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Intervention Review

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Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults

  1. Tom Jefferson1,*,
  2. Carlo Di Pietrantonj2,
  3. Alessandro Rivetti2,
  4. Ghada A Bawazeer3,
  5. Lubna A Al-Ansary4,
  6. Eliana Ferroni5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group

Published Online: 7 JUL 2010

Assessed as up-to-date: 3 JUN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001269.pub4


How to Cite

Jefferson T, Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti A, Bawazeer GA, Al-Ansary LA, Ferroni E. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD001269. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001269.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The Cochrane Collaboration, Roma, Italy

  2. 2

    Azienda Sanitaria Locale ASL AL, Servizio Regionale di Riferimento per l'Epidemiologia, SSEpi-SeREMI - Cochrane Vaccines Field, Alessandria, Piemonte, Italy

  3. 3

    King Saud University, Department of Clinical Pharmacy & KKUH, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

  4. 4

    College of Medicine, King Saud University, Department of Family & Community Medicine, Holder of "Shaikh Abdullah S. Bahamdan" Research Chair for Evidence-Based Health Care and Knowledge Translation, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

  5. 5

    Public Health Agency of Lazio Region, Infectious Diseases Unit, Rome, Italy

*Tom Jefferson, The Cochrane Collaboration, Via Puglie 23, Roma, 00187, Italy. jefferson.tom@gmail.com. jefferson@assr.it.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions), comment added to review
  2. Published Online: 7 JUL 2010

