Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Carbamazepine for schizophrenia

  1. Stefan Leucht1,*,
  2. Bartosz Helfer2,
  3. Markus Dold3,
  4. Werner Kissling3,
  5. John McGrath4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Schizophrenia Group

Published Online: 2 MAY 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 6 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001258.pub3


How to Cite

Leucht S, Helfer B, Dold M, Kissling W, McGrath J. Carbamazepine for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD001258. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001258.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Technische Universität München, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, München, Germany

  2. 2

    Technische Universität München, Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, München, Bayern, Germany

  3. 3

    Technische Universität München Klinikum rechts der Isar, Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, München, Germany

  4. 4

    The University of Queensland, Epidemiology and Developmental Neurobiology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

*Stefan Leucht, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität München, Ismaningerstrasse 22, München, 81675, Germany. Stefan.Leucht@lrz.tum.de.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 2 MAY 2014

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Carpenter 1991 {published data only}
  • Carpenter WT, Kurz R, Kirkpatrick B, Hanlon TE. Carbamazepine maintenance treatment in outpatient schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry 1991;48(1):69-72.
Dose 1987 {published data only}
  • Dose M. Die Bedeutung von Antikonvulsiva und Calciumantagonisten für die Pharmakotherapie von Psychosen. Habilitationsschrift. Technische Universität München, 1991.
  • Dose M, Apelt S, Emrich HM. Carbamazepine as an adjunct of antipsychotic therapy. Psychiatry Research 1987;22(4):303-10.
  • Dose M, Emrich HM. Carbamazepine as an adjunct to antipsychotic treatment. Schizophrenia Research 1988;1(2,3):207-8.
  • Dose M, Emrich HM. Combination of neuroleptics with carbamazepine. Application in the treatment of schizophrenic psychoses [Kombination von Neuroleptika mit Carbamazepin. Einsatz in der Behandlung schizophrener Psychosen]. Münchner Medizinische Wochenschrift 1990;132 (suppl 1):87-90.
  • Dose M, Garcia D, Weber M, Yassouridis A, Emrich HM. Combined treatment of schizophrenic psychoses with neuroleptics and anticonvulsants. Pharmacopsychiatry 1989;22(5):195.
Heßlinger 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hesslinger B, Klose P, Normann C, Langosch JM, Berger M, Walden J. Carbamazepine co-treatment in schizophrenia. Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie 1998;66(4):145-50.
  • Hesslinger B, Normann C, Langosch JM, Klose P, Berger M, Walden J. Effects of carbamazepine and valproate on haloperidol plasma levels and on psychopathologic outcome in schizophrenic patients. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1999;19(4):310-5.
  • Normann C, Klose P, Hesslinger B, Langosch JM, Berger M, Walden J. Haloperidol plasma levels and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients with antiepileptic co-medication: a clinical trial. Pharmacopsychiatry 1997;30:204.
  • Walden J, Hesslinger B, Normann C, Langosch J, Berger M. Actions of carbamazepine and valproate on haloperidol plasma levels and psychopathological outcome. Proceedings of the 21st Congress of the Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum, Glasgow, Scotland. 1998.
Llorca 1993 {published data only}
  • Estorges JP, Llorca PM, Lancon C, Bougerol T, Scotto JC. Carbamazepine as adjuvant treatment to neuroleptics in schizophrenic patients. Encephale 1991;17(4):307.
  • Llorca PM, Wolf MA, Lancon C, Bougerol T. Clinical efficacy of bromocriptine, carbamazepine, and cyproheptadine as adjuvant to neuroleptics in 24 chronic resistant schizophrenics [Efficacite comparee de la bromocriptine, de la carbamazepine et de la cyproheptadine en association aux neuroleptiques chez 24 patients schizophrenes chroniques resistants]. Encephale 1993;19(5):565-71.
Mair 1990 {published data only}
  • Mair M, Tschapeller I, Schubert H. Kombinationstherapie mit Neuroleptika und Carbamazepin. Eine kontrollierte Studie. In: Schonbeck G, Platz T editor(s). Schizophrenie erkennen, verstehen, behandeln.Beiträge aus Theorie und Praxis. Wien: Springer Verlag, 1990:77-92.
Martin-Munoz 1989 {published data only}
