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Intervention Review

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Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults

  1. V Demicheli,
  2. D Rivetti,
  3. JJ Deeks,
  4. TO Jefferson

Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group

Published Online: 19 JUL 2004

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001269.pub2


How to Cite

Demicheli V, Rivetti D, Deeks JJ, Jefferson TO. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD001269. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001269.pub2.

Author Information

*Dr Vittorio Demicheli, Servizo Sovrazonale di Epidemiologia, ASL 20, Via Venezia 6, Alessandria, Piemonte, 15100, ITALY. Vittorio.DeMicheli@regione.piemonte.it.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2004

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (13 MAR 2014)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Bridges 2000a {published data only}
  • Buxton Bridges C, Thompson VV, Meltzer MI, Reeve GR, Talamonti VJ, Cox NJ. Effectiveness and Cost Benefit of Influenza Vaccination of Healthy Working Adults, a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000;284(13):1655-63.
Bridges 2000b {published data only}
  • Buxton Bridges C, Thompson VV, Meltzer MI, Reeve GR, Talamonti VJ, Cox NJ. Effectiveness and Cost Benefit of Influenza Vaccination of Healthy Working Adults, a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000;284(13):1655-63.
Eddy 1970 {published data only}
  • Eddy TS, Davies NA. The effect of vaccine on a closed epidemic of Hong Kong influenza. South African Medical Journal 1970;44(8):214-6.
Edmonson 1970 {published data only}
  • Edmonson KW, Graham SM, Warburton MF. A clinical trial of influenza vaccine in Canberra. Medical Journal of Australia 1970;4:6-13.
Edwards 1994a {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
Edwards 1994b {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
Edwards 1994c {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
Edwards 1994d {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
Edwards 1994e {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
Edwards 1994f {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
Edwards 1994g {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
Edwards 1994h {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
Hammond 1978 {published data only}
  • Hammomd ML, Ferris AA, Faine S, et al. Effective protection against influenza after vaccination with subunit vaccine. Medical Journal of Australia 1978;1:301-3.
Hobson 1970 {published data only}
  • Hobson D, Baker FA, Chivers CP, et al. A comparison of monovalent Hong Kong influenza virus vaccine with vaccines containing only pre-1968 Asian strains in adult volunteers. Journal of Hygiene 1970;68:369-78.
Hoskins 1973 {published data only}
  • Hoskins TW, Davies JR, Allchin A, et al. Controlled trial of inactivated influenza vaccine containing the A/Hong Kong strain during an outbreak of influenza due to the A/England/42/72 strain. Lancet 1973;2(7821):116-20.
Keitel 1988a {published data only}
  • Keitel WA, Cate TR, Couch RB. Efficacy of sequential annual vaccination with inactivated influenza virus vaccine. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988;127(2):353-64.
Keitel 1988b {published data only}
  • Keitel WA, Cate TR, Couch RB. Efficacy of sequential annual vaccination with inactivated influenza virus vaccine. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988;127(2):353-64.
Mair 1974a {published data only}
  • Mair HJ, Sansome DAW, Tillett HE. A controlled trial of inactivated monovalent influenza A vaccines in general practice. Journal of Hygiene 1974;73:317-27.
Mair 1974b {published data only}
  • Mair HJ, Sansome DAW, Tillett HE. A controlled trial of inactivated monovalent influenza A vaccines in general practice. Journal of Hygiene 1974;73:317-27.
Mair 1974c {published data only}
  • Mair HJ, Sansome DAW, Tillett HE. A controlled trial of inactivated monovalent influenza A vaccines in general practice. Journal of Hygiene 1974;73:317-27.
Mair 1974e {published data only}
