevent postpartum depression in adolescent mothers. Reproductive Sciences 2011;18(3 Suppl 1):282A.
Richter 2012 {published data only}
  • Richter J, Bittner A, Petrowski K, Junge-Hoffmeister J, Bergmann S, Joraschky P, et al. Effects of an early intervention on perceived stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnant women with elevated stress, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2012;33(4):162-70.
Silverstein 2011 {published data only}
  • Silverstein M, Feinberg E, Cabral H, Sauder S, Egbert L, Schainker E, et al. Problem-solving education to prevent depression among low-income mothers of preterm infants: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Archives of Women's Mental Health 2011;14(4):317-24.
Surkan 2012 {published data only}
  • Surkan PJ, Gottlieb BR, McCormick MC, Hunt A, Peterson KE. Impact of a health promotion intervention on maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months postpartum. Maternal & Child Health Journal 2012;16(1):139-48.
Timpano 2011 {published data only}
  • Timpano KR, Abramowitz JS, Mahaffey BL, Mitchell MA, Schmidt NB. Efficacy of a prevention program for postpartum obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2011;45(11):1511-7.
Urizar 2011 {published data only}
  • Urizar GGJ, Munoz RF. Impact of a prenatal cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention on salivary cortisol levels in low-income mothers and their infants. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2011;36(10):1480-94.
Varipatis-Baker 2006 {published data only}
  • Varipatis-Baker E. Depression prevention program for American Indian adolescents during and after pregnancy (ongoing trial). ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/) (accessed 21 March 2006).
Vidas 2011 {published data only}
  • Vidas M, Folnegovic-Smalc V, Catipovic M, Kisic M. The application of autogenic training in counseling center for mother and child in order to promote breastfeeding. Collegium Antropologicum 2011;35(3):723-31.
Willis 2012 {published data only}
  • Willis K, Small R, Brown S. Using documents to investigate links between implementation and sustainability in a complex community intervention: the PRISM study. Social Science & Medicine 2012;75(7):1222-9.
Wimmer-Puchinger 2007 {published data only}
  • Wimmer-Puchinger B. Postpartal depression: are prevention strategies successful?. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology 2007;28(S1):63.
Wimmer-Puchinger 2011 {published data only}
  • Wimmer-Puchinger B. Postpartum depression and attachment disorders. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2011;31(Suppl 1):14.
Zlotnick 2008 {published data only}
  • Zlotnick C. Interpersonal therapy program for preventing postpartum depression. ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/) (accessed 9 April 2008).

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Griffiths 2009 {unpublished data only}
  • Griffiths K, Christensen H, Ellwood D, Jones B. Online cognitive behaviours therapy for the prevention of postnatal depression in at-risk mothers: a randomised controlled trial. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 2009.
Mann 2001 {published data only}
  • Mann A. A randomised control trial of a psychological intervention given in pregnancy to reduce the risk of postnatal depression in a sample of high risk women in India. National Research Register (www.update-software.com/NRR) 2001 (accessed April 2004).

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Abidin 1995
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Appleby 1997
Austin 2003
Beck 2001
Brown 2011
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Chen 1999
  • Chen CH, Wu HY, Tseng YF, Chou FH, Wang SY. Psychosocial aspects of Taiwanese postpartum depression phenomenological approach: a preliminary report. Kao-Hsiung i Hsueh Ko Hsueh Tsa Chih [Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences] 1999;15:44-51.
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Dennis 2003a
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Dennis 2007
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Dennis 2012
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Goodman 2011
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Gorman 2002
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Henderson 1998
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Lewis 2007
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Nahas 1999
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Ritter 2000
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Dennis 2001
  • Dennis CL, Kavanagh J. Psychosocial interventions for preventing postpartum depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001134]
Dennis 2004
  • Dennis CL, Creedy DK. Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001134.pub2]