  • Martin-Munoz JC, Morinigo-Dominguez AV, Mateo-Martin I, Guajardo FI. Carbamazepine: An effective adjunct treatment for schizophrenia [La carbamacepina: un tratamiento adjunto eficaz en las esquizofrenias]. Actas Luso Espanolas de Neurologia, Psiquiatria y Ciencias Afines 1992;20(1):11-6.
  • Martin-Munoz JC, Morinigo-Dominguez AV, Mateo-Martin I, Ibarra IG. Carbamazepine: An efficacious adjuvant treatment in schizophrenia [La carbamacepina: Un tratamiento adjunto eficaz en las esquizofrenias]. Actas Luso Espanolas de Neurologia, Psiquiatria y Ciencias Afines 1989;17(4):245-50.
Nachshoni 1994 {published data only}
Neppe 1983 {published and unpublished data}
Simhandl 1996 {published data only}
  • Meszaros K, Simhandl C, Denk E, Liechtenstein A, Topitz A, Thau K. A carbamazepine augmentation trial in chronic nonresponsive schizophrenia. NA 1996; Vol. NA:NA.
  • Simhandl C, Meszaros K, Denk E, Thau K, Topitz A. Adjunctive carbamazepine or lithium carbonate in therapyresistant chronic schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry/Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie 1996;41(5):317.
Svestka 1989 {published data only}
  • Svestka J, Ceskova E, Rysanek R, Nahunek K. Controlled cross-over comparison of carbamazepine with perphenazine in schizophrenic psychoses. Activitas Nervosa Superior 1989;31(4):276-7.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Arana 1986 {published data only}
  • Arana GW. Does carbamazepine-induced reduction of plasma haloperidol levels worsen psychotic symptoms? 138th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association (1985, Dallas, Texas). American Journal of Psychiatry 1986;143(5):650-1.
Azorin 1986 {published data only}
  • Azorin JM, Samuelian JC, Pringuey D, Donnet A. Place of carbamazepine in the treatment of endogenous psychoses: Results of an open trial [Place de la carbamazepine dans le traitement des psychoses endogenes: Resultats d'une etude ouverte]. Encephale 1986;12(3):115-9.
Ballenger 1984 {published data only}
Barnes 1996 {published data only}
Bellaire 1990 {published data only}
  • Bellaire W, Demisch K, Stoll K-D. Carbamazepine vs. lithium. Application in the prophylaxis of recidivating affective and schizoaffective psychoses [Carbamazepin vs. Lithium. Einsatz in der Prophylaxe rezidivierender affektiver und schizoaffektiver Psychosen]. Münchner Medizinische Wochenschrift 1990;132:82-6.
Birkheimer 1985 {published data only}
Borison 1991 {published data only}
Botte 1988 {published data only}
  • Botte L, Charles G. Clinical use of carbamazepine: Review from the literature and personal results [Utilisations cliniques de la carbamazepine: Revue de la litterature et resultats personnels]. Acta Psychiatrica Belgica 1988;88(3):181-94.
Cabrera 1987 {published data only}
  • Cabrera J, Albrecht J, Muller-Oerlinghausen B. Combined preventive treatment of recurrent manic-depressive disease with lithium and carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine. Nervenarzt 1987;58(4):245-9.
Cegalis 1984 {published data only}
  • Cegalis JA, Possick SG. Carbamazepine and psychotherapy in the treatment of schizoaffective psychosis. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 1985;58(4):327-36.
Chouinard 1990 {published data only}
  • Chouinard G, Sultan S. Treatment of supersensitivity psychosis with antiepileptic drugs: Report of a series of 43 cases. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1990;26(3):337.
Costa 1986 {published data only}
Covell 2004 {published data only}
  • Covell NH, Weissman EM, Essock SM. Weight gain with clozapine compared to first generation antipsychotic medications. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2004;30(2):229-40. [MEDLINE: 15279042; : EMBASE 2004274059]
Dalby 1971 {published data only}
Dehing 1968 {published data only}
  • Dehing J. Studies on the psychotropic action of tegretol. Acta Neurologica Belgica 1968;68:895-905.
Denicoff 1994 {published data only}
  • Denicoff KD, Meglathery SB, Post RM, Tandeciarz SI. Efficacy of carbamazepine compared with other agents: A clinical practice survey. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1994;55(2):70.
de Vogelaer 1981 {published data only}
  • de Vogelaer J. Carbamazepine in the treatment of psychotic and behavioral disorders. A pilot study. Acta Psychiatrica Belgica 1981;81:532-41.
Elphick 1985 {published data only}
Frankenburg 1988 {published data only}
  • Frankenburg FR, Tohen M, Cohen BM, Lipinski JF. Long-term response to carbamazepine: A retrospective study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1988;8(2):130-2.
Gadow 1992 {published data only}
