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Intervention Review

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School-based programmes for preventing smoking

  1. Roger E Thomas1,*,
  2. Rafael Perera2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group

Published Online: 19 JUL 2006

Assessed as up-to-date: 19 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001293.pub2


How to Cite

Thomas RE, Perera R. School-based programmes for preventing smoking. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD001293. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001293.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Calgary, Department of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

  2. 2

    University of Oxford, Department of Primary Health Care, Oxford, UK

*Roger E Thomas, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, UCMC, #1707-1632 14th Avenue, Calgary, Alberta, T2M 1N7, Canada. rthomas@ucalgary.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 19 JUL 2006

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Abernathy 1992 {published data only}
  • Abernathy TJ, Bertrand LD. Preventing cigarette smoking among children: Results of a four-year evaluation of the PAL program. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1992;83:226-9. [MEDLINE: 92405049]
  • Bertrand L, Abernathy TJ. Predicting smoking among adolescents using cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Journal of School Health 1993;63:100-5.
Armstrong 1990 {published data only}
  • Armstrong BK, de Klerk NH, Shean RE, Dunn DA, Dolin PJ. Influence of education and advertising on the uptake of smoking by children. Medical Journal of Australia 1990;152:117-24. [MEDLINE: 90136263]
  • Fisher DA, Armstrong BK, de Klerk NH. A randomised-controlled trial of education for prevention of smoking in 12 year old children. Proceedings of the 5th World Conference on Smoking and Health, Winnipeg, Canada 1983. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Smoking and Health, 1985.
  • Shean RE, de Klerk NH, Armstrong BK, Walker NR. Seven-year follow-up a smoking-prevention program for children. Australian Journal of Public Health 1994;18:205-8.
Ary 1990 {published data only}
  • Ary DV, Biglan A, Glasgow R, Zoref L, Black C, Ochs L, et al. The efficacy of social-influence prevention programs versus "standard care": Are new initiatives needed?. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1990;13(3):281-96. [MEDLINE: 91012567]
Ausems 2004 {published data only}
  • Ausems M, Mesters I, Van Breukelen G, de Vries H. Effects of in-school and tailored out-of-school smoking prevention among Dutch vocational school students. Health Education Research 2004;19(1):51-63.
Aveyard 1999 {published data only}
  • Aveyard P, Cheng KK, Almond J, Sherratt E, Lancashire R, Lawrence T, et al. Cluster randomised controlled trial of expert system based on the transtheoretical (''stages of change'') model for smoking prevention and cessation in schools. BMJ 1999;319:948-53. [MEDLINE: 99443824]
Biglan 1987a {published data only}
  • Biglan A, Glasgow RE, Ary DV, Thompson R, Severson H, Lichtenstein E, et al. How generalizable are the effects of smoking prevention programs? Refusal skills training and parent messages in a teacher-administered program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1987;10:613-28.
Biglan 1987b {published data only}
  • Biglan A, Severson H, Ary D, Faller C, Gallison C, Thompson R, et al. Do smoking prevention programs really work? Attrition and the internal and external validity of an evaluation of a refusal skills training program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1987;10:159-71.
  • Hops H, Weissman W, Biglan A, Thompson R, Faller C, Severson HH. A taped situation test of cigarette refusal skills among adolescents. Behavioral Assessment 1986;8:145-54.
Biglan 2000 {published data only}
  • Biglan A, Ary DV, Smolkowski K, Duncan T, Black C. A randomised controlled trial of a community intervention to prevent adolescent tobacco use.. Tobacco Control 2000;9:24-32. [MEDLINE: 20156896]
  • Biglan A, Ary DV, Yudelson H, Duncan TE, Hood D, James L, et al. Experimental evaluation of a modular approach to mobilizing antitobacco influences of peers and parents. American Journal of Community Psychology 1996;24(3):311-39.
Botvin 1980 {published data only}
Botvin 1982 {published data only}
Botvin 1983 {published data only}
Botvin 1990a {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Botvin EM, Diaz T. Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. JAMA 1995;273:1106-12.
  • Botvin GJ, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Tortu S, Botvin EM. Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: Results of a 3-year study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1990;58(4):437-46. [MEDLINE: 91010086]
  • Botvin GJ, Tortu S, Baker E, Dusenbury L. Preventing adolescent cigarette smoking: Resistance skills training and development of life skills. Special Services in the Schools 1990;6:37-61.
Botvin 1990b {published data only}
Botvin 1999 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Diaz T, Miller N, Ifill-Williams M. Smoking initiation and escalation in early adolescent girls: one-year follow-up of a school-based prevention intervention for minority youth. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association 1999;54:139-43, 152.
Botvin 2001 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Diaz T, Ifill-Wiliams M. Drug abuse prevention among minority adolescents: Posttest and one-year follow-up of a school-based preventive intervention. Prevention Science 2001;2(1):1-13.
  • Griffin KW, Botvin GJ, Nichols TR, Doyle MM. Effectiveness of a universal drug abuse prevention approach for youth at high risk for substance use initiation. Preventive Medicine 2003;36(1):1-7.
Brown 2002 {published data only}
  • Brown KS, Cameron R, Madill C, Payne ME, Filsinger S, Manske SR, Best JA. Outcome evaluation of a high school smoking reduction intervention based on extracurricular activities. Preventive Medicine 2002;35(5):506-10.
Bush 1989 {published data only}
  • Bush PJ, Zuckerman AE, Theiss PK, Taggart VS, Horowitz C, Sheridan MJ, et al. Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black schoolchildren: Two-year results of the "Know Your Body" Program. American Journal of Epidemiology 1989;129:466-82. [MEDLINE: 89132525]
Cameron 1999 {published data only}
  • Cameron R, Brown KS, Best JA, Pelkman CL, Madill CL, Manske SR, et al. Effectiveness of a social influences smoking prevention program as a function of provider type, training method, and school risk. American Journal of Public Health 1999;89:1827-31.
  • Santi SM, Best JA, Payne ME, Brown KS, Cameron R. A comparison between instructional experience and performance of teachers and nurses delivering a smoking prevention program. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1992;83:433-6.
  • Santi SM, Cargo M, Brown KS, Best JA, Cameron R. Dispositional risk factors for smoking-stage transitions: A social influences program as an effect modifier. Addictive Behaviors 1994;19(3):269-85.