  • Mair HJ, Sansome DAW, Tillett HE. A controlled trial of inactivated monovalent influenza A vaccines in general practice. Journal of Hygiene 1974;73:317-27.
Maynard 1968 {published data only}
  • Maynard JE, Dull HB, Hanson ML, et al. Evaluation of monovalent and polyvalent influenza vaccines during an epidemic of type A2 and B influenza. American Journal of Epidemiology 1968;87(1):148-57.
Mesa Duque 2001 {published data only}
  • Mesa-Duque SS, Moreno AP, Hurtado G, Arbelàaz Montoya MP. Effectiveness of an Influenza Vaccine in a working population in Colombia [Effectividad de una vacuna anti gripal en una poblaciòn laboral colombiana]. Pan American Journal of Public Health 2001;10(4):232-9.
Mixéu 2002 {published data only}
  • Mixèu MA, Vespa GN, Forleo-Neto E, Toniolo-Neto J, Alves PM. Impact of influenza vaccination on civilian aircrew illness and absenteeism. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 2002;73(9):876-80.
Mogabgab 1970a {published data only}
  • Mogabgab WJ, Leiderman E. Immunogenicity of 1967 polyvalent and 1968 Hong Kong influenza vaccines. JAMA 1970;211(10):1672-6.
Mogabgab 1970b {published data only}
  • Mogabgab WJ, Leiderman E. Immunogenicity of 1967 polyvalent and 1968 Hong Kong influenza vaccines. JAMA 1970;211(10):1672-6.
Monto 1982 {published data only}
  • Monto AS, DeWolfe Miller F, Maassab HF. Evaluation of an attenuated, cold recombinant influenza B virus vaccine. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1982;145(1):57-64.
Nichol 1995 {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Lind A, Margolis KL, et al. The effectiveness of vaccination against influenza in healthy, working adults. New England Journal of Medicine 1995;333(14):889-93.
Nichol 1999 {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Mendelman PM, Mallon KP, Jackson LA, Gorse GJ, Belshe RB, et al. Effectiveness of live attenuated intranasal influenza virus vaccine in healthy working adults, a randomize controlled trial. JAMA 1999;282(2):137-44.
Powers 1995a {published data only}
  • Powers DC, Smith GE, Anderson EL, et al. Influenza A virus vaccine containing purified recombinant H3 hemagglutinin are well tolerated and induce protective immune responses in healthy adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995;171:1595-9.
Powers 1995b {published data only}
  • Powers DC, Smith GE, Anderson EL, et al. Influenza A virus vaccine containing purified recombinant H3 hemagglutinin are well tolerated and induce protective immune responses in healthy adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995;171:1595-9.
Rytel 1977 {published data only}
  • Rytel MW, Jakson LJ, Niebojewski RA, et al. Field trial of live attenuated influenza A/B ("Alice"/R-75) vaccine. American Journal of Epidemiology 1977;105(1):49-55.
Sumarokow 1971 {published data only}
  • Sumarokow AA, Popov VF, Nefedova LA, et al. A study of live influenza vaccines in a controlled trial. Zhumal Mikrobiologii Epidemiologii Immunobiologii 1971;48(2):46-52.
Tannock 1984 {published data only}
  • Tannock GA, Bryce DA, Hensley MJ, et al. Responses to one or two doses of a deoxycholate subunit influenza vaccine in a primed population. Vaccine 1984;2:100-5.
Waldman 1969a {published data only}
  • Waldman RH, Bond JO, Levitt LP, et al. An evaluation of influenza Immunization. WHO Bulletin 1969;41:543-8.
Waldman 1969b {published data only}
  • Waldman RH, Bond JO, Levitt LP, et al. An evaluation of influenza Immunization. WHO Bulletin 1969;41:543-8.
Waldman 1969c {published data only}
  • Waldman RH, Bond JO, Levitt LP, et al. An evaluation of influenza Immunization. WHO Bulletin 1969;41:543-8.
Waldman 1969d {published data only}
  • Waldman RH, Bond JO, Levitt LP, et al. An evaluation of influenza Immunization. WHO Bulletin 1969;41:543-8.
Waldman 1972a {published data only}
  • Waldman RH, Coggins WJ. Influenza immunization: field trial on a university campus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1972;126(3):242-8.
Waldman 1972b {published data only}
  • Waldman RH, Coggins WJ. Influenza immunization: field trial on a university campus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1972;126(3):242-8.