Galletly 1997 {published data only}
  • Galletly CA, Tsourtos G. Antipsychotic drug doses and adjunctive drugs in the outpatient treatment of schizophrenia. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 1997;9(2):77-80.
Ginestet 1996 {published data only}
  • Ginestet D, Ghanem T, Slama M. The variety of indications for carbamazepine. Revue du Praticien Medecine Generale 1996;10(336):11.
Goncalves 1985 {published data only}
  • Goncalves N, Stoll KD. A controlled double-blind trial of carbamazepine in manic illness [Carbamazepin bei manischen Syndromen. Eine kontrollierte Doppelblind-Studie]. Nervenarzt 1985;56(1):43-7.
Greil 1997 {published data only}
  • Greil W, Ludwig-Mayerhofer W, Erazo N, Engel RR. Lithium vs cambamazepine in the maintenance treatment of schizoaffective disorder: A randomised study. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1997;247(1):42-50.
Hakola 1982 {published data only}
  • Hakola HA, Laulumaa VA. Carbamazepine in treatment of violent schizophrenics. Lancet 1982;1(8285):1358.
Hermle 1993 {published data only}
Herrera 1987 {published data only}
  • Heh CW, Sramek J, Herrera J, Costa J. Exacerbation of psychosis after discontinuation of carbamazepine treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry 1988;145(7):878-9.
  • Herrera JM, Sramek JJ, Costa JF. Efficacy of adjunctive carbamazepine in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. Drug Intelligence & Clinical Pharmacy 1987;21(4):355-8.
Ivkovi 2004 {published data only}
  • Ivkovi M, Damjanovi A, Marinkovi D, Paunovi RV. Carbamazepine for acute psychosis with EEG abnormalities. Military-Medical and Pharmaceutical Review 2004;61(4):399-403.
Iwahashi 1995 {published data only}
Iwahashi 1996 {published data only}
Jann 1985 {published data only}
  • Jann MW, Ereshefsky L, Saklad SR, Seidel DR, Davis CM, Burch NR, et al. Effects of carbamazepine on plasma haloperidol levels. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1985;5(2):106-9.
Johns 1995 {published data only}
  • Johns CA, Thompson JW. Adjunctive treatments in schizophrenia: Pharmacotherapies and electroconvulsive therapy. Schizophrenia Bulletin 1995;21(4):607-19.
Kahn 1990 {published data only}
  • Kahn EM, Schulz SC, Perel JM, Alexander JE. Change in haloperidol level due to carbamazepine: A complicating factor in combined medication for schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1990;10(1):54-7.
Karper 1992 {published data only}
  • Karper LP, Seibyl JP, Krystal JH. Valproate management of psychosis in a patient with carbamazepine-induced hyponatremia. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1992;12(2):137-9.
Keck 1996 {published data only}
  • Keck PE, McElroy SL, Strakowski SM. New developments in the pharmacologic treatment of schizoaffective disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1996;57(s9):41-8.
Kessler 1989 {published data only}
  • Kessler AJ, Barklage NE, Jefferson JW. Mood disorders in the psychoneurologic borderland: Three cases of responsiveness to carbamazepine. 29th Annual Meeting of the International Psychiatric Research Society (1987, Madison, Wisconsin). American Journal of Psychiatry 1989;146(1):81-3.
Kidron 1985 {published data only}
Klein 1984 {published data only}
  • Klein E, Bental E, Lerer B, Belmaker RH. Carbamazepine and haloperidol v placebo and haloperidol in excited psychoses. A controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry 1984;41(2):165-70.
Kraft 1984 {published data only}
Lambert 1987 {published data only}
  • Lambert PA, Venaud G. Use of valpromide in psychiatric therapeutics. Encephale 1987;13(6):367-73. [: CN-00477270]
Lapensee 1992 {published data only}
Lenzi 1986 {published data only}
  • Lenzi A, Lazzerini F, Grossi E, Massimetti G, Placidi GF. Use of carbamazepine in acute psychosis: A controlled study. Journal of International Medical Research 1986;14(2):78-84.
Llorca 1992 {published data only}
  • Llorca PM, Wolf MA, Lancon C, Bougerol T. Adjuvant drugs for use in patients under neuroleptics. Annales de Psychiatrie 1992;7(4):195.
Luchins 1983 {published data only}
Luchins 1984 {published data only}
Makaric 2000 {published data only}
  • Makaric G, Folnegovic-Smalc V, Folnegovic Z, Imica N. Agitation in acute episode of schizophrenia: carbamazepine treatment in combination with haloperidol versus combined neuroleptics. Schizophrenia Research 2000;41(1):210. [MEDLINE: 1999367069]
McAllister 1985 {published data only}
McKee 1989 {published data only}
  • McKee RW, Larkin JG, Brodie MJ. Acute psychosis with carbamazepine and sodium valproate. Lancet 1989;1(8630):167.