  • Sashegyi AI, Brown KS, Farrell PJ. Application of a generalized random effects regression model for cluster-correlated longitudinal data to a school-based smoking prevention trial. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000;152(12):1192-200.
Chatrou 1999 {published data only}
  • Chatrou M, Maes S, Dusseldorp E, Seegers G. Effects of the Brabant smoking prevention programme: A replication of the Wisconsin programme. Psychology and Health 1999;14:159-78.
  • Leventhal H, Fleming R, Glynn K. A cognitive-development approach to smoking intervention. In: Maes S, Spielberger CD, Defares PB, Sarason IG editor(s). Topics in health psychology. New York: John Wiley, 1988:79-105.
Clarke 1986 {published data only}
Clayton 1996 {published data only}
  • Bennett GT. An Exploration of Patterns of Drug Use and of the Effectiveness of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program According to Adolescents' Level of Academic Achievement. University of Kentucky Ph.D. Dissertation DAI-A 55/10; April 1995:3091.
  • Clayton RR, Cattarello AM, Johnstone BM. The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (Project DARE): 5-year follow-up results. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:307-18.
  • Cleckler PEJ. An Evaluation of an Educational Substance Abuse Prevention Program. EDD Dissertation University of Georgia. University of Georgia. DA-A 52/06 p. 1956, 1991.
  • Lynam DR, Milich R, Zimmerman R, Novak SP, Logan TK, Martin C, et al. Project DARE: no effects at 10-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67:590-3.
  • Wysong E, Wright DW. A decade of DARE: efficacy, politics and drug education. Sociological Focus 1995;28(3):283-311.
Coe 1982 {published data only}
  • Coe RM, Crouse E, Cohen JD, Fisher Jr EB. Patterns of change in adolescent smoking behavior and results of a one year follow-up of a smoking prevention program. Journal of School Health 1982;August:348-53. [MEDLINE: 83011299]
Cohen 1989 {published data only}
Crone 2003 {published data only}
  • Crone MR, Reijneveld SA, Willemsen MC, van Leerdam FJ, Spruijt RD, Sing RA. Prevention of smoking in adolescents with lower education: a school based intervention study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2003;57(9):675-80.
De Vries 1994 {published data only}
  • De Vries H, Backbier E, Dijkstra M, Van Breukelen G, Parcel G, Kok G. A Dutch socal influence smoking prevention approach for vocational school students. Health Education Research 1994;9:365-74.
  • De Vries H, Dijkstra M, Kok G. A Dutch Smoking Prevention Project: Overview. Hygie 1992;11:14-8.
  • De Vries H, Weijts W, Dijkstra M, Kok G. The utilization of qualitative and quantitative data for health education program planning, implementation, and evaluation: A spiral approach. Health Education Quarterly 1992;19:101-15.
De Vries 2003 {published data only}
  • de Vries H, Mudde A, Kremers S, Wetzels J, Uiters E, Ariza C, et al. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): short-term effects. Health Education Research 2003;18(6):649-63.
  • de Vries H, Mudde A, Leijs I, Charlton A, Vartiainen E, Buijs G, et al. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (EFSA): an example of integral prevention. Health Education Research 2003;18(5):611-26.
Denson 1981 {published and unpublished data}
Dijkstra 1999 {published data only}
Eckhardt 1997 {published data only}
  • Eckhardt L, Woodruff SI, Elder JP. Relative effectiveness of continued, lapsed, and delayed smoking prevention intervention in senior high school students. American Journal of Health Promotion 1997;11:418-21.
Elder 1993 {published data only}
  • Eckhardt L, Woodruff SI, Elder JP. Relative effectiveness of continued, lapsed, and delayed smoking prevention intervention in senior high school students. American Journal of Health Promotion 1997;11:418-21.
  • Elder JP, Sallis JF, Woodruff SI, Wildey MR. Tobacco-refusal skills and tobacco use among high-risk adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1993;16:629-41.
  • Elder JP, Wildey M, de Moor C, Sallis Jr JF, Eckhardt L, et al. The long-term prevention of tobacco use among junior high school students: Classroom and telephone interventions. American Journal of Public Health 1993;83:1239-44.
  • Elder JP, Woodruff SI, Eckhardt L. Participation in a telephone-based tobacco use prevention program for adolescents. American Journal of Health Promotion 1994;9(2):92-5.
  • Elder JP, Woodruff SI, Sallis JF, de Moor C, Edwards C, Wildey MB. Effects of health facilitator performance and attendance at training sessions on the acquisition of tobacco refusal skills among multi-ethnic, high-risk adolescents. Health Education Research 1994;9(2):225-33.
  • Young RL, Elder JP, Green MS, de Moor C, Wildey MB. Tobacco use prevention and health facilitator effectiveness. Journal of Sch Health 1988;58(9):370-3.
Elder 1996 {published data only}
  • Edmundson E, Parcel GS, Perry CL, Feldman HA, Smyth M, Johnson CC, et al. The effects of the child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health intervention on psychosocial determinants of cardiovascular disease risk behavior among third-grade students. American Journal of Health Promotion 1996;10(3):217-25.
  • Elder JP, McGraw SA, Stone EJ, Reed DB, Harsha DW, Greene T, et al. CATCH: Process evaluation of environmental factors and programs. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Supplement 2:S107-S127.
  • Elder JP, Perry CL, Stone EJ, Johnson CC, Yang M, Edmundson EW, et al. Tobacco use measurement, prediction and intervention in elementary schools in four states: The CATCH Study. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:486-94.
  • Johnson CC, Li D, Galati T, Pedersen S, Smth M, Parcel GS. Maintenance of the Classroom Health Education Curricula: Results from the CATCH-ON study. Health Education & Behavior 2003;30(4):476-88.
  • Johnson CC, Li D, Perry CL, Elder JP, Feldman HA, Kelder SH, et al. Fifth through eighth grade longitudinal predictors of tobacco use among a racially diverse cohort CATCH. Journal of School Health 2002;72(2):58-64.
  • Johnson CC, Osganian SK, Budman SB, Lytle LA, Barrera EP, Bonura SR, et al. CATCH: Family process evaluation in a multicenter trial. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Supplement 2:S91-S106.
  • Nader PR, Sellers DE, Johnson CC, Perry CL, Stone EJ, Cook KC, et al. The effect of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to improve children's diet and physical activity: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:455-64.