Waldman 1972c {published data only}
  • Waldman RH, Coggins WJ. Influenza immunization: field trial on a university campus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1972;126(3):242-8.
Waldman 1972d {published data only}
  • Waldman RH, Coggins WJ. Influenza immunization: field trial on a university campus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1972;126(3):242-8.
Weingarten 1985 {published data only}
  • Weingarten S, Staniloff H, Ault M, et al. Do hospital employees benefit from the influenza vaccine?. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1988;3:32-7.
Wilde 1999a {published data only}
  • Wilde JA, McMillan JA, Serwint J, Butta J, O'Riordan MA, Steinhoff MC. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in health care professionals. JAMA 1999;281(10):908-13.
Wilde 1999b {published data only}
  • Wilde JA, McMillan JA, Serwint J, Butta J, O'Riordan MA, Steinhoff MC. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in health care professionals. JAMA 1999;281(10):908-13.
Wilde 1999c {published data only}
  • Wilde JA, McMillan JA, Serwint J, Butta J, O'Riordan MA, Steinhoff MC. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in health care professionals. JAMA 1999;281(10):908-913.
Williams 1973 {published data only}
  • Williams MC, Davignon L, McDonald JC, et al. Trial of aqueous killed influenza vaccine in Canada, 1968-69. WHO Bulletin 1973;49:333-40.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Ambrosch 1976
  • Ambrosch F, Balluch H. Studies of the non-specific clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination. Laryngology and Rhinology 1976;55:57-61.
Aoki 1986
  • Aoki FY, Sitar DS, Milley EV, et al. Potential of influenza vaccine and amantadine to prevent influenza A illness in canadian forces personnel 1980-83. Military Medicine 1986;151(9):459-65.
Belshe 2001
  • Belshe RB, Gruber WC. Safety, efficacy and effectiveness of cold-adapted, live, attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza vaccine in adults and children. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 2001;356(1416):1947-51.
Boyce 2001
  • Boyce TG, Hsu HH, Sannella EC, Coleman-Dockery SD, Baylis E, Zhu Y, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of adjuvanted and unadjuvanted subunit influenza vaccines administered intranasally to healthy adults. Vaccine 2000;19(2-3):217-26.
Chlibek 2002
  • Chlibek R, Beran J, Splino M. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in healthy adults-a fourfold decrease in influenza morbidity during one influenza season. Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie 2002;51(2):47-51.
Clover 1991
  • Clover RD, Crawford S, Glezen WP, et al. Comparison of heterotypic protection against influenza A/Taiwan/86 (H1N1) by attenuated and inactivated vaccines to A/Chile/83-like viruses. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1991;163:300-4.
Das 2002
  • Das Gupta R, Guest JF. A model to estimate the cost benefit of an occupational vaccination programme for influenza with Influvac in the UK. Pharmacoeconomics 2002;20(7):475-84.
Davies 1973
  • Davies JE, Howell RH, Meichen FW. A clinical trial of inhaled inactivated influenza vaccine. British Journal of General Practice 1970;27(6):219-21.
Finklea 1969
  • Finklea JF, Sandifer SH, Peck FB, et al. A clinical and serologic comparison of standard and purified bivalent inactivated influenza vaccines. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1969;120(6):708-12.
Gerstoft 2001
  • Gerstoft J. Influenza vaccination of healthy adults. Ugeskrift for Laeger 2001;163(19):2615-7.
Gross 1999
  • Gross PA, Sperber SJ, Donabedian A, Dran S, Morchel G, Cataruozolo P, et al. Paradoxical response to a novel influenza virus vaccine strain: the effect of prior immunization. Vaccine 1999;17(18):2284-9.
Grotto 1998
  • Grotto I, Mandel Y, Green MS, Varsano N, Gdalevich M, Ashkenazi I, et al. Influenza vaccine efficacy in young, healthy adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1998;26(4):913-7.
Gruber 1994