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (13 MAR 2014)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Atmar 1990 {published data only}
  • Atmar RL, Bloom K, Keitel W, Couch RB, Greenberg SB. Effect of live attenuated, cold recombinant (CR) influenza virus vaccines on pulmonary function in healthy and asthmatic adults. Vaccine 1990;8(3):217-24.
Beran 2009a {published data only}
  • Beran J, Wertzova V, Honegr K, Kaliskova E, Havlickova M, Havlik J, et al. Challenge of conducting a placebo-controlled randomized efficacy study for influenza vaccine in a season with low attack rate and a mismatched vaccine B strain: a concrete example. BMC Infectious Diseases 2009;9:2. [DOI: doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-2]
Beran 2009b {published data only}
  • Beran J, Vesikari T, Wertzova V, Karvonen A, Honegr K, Lindblad N, et al. Efficacy of inactivated split-virus influenza vaccine against culture-confirmed influenza in healthy adults: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009;200:1861-9.
Betts 1977a {published data only}
  • Betts RF, Douglas RG Jr, Roth FK, Little JW 3rd. Efficacy of live attenuated influenza A/Scotland/74 (H3N2) virus vaccine against challenge with influenza A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136(6):746-53.
Boyce 2000 {published data only}
  • Boyce TG, Hsu HH, Sannella EC, Coleman-Dockery SD, Baylis E, Zhu Y, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of adjuvanted and unadjuvanted subunit influenza vaccines administered intranasally to healthy adults. Vaccine 2000;19(2-3):217-26.
Bridges 2000a {published data only}
  • Buxton Bridges C, Thompson VV, Meltzer MI, Reeve GR, Talamonti VJ, Cox NJ, et al. Effectiveness and cost benefit of influenza vaccination of healthy working adults, a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000;284(13):1655-63.
Bridges 2000b {published data only}
  • Buxton Bridges C, Thompson VV, Meltzer MI, Reeve GR, Talamonti VJ, Cox NJ. Effectiveness and cost benefit of influenza vaccination of healthy working adults, a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000;284(13):1655-63.
Caplan 1977 {published data only}
  • Caplan ES, Hughes TP, O'Donnel S, Levine MM, Hornick RB. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of parenteral monovalent influenza A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) virus vaccine in healthy adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136(Suppl):484-90.
DeStefano 2003 {published data only}
  • DeStefano F, Verstraeten T, Jackson LA, Okoro CA, Benson P, Black SB, et al. Vaccinations and risk of central nervous system demyelinating diseases in adults. Archives of Neurology 2003;60(4):504-9.
Eddy 1970 {published data only}
  • Eddy TS, Davies NA. The effect of vaccine on a closed epidemic of Hong Kong influenza. South African Medical Journal 1970;February 21:214-6.
Edwards 1994a {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
Edwards 1994b {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
Edwards 1994c {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
Edwards 1994d {published data only}
  • Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:68-76.
El'shina 1996 {published data only}
  • El'shina GA, Masalin IuM, Shervali VI, Gorbunov MA, Lonskaia NI, Agafonova LV, et al. The trivalent polymer-subunit influenza vaccine Grippol studied in a controlled epidemiological trial. Voenno-Meditsinskii Zhurnal 1996;317(8):57-60.
Evans 1976 {published data only}
Forsyth 1967 {published data only}
Goodeve 1983 {published data only}
  • Goodeve A, Potter CW, Clark A, Jennings R, Schild GC, Yetts R. A graded-dose study of inactivated, surface antigen influenza B vaccine in volunteers: reactogenicity, antibody response and protection to challenge virus infection. Journal of Hygiene 1983;90(1):107-15.
Hammond 1978 {published data only}
  • Hammomd ML, Ferris AA, Faine S, et al. Effective protection against influenza after vaccination with subunit vaccine. Medical Journal of Australia 1978;1:301-3.
Hrabar 1977 {published data only}
  • Hrabar A, Vodopija I, Andre FE, Mitchell JR, Maassab HF, Hennessy AV, et al. A placebo-controlled dose-response study of the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a cold-adapted recombinant A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) live influenza virus candidate vaccine in healthy volunteers. Developments in Biological Standardization 1977;39:53-60.
Kaplan 1982 {published data only}