  • Perry CL, Sellers DE, Johnson C, Pedersen S, Bachman KJ, Parcel GS, et al. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH): Intervention, implementation, and feasibility for elementary schools in the United States.. Health Education & Behavior 1997;24(6):716-35.
  • Perry CL, Stone EJ, Parcel GS, Ellison RC, Nader PR, Webber LS, et al. School-based cardiovascular health promotion: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Journal of School Health 1990;60(3):406-13.
  • Stone EJ, Osganian SK, McKinlay SM, Wu MC, Webber LS, Luepker RV, et al. Operational design and quality control in the CATCH multicenter trial. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:384-99.
Ellickson 1990 {published data only}
Ellickson 2003 {published data only}
  • Ellickson PL, McCaffrey DF, Ghosh Dastidar B, Longshore DL. New inroads in preventing adolescent drug use: results from a large-scale trial of Project ALERT in middle schools. American Journal of Public Health 2003;93(11):1830-6.
Ennett 1994 {published data only}
  • Ennett ST, Rosenbaum DP, Flewelling RL, Bieler GS, Ringwalt CL, Bailey SL. Long-term evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education. Addictive Behaviors 1994;19:113-25.
  • Rosenbaum DP, Flewelling RL, Bailey SL, Ringwalt CL, Wilkinson DL. Cops in the classroom: A longitudinal evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE). Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 1994;31(1):3-31.
Figa-Talamanca 1989 {published data only}
  • Figa-Talamanca I, Modolo M. Evaluation of an anti-smoking educational programme among adolescents in Italy. Hygie 1989;8(3):24-8.
Flay 1985 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Best JA, Flay BR, Brown JS. Smoking prevention in the Schools: Program Dissemination. Ontario Ministry of Health Report No. CHS-R26 1983.
  • Flay BR, Koepke D, Thomson SJ, Santi S, Best JA, Brown KS. Six-year follow-up of the first Waterloo school smoking prevention trial. American Journal of Public Health 1989;79(10):1371-6.
  • Flay BR, Ryan CB, Best JA, Brown KS, Kersell MW, d'Avernas JR, et al. Are social-psychological smoking programs effective? The Waterloo study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1985;8(1):37-59.
Flay 1995 {published data only}
  • Brannon BR, Dent CW, Flay BR, Smith G, Sussman S, Pentz MA, et al. The Television, School and Family Project. V. The impact of curriculum delivery. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:492-502.
  • Flay BR, Brannon BR, Johnson CA, Hanson WB, Ulene AL, Whitney-Saltiel DA, et al. The Television, School, and Family Smoking Prevention and Cessation Project. I. Theoretical basis and program development. Preventive Medicine 1988;17:585-607.
  • Flay BR, Hu FB, Richardson J. Psychosocial predictors of different stages of cigarette smoking among high school students. Preventive Medicine 1998;27 (5 Pt 3):A18-A19.
  • Flay BR, Miller TQ, Hedeker D, Siddiqui O, Britton CF, Brannon BR, et al. The Television, School, and Family Smoking Prevention and Cessation Project. VIII student outcomes and mediating variables. Preventive Medicine 1995;24:29-40.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Brannon BR, Glowacz KJ, Gleason LR, Ullery S, et al. The Television, School and Family Smoking Prevention and Cessation Project. IV. controlling for program expectancies across experimental and control conditions. Addictive Behaviors 1989;14:601-10.
  • Sussman S, Flay BR, Sobel JL, Rauch JM, Hansen WB, Johnson CA. Viewing and evaluation of a televised drug education program by students previously or concurrently exposed to school-based substance abuse prevention programming. Health Education Research 1987;2(4):373-83.
Focarile 1994 {published data only}
  • Focarile F, Scaffino L. Results of a randomized controlled trial on preventing the smoking habit in adolescents [Risultati di uno studio controllato randomizzato sulla prevenzione dell'abitudine al fumo degli adolescenti]. Epidemiologia e Prevenzione 1994;18:157-63.
  • Focarile FA, Scaffino L, Nardi A, Vaccari R. Protocol and feasibility of a randomized controlled study on preventing the smoking habit in adolescents [Protocollo e fattibilita di uno studio controllato randomizzato sulla prevenzione dell'abitudine al fumo negli adolescenti]. Epidemiologia e Prevenzione 1989;11:41-6.
Gatta 1991 {published data only}
Gersick 1988 {unpublished data only}
Gilchrist 1986 {published data only}
Gilchrist 1987 {published data only}
  • Gilchrist LD, Schinke SP, Trimble JE, Cvetkovich GT. Skills enhancement to prevent substance abuse among American-Indian adolescents. International Journal of Addictions 1987;22:869-79.
Gindre 1995 {published data only}
  • Gindre C, Conard J, Ducos-Mieral C, Champetier de Ribes G. Departmental programme for the early prevention of tobacco addiction among school children. In: Slama K editor(s). Tobacco and Health. Proceedings of the 9th World Conference on Tobacco and Health 1994. New York: Plenum Press, 1995.
Hanewinkel 1994 {published data only}
  • Hanewinkel R, Ferstl R, Burow F. Conception and evaluation of a behavioural non-smoking intervention in schools [Konzeption und Evaluation einer verhaltensorientierten Nichtraucherförderung an Schulen]. Verhaltenstherapie 1994;4:104-10.
Hansen 1988 {published data only}
  • Graham JW, Johnson CA, Hansen WB, Flay BR, Gee M. Drug use prevention programs, gender and ethnicity: evaluation of three seventh-grade Project SMART cohorts. Preventive Medicine 1990;19:305-13.
  • Hansen WB, Johnson CA, Flay BR, Graham JW, Sobel J. Affective and social influences approaches to the prevention of multiple substance abuse among seventh grade students: Results from Project SMART. Preventive Medicine 1988;17:135-54.
  • Parcel GS, O'Hara- Tompkins NM, Harrist RB, Basen-Engquist KM, McCormick LK, Gottlieb NH, et al. Diffusion of an effective tobacco prevention program. Part II: evaluation of the adoption phase. Health Education Research 1995;10(3):287-307.
Hansen 1991 {published data only}
  • Donaldson SI, Graham JW, Hansen WB. Testing the generalisability of intervening mechanism theories: understanding the effects of adolescent drug use prevention interventions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1994;17(2):195-216.