Meltzer 1992 {published data only}
Meshel 1967 {published data only}
Meshel 1968 {published data only}
Miceli 2000 {published data only}
  • Miceli JJ, Anziano RJ, Robarge L, Hansen RA, Laurent A. The effect of carbamazepine on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone in healthy volunteers. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2000;49 (suppl I):65S-70S.
Miller 1965 {published data only}
  • Miller MJ, Shettel R, Fiedler HT. Chronic toxicologic evaluation of hydroxyphenamate and possible synergism with phenothiazines. Psychosomatics 1965;6(5):340-2. [MEDLINE: 66013834; : PMID 5319246]
Miodownik 2003 {published data only}
  • Miodownik C, Cohen H, Kotler M, Lerner V. Vitamin B6 add-on therapy in treatment of schizophrenic patients with psychotic symptoms and movement disorders. Harefuah 2003;142(8-9):592-6, 647. [MEDLINE: 14518160; : EMBASE 2003374828; CN-00440574.]
Mokrusch 1987 {published data only}
  • Mokrusch T, Negele J, Kaschka WP. New aspects in the prophylaxis of affective and schizoaffective psychoses. Fortschritte der Medizin 1987;105(1):30-4.
Möller 1989 {published data only}
  • Moller HJ, Kissling W, Riehl T, Bauml J. Double-blind evaluation of the antimanic properties of carbamazepine as a comedication to haloperidol. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 1989;13(1-2):127-36.
Möller 1996 {published data only}
Morinigo 1992 {published data only}
  • Morinigo A, Mateo I, Martin J, Noval D, Gonzalez S. Efectos terapeuticos del valproato sodico y la carbamacepina en la mania. Psiquis 1992;13(8):335-8.
Mosca 1998 {published data only}
  • Mosca LD//Licciardo JP//Coppola JL. A double-blind carbamazepine-controlled efficacy and safety study of valproate in impulsivity and violence. 11th Congress of The European College of Neuropsychopharmacology; Oct 31 - Nov 4, Paris, France. 1998. [MEDLINE: CONFERENCE ABSTRACT]
Munetz 1989 {published data only}
Nasser 1990 {published data only}
Nelson 1993 {published data only}
  • Nelson JC. Combined treatment strategies in psychiatry. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1993;54(s9):42.
Neppe 1988a {published data only}
  • Neppe VM. Carbamazepine in nonresponsive psychosis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1988;49(s):22-8.
Neppe 1988b {published data only}
  • Neppe VM, Tucker GJ, Wilensky AJ. Fundamentals of carbamazepine use in neuropsychiatry. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1988;49(s):4-6.
Neppe 1988c {published data only}
Neppe 1991 {published data only}
Nijdam 1992 {published data only}
  • Nijdam JR, Doorschot CH, van Bavel LP, Loonen AJ. A comparison of carbamazepine Divitabs and a normal carbamazepine preparation in psychiatric and oligophrenic patients. Pharmacopsychiatry 1992;25(3):145-9. [MEDLINE: 92342659]
Ohlmeier 2007 {published data only}
Okuma 1989a {published and unpublished data}
  • Okuma T, Yamashita I, Takahashi R, Itoh H. A double-blind study of adjunctive carbamazepine versus placebo on excited states of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1989;80(3):250-9.
  • Okuma T, Yamashita I, Takahashi R, Itoh H, Otsuki S, Watanabe S, et al. Comparison of the therapeutic effect of carbamazepine and placebo in schizophrenia and atypical psychosis by double blind controlled study. Rinsho Hyoka 1988;16(2):327-73.
Okuma 1989b {published data only}
Ortega 1991 {published data only}
  • Hernandez-Avila CA, Ortega-Soto HA, Jasso A, Hasfura-Buenaga CA, Kranzler HR. Treatment of inhalant-induced psychotic disorder with carbamazepine versus haloperidol. Psychiatric Services 1998;49:812-5.
  • Ortega SHA, Jasso A, Cecena G, Hernandez ACA. Validity and reproductivity of a scale for measuring neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms [La validez y la reproducibilidad de dos escalas para evaluar los sintomas extrapiramidales inducidos por neurolepticos]. Salud Mental 1991;14(3):1-5.
Otani 1997 {published data only}
Pantelis 1996 {published data only}
Panu 1984 {published data only}
  • Panu H, Hakola A, Laulumaa VA. Carbamazepine in violent schizophrenics. In: Emrich HM, Okuma T editor(s). Anticonvulsants in Affective Disorders. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1984:204-7.
Placidi 1986 {published data only}
  • Placidi GF, Lenzi A, Lazzerini F, Cassano GB. The comparative efficacy and safety of carbamazepine versus lithium: A randomized, double-blind 3-year trial in 83 patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1986;47(10):490-4.