  • Gruber WC, Campbell PW, Thompson MJ, et al. Comparison of live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in Cystic Fibrosis Patients and their families: results of a 3-years study. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:241-7.
Haigh 1973
  • Haigh W, Howell RW, Meichen FW. A comparative trial of influenza immunization by inhalation and hypojet method. The Practitioner 1973;211:365-70.
Halperin 2002
  • Halperin SA, Smith B, Mabrouk T, Germain M, Trepanier P, Hassell T, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent, inactivated, mammalian cell culture-derived influenza vaccine in healthy adults, seniors, and children. Vaccine 2002;20(7-8):1240-7.
Hobson 1971
  • Hobson D, Baker FA, Curry RL, et al. The efficacy of live and inactivated vaccines of Hong Kong influenza virus in an industrial community. Journal of Hygiene 1971;71:641-7.
Hoskins 1976a
  • Hoskins TW, Davies JR, Smith AJ, et al. Influenza at Christ's Hospital: March, 1974. Lancet 1976;January 17:105-8.
Hoskins 1976b
  • Hoskins TW, Davies JR, Smith AJ, et al. Influenza at Christ's Hospital: March, 1974. Lancet 1976;January 17:105-8.
Hoskins 1979
  • Hoskins TW, Davies JR, Smith AJ, et al. Assessment of inactivated influenza A vaccine after three outbreaks of influenza A at Christ's Hospital. Lancet 1979;January 6:33-5.
Howell 1967
  • Howell RW. Long term efficacy of oil-adiuvant influenza vaccine in an industrial population. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 1967;24:66-70.
Jianping 1999
  • Jianping H, Xin F, Changshun L, Bo Z, Linxiu G, Wei X, Jiande S. Assessment of effectiveness of Vaxigrip. Vaccine 1999;17(Suppl 1):57-8.
Keitel 2001
  • Keitel WA, Cate TR, Nino D, Huggins LL, Six HR, Quarles JM, et al. Immunization against influenza: comparison of various topical and parenteral regimens containing inactivated and/or live attenuated vaccines in healthy adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001;183(2):329-32.
Kiderman 2001
  • Kiderman A, Furst A, Stewart B, Greenbaum E, Morag A, Zakay-Rones Z. A double-blind trial of a new inactivated, trivalent, intra-nasal anti-influenza vaccine in general practice: relationship between immunogenicity and respiratory morbidity over the winter of 1997-98. Journal of Clinical Virology 2001;20(3):155-61.
Liem 1973
  • Liem KS, Marcus EA, Jacobs J, et al. The protective effect of intranasal immunization with inactivated influenza virus vaccine. Postgraduate Medical Journal 1973;49:175-9.
Mendelman 2001
  • Mendelman PM, Cordova J, Cho I. Safety, efficacy and effectiveness of the influenza virus vaccine, trivalent, types A and B, live, cold-adapted (CAIV-T) in healthy children and healthy adults. Vaccine 2001;19(17-19):2221-6.
Monto 2000
  • Monto AS. Preventing influenza in healthy adults: the evolving story. JAMA 2000;284(13):1699-701.
Mostow 1977
  • Mostow SR, Eichkoff TC, Chelgren GA, et al. Studies of inactivated influenza virus vaccines in hospital employees: reactogenicity and absenteeism. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136:S533-8.
Muennig 2001
  • Muennig PA, Khan K. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination versus treatment of influenza in healthy adolescents and adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001;33(11):1879-85.
Nichol 1996
  • Nichol KL, Margolis KL, Lind A, et al. Side effects associated with influenza vaccination in healthy working adults. Archives of Internal Medicine 1996;156:1546-50.
Nichol 1999a
  • Nichol KL. Clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of influenza vaccination among healthy working adults. Vaccine 1999;17(Suppl 1):67-73.
Nichol 2001
  • Nichol KL. Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines: new options for the prevention of influenza. Vaccine 2001;19(31):4373-7.
Nichol 2003
  • Nichol KL, Mallon KP, Mendelman PM. Cost benefit of influenza vaccination in healthy, working adults: an economic analysis based on the results of a clinical trial of trivalent live attenuated influenza virus vaccine. Vaccine 2003;21(17-18):2207-17.
Pyhala 2001
  • Pyhala R, Haanpaa M, Kleemola M, Tervahauta R, Visakorpi R, Kinnunen L. Acceptable protective efficacy of influenza vaccination in young military conscripts under circumstances of incomplete antigenic and genetic match. Vaccine 2001;19(23-24):3253-60.