  • Kaplan JE, Katona P, Hurwitz ES, Schonberger LB. Guillain-Barre syndrome in the United States, 1979-1980 and 1980-1981. Lack of an association with influenza vaccination. JAMA 1982;248(6):698-700.
Keitel 1988a {published data only}
  • Keitel WA, Cate TR, Couch RB. Efficacy of sequential annual vaccination with inactivated influenza virus vaccine. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988;127(2):353-64.
Keitel 1988b {published data only}
  • Keitel WA, Cate TR, Couch RB. Efficacy of sequential annual vaccination with inactivated influenza virus vaccine. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988;127(2):353-64.
Keitel 1993a {published data only}
  • Keitel WA, Couch RB, Quarles JM, Cate TR, Baxter B, Maassab HF. Trivalent attenuated cold-adapted influenza virus vaccine: reduced viral shedding and serum antibody responses in susceptible adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1993;167(2):305-11.
Keitel 1993b {published data only}
  • Keitel WA, Couch RB, Quarles JM, Cate TR, Baxter B, Maassab HF. Trivalent attenuated cold-adapted influenza virus vaccine: reduced viral shedding and serum antibody responses in susceptible adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1993;167(2):305-11.
Keitel 1997a {published data only}
Keitel 1997b {published data only}
Keitel 1997c {published data only}
Langley 2005 {published data only}
  • Langley JM, Halperin SA, McNeil S, Smith B, Jones T, Burt D, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a Proteosometrade mark-trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, given nasally to healthy adults. Vaccine 2005;24(10):1601-8.
Lasky 1998 {published data only}
  • Lasky T, Terracciano GJ, Magder L, Koski CL, Ballesteros M, Nash D, et al. The Guillain-Barre syndrome and the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 influenza vaccines. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;339(25):1797-802.
Lauteria 1974 {published data only}
  • Lauteria SF, Kantzler GB, High PC, Lee JD, Waldman RH. An attenuated influenza virus vaccine: Reactogenicity, transmissibility, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1974;130(4):380-3.
Leibovitz 1971 {published data only}
  • Leibovitz A, Coultrip RL, Kilbourne ED, Legters LJ, Smith CD, Chin J, et al. Correlated studies of a recombinant influenza-virus vaccine. IV. Protection against naturally occurring influenza in military trainees. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1971;124(5):481-7.
Mastrangelo 2000 {published data only}
  • Mastrangelo G, Rossi CR, Pfahlberg A, Marzia V, Barba A, Baldo M, et al. Is there a relationship between influenza vaccinations and risk of melanoma? A population-based case-control study. European Journal of Epidemiology 2000;16(9):777-82.
Mesa Duque 2001 {published data only}
  • Mesa-Duque SS, Moreno AP, Hurtado G, Arbelàaz Montoya MP. Effectiveness of an Influenza Vaccine in a working population in Colombia [Effectividad de una vacuna anti gripal en una poblaciòn laboral colombiana]. Pan American Journal of Public Health 2001;10(4):232-9.
Miller 1977 {published data only}
Mixéu 2002 {published data only}
  • Mixèu MA, Vespa GN, Forleo-Neto E, Toniolo-Neto J, Alves PM. Impact of influenza vaccination on civilian aircrew illness and absenteeism. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 2002;73(9):876-80.
Mogabgab 1970a {published data only}
Mogabgab 1970b {published data only}
Monto 1982 {published data only}
Mutsch 2004 {published data only}
  • Mutsch M, Zhou W, Rhodes P, Bopp M, Chen RT, Linder T, et al. Use of the inactivated intranasal influenza vaccine and the risk of Bell's palsy in Switzerland. New England Jouranl of Medicine 2004;350(9):896-903.
Nichol 1995 {published data only}
Nichol 1999a {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Mendelman PM, Mallon KP, Jackson LA, Gorse GJ, Belshe RB, et al. Effectiveness of live attenuated intranasal influenza virus vaccine in healthy working adults , a randomize controlled trial. JAMA 1999;282(2):137-44.
Payne 2006 {published data only}
  • Payne DC, Rose CE Jr, Kerrison J, Aranas A, Duderstadt S, McNeil MM. Anthrax vaccination and risk of optic neuritis in the United States military, 1998-2003. Archives of Neurology 2006;63(6):871-5.
Phyroenen 1981 {published data only}
Powers 1995a {published data only}
  • Powers DC, Smith GE, Anderson EL, et al. Influenza A virus vaccine containing purified recombinant H3 hemagglutinin are well tolerated and induce protective immune responses in healthy adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995;171:1595-9.
Powers 1995b {published data only}