  • Donaldson SI, Graham JW, Piccinin AM, Hansen WB. Resistance-skills training and onset of alcohol use: evidence for beneficial and potentially harmful effects in public schools and in private Catholic schools. Health Psychology 1995;13(4):291-300.
  • Donaldson SI, Thomas CW, Graham JW, Au JG, Hansen WB. Verifying drug abuse prevention program effects using reciprocal best friend reports. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2000;23(6):585-601.
  • Hansen WB, Graham JW. Preventing alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use among adolescents: Peer Pressure Resistance Training versus Establishing Conservative Norms. Preventive Medicine 1991;20:414-30.
  • Hansen WB, Graham JW, Wolkenstein BH, Rohrbach LA. Program integrity as a moderator of prevention program effectiveness: results for fifth-grade students in the Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trial. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 1991;53(5):568-79.
  • Palmer RF, Graham JW, White EL, Hansen WB. Applying multilevel analytic strategies in adolescent substance use prevention research. Preventive Medicine 1998;27:328-36.
  • Rohrbach LA, Graham JW, Hansen WB. Diffusion of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: predictors of program implementation. Preventive Medicine 1993;22:237-60.
  • Taylor BJ, Graham JW, Cumsille P, Hansen WB. Modeling prevention program effects on growth in substance use: analysis of five years of data from the Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trial. Prevention Science 2000;1(4):183-97.
Hirschmann 1989 {published data only}
Hort 1995 {published data only}
  • Hort W, Hort H, Willers R. Intervention study against cigarette smoking in Duesseldorf high school pupils [Interventionsstudie gegen das Zigarettenrauchen von Düsseldorfer Hauptschülern 1992-94]. Zeitschrift Kardiologie 1995;84:700-11.
Howard 1996 {published data only}
  • Howard JK, Bindler RM, Synoground G, van Gemert FC. A cardiovascular risk reduction program for the classroom. Journal of School Nursing 1996;12:4-11.
Josendal 1998 {published data only}
  • Josendal O, Aaro E. Be smokefree - evaluation of a programme for smokefree schools [Vaer roykFRI - evaluering av et tiltak for roykfrie skoler]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2002;122(4):403-7.
  • Josendal O, Aaro LE, Bergh I. Effects of a school-based smoking prevention program among subgroups of adolescents. Health Education Research 1998;13:215-24.
  • Josendal O, Aaro LE, Torsheim T, Rasbash J. Evaluation of the school-based smoking prevention program "BE smokeFree". Scandianavian Journal of Psychology. 2005; Vol. 46:189-99.
Kaufman 1994 {published data only}
Kellam 1998 {published data only}
Laniado-Laborín 1993 {published data only}
  • Laniado-Laborín R, Molgaard CA, Elder JP. Effectiveness of a tobacco prevention programme in Mexican students [Efectividad de un programa de prevención de tabaquismo en escolares mexicanos]. Salud Publica de Mexico 1993;35(4):403-8.
Lloyd 1983 {published data only}
  • Alexander HM, Callcott R, Dobson AJ, Hardes GR, Lloyd DM, O'Connell DL, et al. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: IV--factors associated with changes in smoking behaviour. International Journal of Epidemiology 1983;12:59-66.
  • Hardes GR, Alexander HM, Dobson AJ, Lloyd DM, O'Connell DL, Purcell I, et al. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren in the Hunter Region, New South Wales. I. Tobacco, alcohol and analgesic use in 10 to 12 year and primary school children. Medical Journal of Australia 1981;1:579-81.
  • LLoyd DM, Alexander HM, Callcott R, Dobson AJ, Hardes GR, O'Connell DL, et al. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: III - Evaluation of a smoking prevention education programme. International Journal of Epidemiology 1983;12:51-8.
MacPherson 1980 {published data only}
Murray 1984 {published data only}
Murray 1992 {published data only}
Noland 1998 {published data only}
  • Noland MP, Kryscio RJ, Riggs RS, Linville LH, Ford VY, Tucker TC. The effectiveness of a tobacco prevention program with adolescents living in a tobacco-producing region. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88:1862-5.
Nutbeam 1993 {published data only}
  • Newman R, Nutbeam D. Teachers' views of the family smoking education project. Health Education Journal 1989;48:9-13.
  • Nutbeam D, Macaskill P, Smith C, Simpson JM, Catford J. Evaluation of two school smoking education programmes under normal classroom conditions. BMJ 9 January 1993;Vol 306:102-7.
O'Donnell 1995 {published data only}
Perry 1996 {published data only}
Perry 2003 {published data only}
  • Perry CL, Komro KA, Veblen-Mortenson S, Bosma LM, Farbakhsh K, Munson KA, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the middle and junior high school D.A.R.E. and D.A.R.E. Plus programs. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2003;157:178-84.
  • Perry CL, Komro KA. Veblen-Mortensen S, Bosma L, Munson K, Stigler M, et al. The Minnesota DARE PLUS project: Creating community partnerships to prevent drug use and violence. Journal of School Health 2000;70(3):84-8.
Peterson 2000 {published data only}
  • Kealey KA, Peterson AV Jr, Gaul MA, Dinh KT. Teacher training as a behavior change process: principles and results from a longitudinal study. Health Education and Behavior 2000;27:64-81.
  • Mann SL, Peterson AV Jr, Marek PM, Kealey KA. The Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project trial: design and baseline characteristics. Preventive Medicine 2000;30:485-95. [MEDLINE: 20356663]
  • Peterson AV Jr, Kealey KA, Mann SL, Marek PM, Sarason IG. Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project: long-term randomized trial in school-based tobacco use prevention-results on smoking. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000;92:1979-91. [MEDLINE: 21063807]
  • Peterson AV Jr, Mann SL, Kealey KA, Marek PM. Experimental design and methods for school-based randomised trials: Experience from the Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project (HSSP). Controlled Clinical Trials 2000;21:144-65.
Piper 2000 {published data only}
  • Piper DL, Moberg DP, King MJ. The healthy for life project: Behavioral outcomes. Journal of Primary Prevention 2000;21:47-73.
Rabinowitz 1974 {published data only}
  • Rabinowitz HS, Zimmerli WH. Effects of a health education program on junior high school students' knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning tobacco use. Journal of School Health 1974;64:324-30.