  • Placidi GF, Lenzi A, Rampello E, Andreani MF, Cassano GB, Grossi E. Long term-double blind prospective study on carbamazepine versus lithium in bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. Preliminary results. In: Emrich HM, Okuma T editor(s). Anticonvulsants in Affective Disorders. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1984:188-97.
Raitasuo 1994 {published data only}
Rankel 1988 {published data only}
Rittmannsberger 1990 {published data only}
Scher 1983 {published data only}
Schulz 1990 {published data only}
  • Schulz SC, Conley RR, Kahn EM, et al. Nonresponders to neuroleptics: a distinct subtype. Schizophrenia: scientific progress. New York: Oxford University Press, Date of publication and page numbers not indicated.
  • Schulz SC, Kahn EM, Baker RW, et al. Lithium and carbamazepine augmentation in treatment-refractory schizophrenia. The Neuroleptic-Nonresponsive Patient: Characterization and Treatment. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1990:111-36.
Simhandl 1992 {published data only}
  • Simhandl C, Meszaros K. The use of carbamazepine in the treatment of schizophrenic and schizoaffective psychoses: A review. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience 1992;17(1):1-14.
Siris 1993 {published data only}
  • Siris SG. Adjunctive medication in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia and its conceptual implications. British Journal of Psychiatry 1993;163(s22):22-78.
Sramek 1988 {published data only}
  • Heh CW, Potkin SG, Pickar D, Costa J, Herrera J, Sramek J, et al. Serum homovanillic acid concentrations in carbamazepine-treated chronic schizophrenics. Biological Psychiatry 1989;25(5):639-41.
  • Herrera J, Sramek J, Costa C, Heh C, Wernberg C. An evaluation of carbamazepine (Tegretol) in chronic treatment-refractory schizophrenia. Proceedings of the 95th Annual Conference of the American Psychiatric Association. 1987:588-9.
  • Sramek J, Herrera J, Costa J, Heh C, Tran Johnson T, Simpson G. A carbamazepine trial in chronic, treatment-refractory schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 1988;145(6):748-50.
  • Tran-Johnson T, Sramek JJ, Walker NR, Heh CD, Costa JF, Herrera JM. Effects of carbamazepine on serum calcium in schizophrenia. DICP 1989;23(12):1034.
Sugerman 1970 {published data only}
  • Sugerman AA, Hyams L. Electroencephalographic effects of adrenochrome semicarbazone in schizophrenia: quantitative amplitude analysis. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 1970;1(1):86-98. [MEDLINE: 72091267; : PMID 4944698]
Svestka 1985 {published data only}
  • Svestka J, Nahunek K, Ceskova E, Korbicka J. Carbamazepine prophylaxis of affective psychoses: Intraindividual comparison with lithium carbonate. 27th Annual Psychopharmacology Meeting (1985, Jesenik, Czechoslovakia). Activitas Nervosa Superior 1985;27(4):261-2.
Svestka 1988 {published data only}
  • Svestka J, Nahunek K, Ceskova E. Carbamazepine in the treatment and prophylaxis of affective psychoses [Pouziti carbamazepinu v lecbe a profylaxi afektivnich psychoz]. Ceskoslovenska Psychiatrie 1988;84(3):145-55.
Tohen 1994 {published data only}
  • Tohen M, Castillo J, Pope HG, Herbstein J. Concomitant use of valproate and carbamazepine in bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1994;14(1):67.
Walden 1996 {published data only}
  • Walden J, Von WJ, Berger M, Grunze H. Efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of psychiatric diseases. EEG Labor 1996;18(1):32.
Wetterling 1987 {published data only}
Wunderlich 1983 {published data only}
  • Wunderlich HP, Grunes JU, Neumann J, Zahlten W. Carbamazepine (Finlepsin(TM)) for manicdepressive and schizophrenic diseases. Deutsche Gesundheitswesen 1983;38(35):1352-6.
Yassa 1983 {published data only}
  • Yassa R, Dupont D. Carbamazepine in the treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenic patients: A case report. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 1983;28(7):566-8.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Kamisada 1988 {published data only}
  • Kamisada M, Tateyama M, Nakano Y, Kawachi Y, Fujii Y, Tanoue A, et al. Comparison of the clinical effects of lithium carbonate and carbamazepine on excited schizophrenics. Psychopharmacology 1988;96(Suppl):348. [MEDLINE: 72091267; : PMID 4944698]
Lee 1996 {published data only}
  • Lee MS, Choi BH, Kim SH. Combined use of carbamazepine and valproic acid in negative symptom schizophrenia. 9th Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology; September 21-25, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1996. [MEDLINE: 98249354]