  • Powers DC, Smith GE, Anderson EL, et al. Influenza A virus vaccine containing purified recombinant H3 hemagglutinin are well tolerated and induce protective immune responses in healthy adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995;171:1595-9.
Powers 1995c {published data only}
  • Powers DC, Smith GE, Anderson EL, et al. Influenza A virus vaccine containing purified recombinant H3 hemagglutinin are well tolerated and induce protective immune responses in healthy adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995;171:1595-9.
Reeve 1982 {published data only}
Rocchi 1979a {published data only}
  • Rocchi G, Ragona G, Piga C, Pelosio A, Volpi A, Vella S, et al. Influenza vaccination with live-attenuated and inactivated virus-vaccines during an outbreak of disease. Journal of Hygiene 1979;83(3):383-90.
Rocchi 1979b {published data only}
  • Rocchi G, Ragona G, Piga C, Pelosio A, Volpi A, Vella S, et al. Influenza vaccination with live-attenuated and inactivated virus-vaccines during an outbreak of disease. Journal of Hygiene 1979;83(3):383-90.
Rytel 1977 {published data only}
  • Rytel MW, Jakson LJ, Niebojewski RA, et al. Field trial of live attenuated influenza A/B ("Alice"/R-75) vaccine. American Journal of Epidemiology 1977;105(1):49-55.
Saxen 1999 {published data only}
  • Saxen H, Virtanen M. Randomized, placebo-controlled double blind study on the efficacy of influenza immunization on absenteeism of health care workers. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1999;18(9):779-83.
Scheifele 2003 {published data only}
  • Scheifele DW, Duval B, Russell ML, Warrington R, DeSerres G, Skowronski DM, et al. Ocular and respiratory symptoms attributable to inactivated split influenza vaccine: evidence from a controlled trial involving adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2003;36(7):850-7.
Shoenberger 1979 {published data only}
  • Schonberger LB, Bregman DJ, Sullivan-Bolyai JZ, Keenlyside RA, Ziegler DW, Retailliau HF, et al. Guillain-Barre syndrome following vaccination in the National Influenza Immunization Program, United States, 1976 - 1977. American Journal of Epidemiology 1979;110(2):105-23.
Siscovick 2000 {published data only}
  • Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, Lin D, Weinmann S, Arbogast P, Lemaitre RN, et al. Influenza vaccination and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000;152(7):674-7.
Spencer 1977 {published data only}
  • Spencer MJ, Cherry JD, Powell KR. Clinical trial with "R-75" strain live, attenuated, serum inhibitor-resistant intranasal influenza B vaccine. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1977;5(6):584-7.
Sumarokow 1971 {published data only}
  • Sumarokow AA, Popov VF, Nefedova LA, et al. A study of live influenza vaccines in a controlled trial. Zhumal Mikrobiologii Epidemiologii Immunobiologii 1971;48(2):46-52.
Tannock 1984 {published data only}
  • Tannock GA, Bryce DA, Hensley MJ, et al. Responses to one or two doses of a deoxycholate subunit influenza vaccine in a primed population. Vaccine 1984;2:100-5.
Waldman 1969a {published data only}
Waldman 1969b {published data only}
Waldman 1969c {published data only}
Waldman 1969d {published data only}
Waldman 1972a {published data only}
Waldman 1972b {published data only}
Waldman 1972c {published data only}
Waldman 1972d {published data only}
Weingarten 1988 {published data only}
Zhilova 1986a {published data only}
  • Zhilova GP, Ignat'eva GS, Orlov VA, Malikova EV, Maksakova VL. Results of a study of the effectiveness of simultaneous immunization against influenza with live and inactivated vaccines (1980 - 1983). Voprosy Virusologii 1986;31(1):40-4.
Zhilova 1986b {published data only}
  • Zhilova GP, Ignat'eva GS, Orlov VA, Malikova EV, Maksakova VL. Results of a study of the effectiveness of simultaneous immunization against influenza with live and inactivated vaccines (1980 - 1983). Voprosy Virusologii 1986;31(1):40-4.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Ambrosch 1976 {published data only}
  • Ambrosch F, Balluch H. Studies of the non-specific clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination. Laryngologie, Rhinologie, Otologie Laryngologie, Rhinologie, Otologie 1976;55:57-61.
Aoki 1986 {published data only}
  • Aoki FY, Sitar DS, Milley EV, et al. Potential of influenza vaccine and amantadine to prevent influenza A illness in Canadian forces personnel 1980-83. Military Medicine 1986;151(9):459-65.
Atmar 1995 {published data only}