Reddy 2002 {published data only}
  • Reddy KS, Arora M, Perry CL, Nair B, Kohli A, Lytle LA, et al. Tobacco and alcohol use outcomes of a school-based intervention in New Delhi. American Journal of Health Behavior 2002;26(3):173-81.
Rohrbach 1994 {published data only}
  • Rohrbach LA, Hodgson CS, Broder BI, Montgomery SB, Flay B, Hansen WB, et al. Parental participation in drug abuse prevention: Results from the Midwestern Prevention Project.. Journal of Research on Adolescence 1994;4(2):295-317.
Schaps 1986 {published data only}
  • Shaps E, Moskowitz JM, Malvin JH, Schaeffer GA. Evaluation of seven school-based prevention programs: A final report on the Napa Project. International Journal of the Addictions 1986;21(9/10):1081-112.
Scheier 2001 {published data only}
  • Scheier LM, Botvin GJ, Griffin KW. Preventive intervention effects on developmental progression in drug use: structural equation modeling analyses using longitudinal data. Prevention Science 2001;2(2):91-112.
Schinke 1984 {published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD. Preventing cigarette smoking with youth. Journal of Primary Prevention 1984;5:48-56.
Schinke 1985a {published data only}
Schinke 1985b {published data only}
Schinke 1985c {published data only}
Schinke 1986a {published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Bebel MY, Orlandi MA, Botvin GJ. Prevention strategies for vulnerable pupils. School social work practices to prevent substance abuse. Urban Education 1988;22(4):510-9.
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD, Schilling RF II, Senechal VA. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adolescents: trends and intervention results. Public Health Reports 1986;101:373-8.
Schinke 1986b {published data only}
Schinke 1986c {published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD. Preventing tobacco use among young people. Health and Social Work 1986;11:59-65.
Schinke 1988 {published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Botvin GJ, Trimble JE, Orlandi MA, Gilchrist LD, Locklear VS. Preventing substance abuse among American-Indian adolescents: A bicultural competence skills approach. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1988;35:87-90.
Schinke 2000 {published data only}
Schofield 2003 {published data only}
  • Lynagh M, Knight J, Schofield MJ, Paras L. Lessons learned from the Hunter Region Health Promoting Schools project in New South Wales, Australia. Journal of School Health 1999;9(6):227-32.
  • Schofield MJ, Lynagh M, Mishra G. Evaluation of a Health Promoting Schools program to reduce smoking in Australian secondary schools. Health Education Research 2003;18(6):678-92.
Scholz 2000 {published data only}
  • Scholz M, Kaltenbach M. Promoting non-smoking behavior in 13-year-old students in primary schools and high schools. A prospective, randomized intervention study with 1,956 students [Förderung des Nichtraucherverhaltens bei 13-jährigen Schülerinnen und Schülern von Realschule und Gymnasium. Eine prospektive, randomisierte Interventionsstudie bei 1956 Schülern]. Gesundheitswesen 2000;62(2):78-85.
Severson 1991 {published data only}
  • Severson HH, Glasgow R, Wirt R, Brozovsky P, Zoref L, et al. Preventing the use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes by teens: results of a classroom intervention. Health Education Research 1991;6(1):109-20.
Shope 1996 {published data only}
Spoth 2001 {published data only}
  • Guyll M, Spoth RL, Wickrama KAS, Russell D. Family-focused preventive interventions: Evaluating parental risk moderation of substance use trajectories. Journal of Family Psychology 2004;18(2):293-301.
  • Spoth R, Redmond C, Shin C, Azevedo K. Brief family intervention effects on adolescent substance initiation: School-level growth curve analyses 6 years following baseline. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2004;72(3):535-42.
  • Spoth R, Reyes ML, Redmond C, Shin C. Assessing a public health approach to delay onset and progression of adolescent substance use: Latent transition and log-linear analyses of longitudinal family preventive intervention outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67(5):619-30.
  • Spoth RL, Redmond C, Shin C. Randomized trial of brief family interventions for general populations: adolescent substance use outcomes 4 years following baseline. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2001;69(4):627-42.
Spoth 2002 {published data only}
  • Spoth RL, Redmond C, Trudeau L, Shin C. Longitudinal substance initiation outcomes for a universal preventive intervention combining family and school programs. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2002;16(2):129-34.
Storr 2002 {published data only}
  • Furr-Holden CD, Ialongo NS, Anthony JC, Petras H, Kellam SG. Developmentally inspired drug prevention: middle school outcomes in a school-based randomized prevention trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2004;73:149-58.
  • Storr CL, Ialongo NS, Kellam SG, Anthony JC. A randomized controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2002;66(1):51-60.
Sussman 1993 {published data only}
  • Dent CW, Sussman S, Stacy AW, Craig S, Burton D, Flay BR. Two-year behavior outcomes of Project Towards No Tobacco Use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1995;63:676-7.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Hodgson CS, Burton D, Flay BR. Project Towards No Tobacco Use: implementation, process and post-test knowledge evaluation. Health Education Research 1993;8:109-23.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Sun P, Craig S, Simon TR, et al. Project Towards No Tobacco Use: 1-year behavior outcomes. American Journal of Public Health 1993;83:1245-50.
  • Turner GE, Burciaga C, Sussman S, Kleinselski E, Craig S, Dent CW, et al. Which lesson components mediate refusal assertion skill improvement in school-based adolescent tobacco use prevention. International Journal of the Addictions 1993;28(8):749-66.
Sussman 1995 {published data only}
  • Dent CW, Galaif ER, Sussman S, Stacy AW. Use of the "Theme Study" as means of curriculum development in continuation high schools. Journal of Drug Education 1996;26(4):377-93.
  • Dent CW, Sussman S, Hennesy M, Galaif ER, Stacy AW, Moss MA, et al. Implementation and process evaluation of a school-based drug abuse prevention program Project Towards No Drug Abuse. Journal of Drug Education 1998;28(4):361-75.
  • Simon TR, Sussman S, Dahlberg LL, Dent CW. Influence of a substance abuse prevention curriculum on violence-related behavior. American Journal of Health Behavior 2002;26(2):103-10.
  • Sussman S. Development of a school-based drug abuse prevention curriculum for high risk youths. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1996;28(2):169-82.