Pyrhonen 1981
  • Pyrhonen S, Suni J, Romo M. Clinical trial of a subunit influenza vaccine. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Disease 1981;13:95-9.
Rimmelzwaan 2000
  • Rimmelzwaan GF, Nieuwkoop N, Brandenburg A, Sutter G, Beyer WE, Maher D, et al. A randomized, double blind study in young healthy adults comparing cell mediated and humoral immune responses induced by influenza ISCOM vaccines and conventional vaccines. Vaccine 2000;19(9-10):1180-7.
Ruben 1973
  • Ruben FL, Akers LW, Stanley ED, et al. Protection with split and whole virus vaccines against influenza. Archives of Internal Medicine 1973;132:568-71.
Saxen 1999
  • Saxen H, Virtanen M. Randomized, placebo-controlled double blind study on the efficacy of influenza immunization on absenteeism of health care workers. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 1999;18(9):779-83.
Smith 1977
  • Smith AJ, Davies JR. The response to inactivated influenza A (H3N2) vaccines: the development and effect of antibodies to the surface antigens. Journal of Hygiene 1977;78:363-75.
Spencer 1975
  • Spencer MJ, Cherry JD, Powell KR, et al. Clinical trials with Alice strain, live attenuated, serum inhibitor-resistant intranasal influenza A vaccine. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1975;132(4):415-20.
Spencer 1979
  • Spencer MJ, Cherry JD, Powell KR, et al. A clinical trial with Alice/R-75 strain, live attenuated serum inhibitor-resistant intranasal bivalent influenza A/B vaccine. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 1979;167:1-9.
Taylor 1966
  • Taylor PJ, Miller CL, Pollock TM, et al. Antibody response and reactions to aqueous influenza vaccine, simple emulsion vaccine and multiple emulsion vaccine. A report to the Medical Research Council Committee on influenza and other respiratory virus vaccines. Journal of Hygiene 1966;67:485-90.
Treanor 2001
  • Treanor JJ, Wilkinson BE, Masseoud F, Hu-Primmer J, Battaglia R, O'Brien D, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant hemagglutinin vaccine for H5 influenza in humans. Vaccine 2001;19(13-14):1732-7.
Treanor 2002
  • Treanor J, Keitel W, Belshe R, Campbell J, Schiff G, Zangwill K, et al. Evaluation of a single dose of half strength inactivated influenza vaccine in healthy adults. Vaccine 2002;20(7-8):1099-105.
Warshauer 1976
  • Warshauer DM, Minor TE, Inhorn SL, et al. Use of an inhibitor-resistant live attenuated influenza vaccine in normal and asthmatic adults. 14th Congress of the International Association of Biological Standardization, Douglas, Isle of Man 1975. Developments in Biological Standardization 1975;33:184-90.
Williams 1973b
  • Williams MC, Davignon L, McDonald JC, et al. Trial of aqueous killed influenza vaccine in Canada, 1968-69. WHO Bulletin 1973;49:333-40.
Williams 1973c
  • Williams MC, Davignon L, McDonald JC, et al. Trial of aqueous killed influenza vaccine in Canada, 1968-69. WHO Bulletin 1973;49:333-40.
Wood 1999
  • Wood SC, Alexseiv A, Nguyen VH. Effectiveness and economical impact of vaccination against influenza among a working population in Moscow. Vaccine 1999;17(Suppl 3):81-7.
Wood 2000
  • Wood SC, Nguyen VH, Schmidt C. Economic evaluations of influenza vaccination in healthy working-age adults. Employer and society perspective. Pharmacoeconomics 2000;18(2):173-83.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Bonn 1997
  • Bonn D. Spared an influenza pandemic for another year?. Lancet 1997;349:36.
Claas 1998
  • Claas EC, Osterhaus ADM, van Beek R, et al. Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Lancet 1998;351:472-7.
Gross 1995
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Jefferson 1998
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MMWR 1998
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NACI 1988
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Schulz 1995
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Strassburg 1986
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Wiselka 1994
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