  • Atmar RL, Keitel WA, Cate TR, Quarles JM, Couch RB. Comparison of trivalent cold-adapted recombinant (CR) influenza virus vaccine with monovalent CR vaccines in healthy unselected adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995;172(1):253-7.
Ausseil 1999 {published data only}
  • Ausseil F. Immunization against influenza among working adults: The Philippines experience. Vaccine 1999;17(Suppl 1):59-62.
Banzhoff 2001 {published data only}
Belongia 2009 {published data only}
  • Belongia EA, Kieke BA, Donahue JG, Greenlee RT, Balish A, Foust A, et al. Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines varied substantially with antigenic match from the 2004-2005 season to the 2006-2007 season. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009;199(2):159-67.
Belshe 2001 {published data only}
  • Belshe RB, Gruber WC. Safety, efficacy and effectiveness of cold-adapted, live, attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza vaccine in adults and children. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London 2001;356(1416):1947-51.
Benke 2004 {published data only}
Betts 1977b {published data only}
  • Betts RF, Douglas RG Jr. Comparative study of reactogenicity and immunogenicity of influenza A/New Jersey/8/76 (Hsw1N1) virus vaccines in normal volunteers. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136(Suppl):443-9.
Beyer 1996 {published data only}
  • Beyer WEP, Palache AM, Kerstens R, Masurel N. Gender differences in local and systemic reactions to inactivated influenza vaccine, established by a meta-analysis of fourteen independent studies. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1996;15(1):65-70.
Carlson 1979 {published data only}
  • Carlson AJ, Davidson WL, McLean AA, Vella PP, Weibel RE, Woodhour AF, et al. Pneumococcal vaccine: dose, revaccination, and coadministration with influenza vaccine. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1979;161(4):558-63.
Cate 1977 {published data only}
  • Cate TR, Couch RB, Kasel JA, Six HR. Clinical trials of monovalent influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus vaccines in adults: reactogenicity, antibody response, and antibody persistence. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136(Suppl):450-5.
Chlibek 2002 {published data only}
  • Chlibek R, Beran J, Splino M. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in healthy adults--a fourfold decrease in influenza morbidity during one influenza season. Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie 2002;51(2):47-51.
Chou 2007 {published data only}
Clover 1991 {published data only}
  • Clover RD, Crawford S, Glezen WP, et al. Comparison of heterotypic protection against influenza A/Taiwan/86 (H1N1) by attenuated and inactivated vaccines to A/Chile/83-like viruses. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1991;163:300-4.
Confavreux 2001 {published data only}
  • Confavreux C, Suissa S, Saddier P, Bourdes V, Vukusic S. Vaccinations and the risk of relapse in multiple sclerosis. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 2001;344(5):319-26.
Das Gupta 2002 {published data only}
Davies 1972 {published data only}
  • Davies JE, Howell RW, Meichen FW. A clinical trial of inhaled inactivated influenza vaccine. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1972;26(10):469-71.
Davies 1973 {published data only}
  • Davies JE, Howell RH, Meichen FW. A clinical trial of inhaled inactivated influenza vaccine. British Journal of General Practice 1970;27(6):219-21.
De Serres 2003a {published data only}
  • De Serres GI, Boulianne N, Duval B, Rochette L, Grenier JL, Roussel R, et al. Oculo-respiratory syndrome following influenza vaccination: evidence for occurrence with more than one influenza vaccine. Vaccine 2003;21(19-20):2346-53.
De Serres 2003b {published data only}
  • De Serres GI, Grenier JL, Toth E, Menard S, Roussel R, Tremblay M, et al. The clinical spectrum of the oculo-respiratory syndrome after influenza vaccination. Vaccine 2003;21(19-20):2354-61.
De Serres 2004 {published data only}
  • De Serres G, Skowronski DM, Guay M, Rochette L, Jacobsen K, Fuller T, et al. Recurrence risk of oculorespiratory syndrome after influenza vaccination: randomized controlled trial of previously affected persons. Archives of Internal Medicine 2004;164(20):2266-72.
Dolin 1977 {published data only}
  • Dolin R, Wise TG, Mazur MH, Tuazon CU, Ennis FA. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus vaccines in normal adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136(Suppl):435-42.
Edmonson 1970 {published data only}