  • Sussman S, Craig S, Simon TR, Galaif ER. School-as-community activity selection at continuation high schools. Substance Use & Misuse 1997;32(2):113-31.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW. Project Towards No Drug Abuse. In: Hansen WB, Giles SM, Fearnow-Kenney editor(s). Increasing Drug Prevention Effectiveness: Readings for Educators. Clemmons N.C.: Tanglewood Research, 1999:1-10.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Caig S, Ritt-Olsen A, McCuller WJ. Development and immediate impact of a self-instruction curriculum for an adolescent indicated drug abuse prevention trial. Journal of Drug Education 2002;32(2):121-37.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Simon TR, Stacy AW, Galaif ER, Moss AM, et al. Immediate impact of social influence-oriented substance abuse prevention curricula in traditional and continuation high schools. Drugs & Society 1995;8(3/4):65-81 (Simultaneous publication in: Prevention Practice in Substance Abuse. CG Leukefeld & RR Clayton (eds). The Haworth Press Inc. 1995, pp. 65-81).
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW. Project Towards No Drug Abuse: A review of the findings and future directions. American Journal of Health Behavior 2002;26(5):354-65.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Craig S. One-year outcomes of Project Towards No Drug Abuse. Preventive Medicine 1998;27:632-42.
  • Sussman S, Galaif ER, Newman R, Hennesy M, Pentz MA, Dent CW, et al. Implementation and process evaluation of a student "School-as-Community" group. Evaluation Review 1997;21(1):94-123.
  • Sussman S, Simon TR, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Galaif ER, Moss AM, et al. Immediate impact of thirty-two drug use prevention activities among students at continuation high schools. Substance Use & Misuse 1997;32(3):265-81.
  • Sussman S, Stacy AW, Dent CW, Simon TR, Galaif ER, Moss MA, et al. Continuation high schools: Youth at risk for drug abuse. Journal of Drug Education 1995;25(3):191-209.
  • Sussman S, Sun P, McCuller WJ, Dent CW. Project Towards No Drug Abuse: two-year outcomes of a trial that compares health educator delivery to self-instruction. Preventive Medicine 2003;37:155-62.
Telch 1990 {published data only}
  • Telch MJ, Miller LM, Killen JD, Cooke S, Maccoby N. Social influences approach to smoking prevention: The effects of videotape delivery with and without same-age peer leader participation. Addictive Behaviors 1990;15:21-8.
Tell 1984 {published data only}
  • Klepp KI, Tell GS, Vellar OD. Ten-year follow-up of the Oslo Youth Study Smoking Prevention Program. Preventive Medicine 1993;22:453-62.
  • Klepp KI, Øygard L, Tell GS, Vellar OD. Twelve-year follow-up of a school-based health education progrmme: The Oslo Youth Study. European Journal of Public Health 1994;4:195-200.
  • Tell GS, Klepp KI, Vellar OD, McAlister A. Preventing the onset of cigarette smoking in Norwegian adolescents: The Oslo Youth Study. Preventive Medicine 1984;13:256-75.
  • Øygard L, Klepp KI, Tell GS, Vellar OD. Parental and peer influences on smoking among young adults: ten-year follow-up of the Oslo youth study participants. Addiction 1995;90:561-9.
Unger 2004 {published data only}
  • Johnson CA, Unger JB, Ritt-Olson A, Palmer PH, Cen SY, Gallaher P, et al. Smoking prevention for ethnically diverse adolescents; 2-year outcomes of a multicultural, school-based smoking prevention curriculum in Southern California. Preventive Medicine 2005;40:842-52.
  • Unger JB, Chou CP, Palmer PH, Ritt-Olson A, Gallaher P, Cen S, et al. Project FLAVOR: 1-year outcomes of a multicultural, school-based smoking prevention curriculum for adolescents. American Journal of Public Health 2004;94(2):263-5.
Vartiainen 1998 {published data only}
  • Vartiainen E, Fallonen U, McAlister AL, Puska P. Eight-year follow-up results of an adolescent smoking prevention project: The North Karelia Youth Project. American Journal of Public Health 1990;80(1):78-9.
  • Vartiainen E, Paavola M, McAlister A, Puska P. Fifteen-year follow-up of smoking prevention effects in the North Karelia Youth Project. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88(1):81-5.
  • Vartiainen E, Pallonen U, McAlister A, Koskela K, Puska P. Four-year follow-up results of the smoking prevention program in the North Karelia Youth project. Preventive Medicine 1986;15:692-8.
  • Vartiainen E, Puska P, Tossavainen K, Viri L, Niskanen E, Moisio S. Prevention of non-communicable diseases: Risk factors in youth. The North Karelia Youth Project (1984-88). Health Promotion 1989;1(3):269-83.
  • Vartiainen E, Tossavainen K, Viri L, Niskanen E, Puska P. The North Karelia Youth Project. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1991;23:332-49.
Villalbí 1993 {published data only}
  • Villalbí JR, Aubà J, Garcia González A. Results of a school addictive substances abuse prevention program: the Barcelona PASE pilot project [Resultados de un programa escolar de prevención del abuso de sustancia adictivas: proyecto piloto PASE de Barcelona]. Gaceta Sanitaria 1993;7:70-7.
  • Villalbí JR, Aubà J, García-González A. Evaluation of a project of primary prevention of smoking: the Barcelona PASE project [Evaluacion de un proyecto de prevencion primaria del tabaquismo: el proyecto piloto PASE de Barcelona]. Revista de Sanidad E Higiene Publica (Madrid) 1992;66:143-8.
Walsh 2003 {published data only}
  • Walsh MM, Hilton JF, Ellison JA, Gee L, Chesney MA, Tomar SL, et al. Spit (smokeless) tobacco intervention for high school athletes. Results after 1 year. Addictive Behaviors 2003;28(6):1095-113.
Walter 1985 {published data only}
  • Walter HJ. Primary prevention of chronic disease among children: The school-based "Know Your Body" intervention trials.. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):201-4.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL. Primary prevention of chronic disease in childhood: Changes in risk factors after one year of intervention. American Journal of Epidemiology 1985;122:772-81.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Modification of risk factors for coronary heart disease. Five-year results of a school-based intervention trial. New England Journal of Medicine 1988;318(17):1093-100.