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Altman 1996
  • Altman DG, Bland JM. Detecting skewness from summary information. BMJ 1996;313:1200.
Andreasen 1982
  • Andreasen NC. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: definition and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry 1982;39:784-8.
Andreasen 1984
  • Andreasen NC. The scale for assessment of positive symptoms. University of Iowa 1984.
Begg 1996
  • Beg C, Cho M, Eastwood S, Horton R, Moher D, Olkin I, et al. Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials: the CONSORT statement. JAMA 1996;276:637-9.
Bland 1997
  • Bland JM, Kerry SM. Statistics notes. Trials randomised in clusters. BMJ 1997;315:600.
Boissel 1999
  • Boissel JP, Cucherat M, Li W, Chatellier G, Gueyffier F, Buyse M, et al. The problem of therapeutic efficacy indices. 3. Comparison of the indices and their use. Therapie 1999;54(4):405-11.
Carpenter 1994
Cheine 2001
  • Cheine M,  Ahonen J,  Wahlbeck K. Beta-blocker supplementation of standard drug treatment for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000234]
Christison 1991
  • Christison GW, Kirch DG, Wyatt RJ. When symptoms persist: choosing among alternative somatic treatments for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 1991;17:217-45.
Dardennes 1995
Davey Smith 1998
  • Davey Smith G, Egger M. Meta-analysis: Unresolved issues and future developments. BMJ 1998;16:221-5.
Deeks 2000
  • Deeks J. Issues in the selection for meta-analyses of binary data. Abstracts of 8th International Cochrane Colloquium; 2000 Oct 25-28th; Cape Town, South Africa. 2000.
Divine 1992
Dold 2012
Donner 2002
Egger 1997
  • Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997;315:629-34.
Elbourne 2002
  • Elbourne D, Altman DG, Higgins JPT, Curtina F, Worthingtond HV, Vaile A. Meta-analyses involving cross-over trials: methodological issues. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002;31(1):140-9.
Essali 2009
GRADE Profiler
  • GRADE Working Group. GRADE Profiler. 3.2. GRADE Working Group, 2004.
Granger 1995
  • Granger P, Biton B, Faure C, Vige X, Depoortere H, Graham D, et al. Modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor by the antiepileptic drugs carbamazepine and phenytoin. Molecular Pharmacology 1995;47:1189–96.
Gulliford 1999
  • Gulliford MC, Ukoumunne OC, Chinn S. Components of variance and intraclass correlations for the design of community-based surveys and intervention studies: data from the Health Survey for England 1994. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999;149:876-83.
Guy 1976
  • Guy W. ECDEU assessment manual for psychopharmacology-revised. Washington, D.C: DHEW. National Institute of Mental Health 1976.
Hamilton 1960
Higgins 2003
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.2 [updated September 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org..
Hutton 2009
Jadad 1996
  • Jadad A, Moore A, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJM, Gavanagh DJ, et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: Is blinding necessary?. Controlled Clinical Trials 1996;17:1-12.
Kane 1988
  • Kane JM, Honigfeld G, Singer J, Meltzer H, and the Clozaril Collaborative study group. Clozapine for the treatment-resistant schizophrenic. A double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine. Archives of General Psychiatry 1988;45:789-96.
Kay 1986
  • Kay SR, Opler LA, Fiszbein A. Positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) manual. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems, 1986.