  • Edmonson KW, Graham SM, Warburton MF. A clinical trial of influenza vaccine in Canberra. Medical Journal of Australia 1970;4:6-13.
El'shina 1998 {published data only}
  • El'shina GA, Gorbunov MA, Shervarli VI, Lonskaia NI, Pavlova LI, Khaitov RM, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness of influenza trivalent polymer subunit vaccine "Grippol". Zhumal Mikrobiologii Epidemiologii Immunobiologii 1998;3:40-3.
Finklea 1969 {published data only}
  • Finklea JF, Sandifer SH, Peck FB, et al. A clinical and serologic comparison of standard and purified bivalent inactivated influenza vaccines. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1969;120(6):708-12.
Foy 1981 {published data only}
  • Foy HM, Cooney MK, Allan ID, Frost F, Blumhagen JM, Fox JP. Influenza B virus vaccines in children and adults: adverse reactions, immune response, and observations in the field. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1981;143(5):700-6.
Frank 1981 {published data only}
Freestone 1976 {published data only}
  • Freestone DS. Clinical trials with intranasally administered WRL 105 strain live influenza vaccine in volunteers. Developments in Biological Standardization 1976;33:207-12.
Gerstoft 2001 {published data only}
  • Gerstoft J. Influenza vaccination of healthy adults. Ugeskrift for Laeger 2001;163(19):2615-7.
Greenbaum 2002 {published data only}
  • Greenbaum E, Furst A, Kiderman A, Stewart B, Levy R, Schlesinger M, et al. Mucosal [SIgA] and serum [IgG] immunologic responses in the community after a single intra-nasal immunization with a new inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine. Vaccine 2002;20(7-8):1232-9.
Gross 1999 {published data only}
  • Gross PA, Sperber SJ, Donabedian A, Dran S, Morchel G, Cataruozolo P, et al. Paradoxical response to a novel influenza virus vaccine strain: the effect of prior immunization. Vaccine 1999;17(18):2284-9.
Grotto 1998 {published data only}
Gruber 1994 {published data only}
  • Gruber WC, Campbell PW, Thompson MJ, et al. Comparison of live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in Cystic Fibrosis Patients and their families: results of a 3-years study. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:241-7.
Haber 2004 {published data only}
Haigh 1973 {published data only}
Halperin 2002 {published data only}
  • Halperin SA, Smith B, Mabrouk T, Germain M, Trepanier P, Hassell T, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent, inactivated, mammalian cell culture-derived influenza vaccine in healthy adults, seniors, and children. Vaccine 2002;20(7-8):1240-7.
Hobson 1970 {published data only}
  • Hobson D, Baker FA, Chivers CP, et al. A comparison of monovalent Hong Kong influenza virus vaccine with vaccines containing only pre-1968 Asian strains in adult volunteers. Journal of Hygiene 1970;68:369-78.
Hobson 1973 {published data only}
Hoskins 1973 {published data only}
  • Hoskins TW, Davies JR, Allchin A, et al. Controlled trial of inactivated influenza vaccine containing the A/Hong Kong strain during an outbreak of influenza due to the A/England/42/72 strain. Lancet 1973;July 21:116-20.
Hoskins 1976a {published data only}
  • Hoskins TW, Davies JR, Smith AJ, et al. Influenza at Christ's Hospital: March, 1974. Lancet 1976;January 17:105-8.
Hoskins 1976b {published data only}
  • Hoskins TW, Davies JR, Smith AJ, et al. Influenza at Christ's Hospital: March, 1974. Lancet 1976;January 17:105-8.
Hoskins 1979 {published data only}
  • Hoskins TW, Davies JR, Smith AJ, et al. Assessment of inactivated influenza A vaccine after three outbreaks of influenza A at Christ's Hospital. Lancet 1979;January 6:33-5.
Howell 1967 {published data only}
Hurwitz 1983 {published data only}
Jianping 1999 {published data only}
  • Jianping H, Xin F, Changshun L, Bo Z, Linxiu G, Wei X, et al. Assessment of effectiveness of Vaxigrip. Vaccine 1999;17(Suppl 1):57-8.
Keitel 2001 {published data only}
  • Keitel WA, Cate TR, Nino D, Huggins LL, Six HR, Quarles JM, et al. Immunization against influenza: comparison of various topical and parenteral regimens containing inactivated and/or live attenuated vaccines in healthy adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001;183(2):329-32.
Khazeni 2009 {published data only}
  • Khazeni N, Hutton D, Garber A, Hupert N, Owens D. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination against pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009. Annals of Internnal Medicine 2009;151:829-39.
Kiderman 2001 {published data only}