  • Walter HJ, Wynder EL. The development, implementation, evaluation, and future directions of a chronic disease prevention program for children: The "Know Your Body" studies.. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:59-71.
Walter 1986 {published data only}
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Barrett LT, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among children: three year results of a randomized intervention trial.. In: Hetzel BS, Berenson GS editor(s). Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood in childhood: Epidemiology and prevention. Amsterdam: Elsevier North Holland Biomed, 1987:161-181.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL. Coronary heart disease prevention in childhood: One-year results of a randomized intervention study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1986;2:239-49.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Modification of risk factors for coronary heart disease. Five-year results of a school-based intervention trial. New England Journal of Medicine 1988;318(17):1093-100.
  • Walter HJ, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Primary prevention of cancer among children: Changes in cigarette smoking and diet after six years of intervention. Journal of National Cancer Institute 1989;81:995-9.
  • Walter HJ, Wynder EL. The development, implementation, evaluation, and future directions of a chronic disease prevention program for children: The "Know Your Body" studies.. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:59-71.
  • Walter HJ. Primary prevention of chronic disease among children: The school-based "Know Your Body" intervention trials.. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):201-4.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Aarø 1983 {published data only}
Abernathy 1994 {published data only}
  • Abernathy TJ. Compliance for Kids: A community-based tobacco prevention project. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1994;March-April:82-4.
Andrews 1984 {published data only}
Arciti 1986 {published data only}
  • Arciti C, Santi L. An Italian program of information and education on cancer prevention and the hazards of smoking: A 3-year report. Cancer Detection and Prevention 1986;9:421-7.
Ausems 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ausems M, Mesters I, van Breukelen G, De Vries H. Short-term effects of a randomized computer-based out-of-school smoking prevention trial aimed at elementary schoolchildren. Preventive Medicine 2002;34:581-9.
Aßhauer 1999 {published data only}
  • Aßhauer M, Hanewinkel R. Life skills training and drug prevention in the primary school: Development, implementation and evaluation of primary prevention [Lebenskompetenzfðrderung und Suchtprophylaxe in der Grundschule: Entwicklung, Implementation und Evaluation primär -präventiver Unterrichtseinheiten]. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie 1999;7(4):158-71.
Barrueco 1998 {published data only}
  • Barrueco M, Vicente M, Garavís JL, García J, Blanco A, Rodríguez MC. Smoking prevention in the school: results of a 3-year program [Prevención del tabaquismo en la escuela: resultados de un programa realizado durante 3 años]. Archivos de Bronconeumologia 1998;34(7):323-8.
Beaglehole 1978 {published data only}
Becker 1992 {published data only}
Bergamaschi 2000 {published data only}
  • Bergamaschi A, Gambi A, Gentilini F, Monti C, Stampi S, Zanetti F. Tobacco smoking among high school students in Romagna (Italy) and evaluation of a prevention campaign. Substance Use & Misuse 2000;35(9):1277-95.
Bloor 2000 {published data only}
  • Bloor M, Frankland J, Langdon NP, Robinson M, Allerston S, Catherine A, et al. A controlled evaluation of an intensive, peer-Ied, schools-based anti-smoking programme. Health Education JoumaI 1999;58:17-24.
Botvin 1989a {published data only}
Botvin 1989b {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Batson HW, Witts-Vitale S, Bess V, Baker E, Dusenbery L. A psychosocial approach to smoking prevention for urban black youth. Public Health Reports 1989;184(6):573-82.
Botvin 1992 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Dusenbury L, Baker E, James-Ortiz S, Botvin EM. Smoking prevention among urban minority youth: Assessing effects on outcome and mediating variables. Health Psychology 1992;11(5):290-9.
Botvin 1997 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Epstein JA, Baker E, Diaz T, Ifill-Williams M. School-based drug abuse prevention with inner-city minority youth. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 1997;6:5-19.
Botvin 2000 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Diaz T, Scheier LM, Williams C, Epstein JA. Preventing illicit drug use in adolescents: Long-term follow-up data from a randomized control trial of a school population. Addictive Behaviors 2000;25:769-74.
Botvin 2003 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Paul E, Macaulay AP. Preventing tobacco and alcohol use among elementary school students through LIfe Skills Training. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 2003;12(4):1-17.
Bowen 1991 {published data only}
Burke 1987 {published data only}
  • Burke JA, Naughton MJ, Becker SL, Arbogast R, Louer RM, Krohn MD. The short-term effects of competition and rewards in an adolescent smoking prevention program. Health Education Quarterly 1987;14(2):141-52.
Burke 1992 {published data only}
  • Burke JA, Salazar A, Daughety V, Becker SL. Activating interpersonal influence in the prevention of adolescent tobacco use: An evalution of Iowa's Program Against Smoking. Health Communication 1992;4(1):1-17.
Calafat 1995 {published data only}
  • Calafat A, Amengual M, Guimerans C, Rodriguez Martos A, Ruiz R. Decide yourself: Ten years of a school prevention program ['Tu decides': 10 años de un programa de prevención escolar]. Adicciones 1995;7:509-26.
Calman 1985 {published data only}
  • Calman ALH, Carmichael S, Deans HG, Calman KC. Development of a primary school health education programme with special emphasis on the prevention of cigarette smoking. Health Education Journal 1985;44:65-8.
Charlton 1986 {published data only}
  • Charlton A. Evaluation of a family-linked smoking programme in primary schools. Health Education Journal 1986;45(3):140-4.
Connell 1985 {published data only}
Davis 1995 {published data only}
  • Davis SM, Lambert LC, Gomez Y, Skipper B. Southwest cardiovascular curriculum project: study findings for American Indian elementary students. Journal of Health Education 1995;26 Suppl:S72-S81.
De Jong 1987 {published data only}
Del Greco 1986 {published data only}
  • Del Greco L, Breitbach L, Rumer S, McCarthy RH, Suissa S. Four-year results of a youth smoking prevention program using assertiveness training. Adolescence 1986;21(83):631-40.
Dielman 1985 {published data only}
  • Dielman TE, Lorenger AT, Leech SL, Lyons AL, Klos DM, Horvath WJ. Fifteen-month follow-up results of an elementary school based smoking prevention project. Resisting pressures to smoke. Hygie 1985;4:28-35.