Kay 1987
  • Kay SR, Fiszbein A. The positive and negative symptome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 1987;13(2):261-75.
Leucht 2005
  • Leucht S, Kane JM, Kissling W, Hamann J, Etschel E, Engel R. Clinical implications of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores. British Journal of Psychiatry 2005;187:366-71. [PUBMED: 16199797]
Leucht 2005a
Leucht 2007
  • Leucht S, Engel RR, Bauml J, Davis JM. Is the superior efficacy of new generation antipsychotics an artifact of LOCF?. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(1):183-91. [PUBMED: 16905632]
Leucht 2007a
  • Leucht S, Kissling W, McGrath J. Lithium for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003834.pub2]
Lorr 1962
  • Lorr M, McNair DM, Klett CJ, Lasky JJ. Evidence of ten psychotic symptoms. Journal of Consulting Psychology 1962;26:185.
Marshall 2000
  • Marshall M, Lockwood A, Bradley C, Adams CE, Joy C, Fenton M. Unpublished rating scales: a major source of bias in randomised controlled trials of treatments for schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 2000;176:249-52.
Marvaha 2004
Moher 2001
  • Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman D, CONSORT Group (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials). The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. JAMA 2001;258:1987-91.
Overall 1962
  • Overall JE, Gorham DR. The brief psychiatric rating scale. Psychological Reports 1962;10:790-812.
Pate 1986
  • Pate LA. Carbamazepine in treatment of the violent psychotic patients. Jefferson Journal of Psychiatry 1986;4(1):28-36.
Review Manager (RevMan)
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.0. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008.
Schooler 1993
Schulz 1995
  • Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG. Empirical evidence of bias: dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 1995;273:408-12.
Schünemann 2008
  • Schünemann HJ, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Higgins JPT, Deeks JJ, Glasziou P, et al. Chapter 12: Interpreting results and drawing conclusions. In: Higgins JPT, Green S editor(s). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008:359-83.
Tharyan 2002
Tiihonen 1995
Tsuang 1978
  • Tsuang MT. Suicide in schizophrenics, manics, depressives, and surgical controls: a comparison with general population suicide mortality. Archives of General Psychiatry 1978;35:153-5.
Ukoumunne 1999
  • Ukoumunne OC, Gulliford MC, Chinn S, Sterne JAC, Burney PGJ. Methods for evaluating area-wide and organisation-based interventions in health and health care: a systematic review. Health Technology Assessment 1999;3(5):iii-92. [MEDLINE: 10982317]
Xia 2009
  • Xia J, Adams CE, Bhagat N, Bhagat V, Bhoopathi P, El-Sayeh H, et al. Loss to outcomes stakeholder survey: the LOSS study. Psychiatric Bulletin 2009;33(7):254-7.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Leucht 2002
  • Leucht S, McGrath J, White P, Kissling W. Carbamazepine augmentation for schizophrenia: how good is the evidence?. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2002;63(3):218-24.
Leucht 2002b
  • Leucht S, McGrath J, White P, Kissling W. Carbamazepine for schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychoses. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001258]
Leucht 2007b
  • Leucht S, Kissling W, McGrath J, White P. Carbamazepine for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001258.pub2]