  • Kiderman A, Furst A, Stewart B, Greenbaum E, Morag A, Zakay-Rones Z. A double-blind trial of a new inactivated, trivalent, intra-nasal anti-influenza vaccine in general practice: relationship between immunogenicity and respiratory morbidity over the winter of 1997-98. Journal of Clinical Virology 2001;20(3):155-61.
Kunz 1977 {published data only}
  • Kunz C, Hofmann H, Bachmayer H, Liehl E, Moritz AJ. Clinical trials with a new influenza subunit vaccine in adults and children. Developments in Biological Standardization 1977;39:297-302.
Langley 2004 {published data only}
Liem 1973 {published data only}
Mackenzie 1975 {published data only}
Mair 1974 {published data only}
Maynard 1968 {published data only}
  • Maynard JE, Dull HB, Hanson ML, et al. Evaluation of monovalent and polyvalent influenza vaccines during an epidemic of type A2 and B influenza. American Journal of Epidemiology 1968;87(1):148-57.
McCarthy 2004 {published data only}
Mendelman 2001 {published data only}
  • Mendelman PM, Cordova J, Cho I. Safety, efficacy and effectiveness of the influenza virus vaccine, trivalent, types A and B, live, cold-adapted (CAIV-T) in healthy children and healthy adults. Vaccine 2001;19(17-19):2221-6.
Merelli 2000 {published data only}
  • Merelli E, Casoni F. Prognostic factors in multiple sclerosis: role of intercurrent infections and vaccinations against influenza and hepatitis B. Neurological Sciences 2000;21(4 Suppl 2):853-6.
Meyers 2003a {published data only}
  • Meyers DG. Could influenza vaccination prevent myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden cardiac death?. American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 2003;3(4):241-4.
Meyers 2003b {published data only}
  • Meyers DG. Myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden cardiac death may be prevented by influenza vaccination. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 2003;5(2):146-9.
Monto 2000 {published data only}
Morris 1975 {published data only}
Mostow 1977 {published data only}
  • Mostow SR, Eichkoff TC, Chelgren GA, et al. Studies of inactivated influenza virus vaccines in hospital employees: reactogenicity and absenteeism. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136:533-8.
Muennig 2001 {published data only}
Nichol 1996 {published data only}
Nichol 1999b {published data only}
Nichol 2001 {published data only}
Nichol 2003 {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Mallon KP, Mendelman PM. Cost benefit of influenza vaccination in healthy, working adults: an economic analysis based on the results of a clinical trial of trivalent live attenuated influenza virus vaccine. Vaccine 2003;21(17-18):2207-17.
Nichol 2004 {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Mendelman P. Influence of clinical case definitions with differing levels of sensitivity and specificity on estimates of the relative and absolute health benefits of influenza vaccination among healthy working adults and implications for economic analyses. Virus Research 2004;103(1-2):3-8.
Pyhala 2001 {published data only}
  • Pyhala R, Haanpaa M, Kleemola M, Tervahauta R, Visakorpi R, Kinnunen L. Acceptable protective efficacy of influenza vaccination in young military conscripts under circumstances of incomplete antigenic and genetic match. Vaccine 2001;19(23-24):3253-60.
Rimmelzwaan 2000 {published data only}
  • Rimmelzwaan GF, Nieuwkoop N, Brandenburg A, Sutter G, Beyer WE, Maher D, et al. A randomized, double blind study in young healthy adults comparing cell mediated and humoral immune responses induced by influenza ISCOM vaccines and conventional vaccines. Vaccine 2000;19(9-10):1180-7.
Rocchi 1979c {published data only}
  • Rocchi G, Carlizza L, Andreoni M, Ragona G, Piga C, Pelosio A, et al. Protection from natural infection after live influenza virus immunization in an open population. Journal of Hygiene 1979;82(2):231-6.
Ruben 1972 {published data only}
Ruben 1973 {published data only}
Safranek 1991 {published data only}
  • Safranek TJ, Lawrence DN, Kurland LT, Culver DH, Wiederholt WC, Hayner NS, et al. Reassessment of the association between Guillain-Barre syndrome and receipt of swine influenza vaccine in 1976-1977: results of a two-state study. Expert Neurology Group. American Journal of Epidemiology 1991;133(9):940-51.
Sarateanu 1980 {published data only}
  • Sarateanu DE, Ehrengut W, Pressler K, Peukert M, Schenk KD. Serological response to whole, split and subunit influenza vaccines of persons with and without immunological experience towards influenza A/U.S.S.R. 90/77 virus. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1980;3(1-2):225-36.
Schonberger 1981 {published data only}
Schwartz 1996 {published data only}
Skowronski 2002 {published data only}
  • Skowronski DM, Strauss B, Kendall P, Duval B, De Serres G. Low risk of recurrence of oculorespiratory syndrome following influenza revaccination. CMAJ 2002;167(8):853-8.
Skowronski 2003 {published data only}
  • Skowronski DM, De Serres G, Scheifele D, Russell ML, Warrington R, Davies HD, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the rate of recurrence of oculorespiratory syndrome following influenza vaccination among persons previously affected. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2003;37(8):1059-66.
Smith 1977a {published data only}
Smith 1977b {published data only}
  • Smith CD, Leighton HA, Shiromoto RS. Antigenicity and reactivity of influenza A/New Jersey/8/76 virus vaccines in military volunteers at Fort Ord, California. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136(Suppl):460-5.
Spencer 1975 {published data only}
  • Spencer MJ, Cherry JD, Powell KR, et al. Clinical trials with Alice strain, live attenuated, serum inhibitor-resistant intranasal influenza A vaccine. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1975;132(4):415-20.
Spencer 1979 {published data only}
  • Spencer MJ, Cherry JD, Powell KR, et al. A clinical trial with Alice/R-75 strain, live attenuated serum inhibitor-resistant intranasal bivalent influenza A/B vaccine. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 1979;167:1-9.
Taylor 1969 {published data only}
  • Taylor PJ, Miller CL, Pollock TM, et al. Antibody response and reactions to aqueous influenza vaccine, simple emulsion vaccine and multiple emulsion vaccine. A report to the Medical Research Council Committee on influenza and other respiratory virus vaccines. Journal of Hygiene 1969;67:485-90.
Treanor 2001 {published data only}
  • Treanor JJ, Wilkinson BE, Masseoud F, Hu-Primmer J, Battaglia R, O'Brien D, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant hemagglutinin vaccine for H5 influenza in humans. Vaccine 2001;19(13-14):1732-7.
Treanor 2002 {published data only}
  • Treanor J, Keitel W, Belshe R, Campbell J, Schiff G, Zangwill K, et al. Evaluation of a single dose of half strength inactivated influenza vaccine in healthy adults. Vaccine 2002;20(7-8):1099-105.
Tyrrell 1970 {published data only}
  • Tyrrell DA, Buckland R, Rubenstein D, Sharpe DM. Vaccination against Hong Kong influenza in Britain, 1968-9. A report to the Medical Research Council Committee on Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Vaccines. Journal of Hygiene 1970 Sep;68(3):359-68.
Warshauer 1976 {published data only}
  • Warshauer DM, Minor TE, Inhorn SL, et al. Use of an inhibitor-resistant live attenuated influenza vaccine in normal and asthmatic adults. 14th Congress of the International Association of Biological Standardization, Douglas, Isle of Man 1975. Developments in Biological Standardization 1975;33:184-90.
Wilde 1999 {published data only}
Williams 1973 {published data only}
Wood 1999 {published data only}
  • Wood SC, Alexseiv A, Nguyen VH. Effectiveness and economical impact of vaccination against influenza among a working population in Moscow. Vaccine 1999;17(Suppl 3):81-7.
Wood 2000 {published data only}

Additional references

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
ACIP 2006
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Recommendations and Reports: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2006;55:1-41.
ACIP 2009
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Recommendations and Reports: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2009;58(RR-8):2.
DerSimonian 1986
Higgins 2002
Higgins 2003
Higgins 2009
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.2 [updated September 2009]. The Cochrane Collaboration. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org 2009.
Jefferson 2009a
Jefferson 2009b
  • Jefferson TO. Mistaken identity: seasonal influenza versus influenza-like illness. Clinical Evidence 2009;329:1-4.
Jefferson 2009c
Wells 2004
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Wiselka 1994

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Demicheli 1999
Demicheli 2001
  • Demicheli V, Rivetti D, Deeks JJ, Jefferson TO. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001269.pub3]
Demicheli 2004
  • Demicheli V, Rivetti D, Deeks JJ, Jefferson TO. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001269.pub3]
Jefferson 2007
  • Jefferson TO, Rivetti D, Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti A, Demicheli V. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001269.pub3]