Donato 1994 {published data only}
  • Donato F, Monarca S, Savaresi AS, Coppini C, Olivetti A, Zanardini A, et al. Health education and smoking: a controlled study of an intervention carried out among the junior high school students in a local health screening unit [Educazione e fumo: studio controllato dell'efficaci di un intervento svolto tra studenti di scuola media inferiore dio una USSl]. Annale Igiene 1994;6:729-39.
Dupont 1984 {published data only}
Epstein 2000a {published data only}
Errecart 1991 {published data only}
Evans 1978 {published data only}
  • Evans RI, Rozelle RM, Maxwell SE, Raines BE, Dill CA, Guthrie TJ. Social modeling films to deter smoking in adolescents: Results of a three-year field investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology 1981;66(4):399-414.
  • Evans RI, Rozelle RM, Mittelmark MB, Hansen WB, Bane AL, Havis J. Deterring the onset of smoking in children: Knowledge of immediate physiological effects and coping with peer pressure, media pressure, and parent modeling. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 1978;8:126-35.
Evans 1981 {published data only}
  • Evans RI, Rozelle RM, Maxwell SE, Raines BE, Dill CA, Guthrie TJ, et al. Social modeling films to deter smoking in adolescents: Results of a three-year field investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology 1981;66(4):399-414.
Flay 1987 {published data only}
  • Flay BR, Hansen WB, Johnson CA, Collins LM, Dent CW, Dwyer KM, et al. Implementaton effectiveness of a social influences smoking prevention program using schools and television. Health Education Research 1987;2(4):385-400.
Flynn 1992 {published data only}
  • Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, Badger GJ, Geller BM, Costanza MC. Prevention of cigarette smoking through mass media intervention and school programs. American Journal of Public Health 1992;82:827-34.
  • Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, Pirie PL, Badger GJ, Carpenter JH. Long-term responses of higher and lower risk youth to smoking prevention interviews. Preventive Medicine 1997;26:389-94.
  • Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, Pirie PL, Badger GJ, Carpenter JH, et al. Mass media and school interventions for cigarette smoking prevention: Effects 2 years after completion. American Journal of Public Health 1994;84:1148-50.
Frydman 1985 {published data only}
  • Frydman M. Application and evaluation of antitobacco programs in schools [Mise au point, application et évaluation de programmes anti-tabac en milieu scolaire]. Psychotropes 1985;2(2):83-90.
Gillies 1984 {published data only}
Gislason 1995 {published data only}
  • Gislason T, Yngvadottir A, Benediktsdottir B. Alcohol consumption, smoking and drug abuse among Icelandic teenagers: A study into the effectiveness of the 'Skills for Adolescence' programme. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 1995;2(3):243-58.
Gohlke 1989 {published data only}
  • Gohlke H, Gohlke-Bärwolf C, Peters K, Schmitt M, Katzenstein M, Gaida C, et al. Prevention of cigarette smoking at school: A prospective controlled study [Prävention des Zigarettenrauchens in der Schule: Eine prospektive kontrollierte Studie.]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1989;114. Jahrgang Nr. 46:1780-4.
Gordon 1997 {published data only}
  • Gordon I, Whitear B, Guthrie D. Stopping them starting: evaluation of a community-based project to discourage teenage smoking in Cardiff. Health Education Journal 1997;56:42-50.
Gritz 1992 {published data only}
  • Gritz ER, Berman BA, Bastani R, Wu M. A randomized trial of a self-help smoking cessation intervention in a nonvolunteer female population: Testing the limits of the public health model. Health Psychology 1992;11(5):280-9.
Hamm 1994 {published data only}
Hanewinkel 1996 {published data only}
  • Hanewinel R, Asshauer M. Effects of a smoking prevention programme in primary schools. In: Tudor-Smith C editor(s). Working together for better health: tackling tobacco. Cardiff: Health promotion Wales, 1999:179-91.
  • Hanewinkel R. The "Smokefree School:" Study of primary- and secondary-preventive interventions for parents, teachers and schoolchildren [Die "Rauchfreie Schule": Studie zu primär- und secundärpräventiven Interventionen für Eltern, Lehrer und Schüler]. Forum Sucht Band 14 Landschaftsverband Wesfalen-Lippe Koordinationstelle für Drogenfragen. Schloß Eringerfeld, 19./20 November 1996.
Hanewinkel 2003 {published data only}
  • Hanewinkel R, Wiborg G. Primary and secondary prevention of smoking in adolescence: Effects of the "Be Smart - Don't Start" campaign [Primär- und Sekundärprävention des Rauchens im Jugendalter: Effekte der Kampagne "Be Smart - Don't Start."]. Gesundheitswesen 2002;64:492-8.
  • Hanewinkel R, Wiborg G. Promotion of nonsmoking in the school: Results of a prospective controlled intervention study [Förderung des Nichtrauchens in der Schule: Ergebnisse einer prospektiven kontrollierten Interventionsstudie]. Sucht 2003;49(6):333-41.
  • Wiborg, G, Hanewinkel R. Conception and process evaluation of a school non-smoking competition [Konzeption und Prozessevaluation eines schulischen Nichtraucherwettbewerbs]. Sucht 2001;47(1):S25-S32.
  • Wiborg G, Hanewinkel R, Liche K-O. Prevention of starting smoking through the campaign "Be Smart - Don't Start": an analysis by type of school [Verhütung des Einstiegs in das Rauchen durch die Kampagne "Be Smart - Don't Start ": eine Analyse nach Schularten]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 2002;127:430-6.
Hanewinkel 2004 {published data only}
Hansen 1982 {published data only}
  • Hansen WB, Evans RI. Feedback versus information concerning carbon monoxide as an early intervention strategy in adolescent smoking. Adolescence 1982;17(65):90-8.
Hansen 1988a {published data only}
  • Hansen WB, Malotte CK, Fielding JE. Evaluation of a tobacco and alcohol abuse prevention curriculum for adolescents. Health Education Quarterly 1988;15(1):93-114.
  • Hansen WB, Malotte CK, Fielding JE. Tobacco and alcohol prevention: Preliminary results of a four-year study. Adolescent Psychiatry 1987;14:556-75.
Hansen 1996 {published data only}
Hansen 1997a {published data only}
Harmon 1993 {published data only}
  • Harmon MA. Reducing the risk of drug involvement among early adolescents: An evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE). Evaluation Review 1993;17(2):221-39.
Harrell 1996 {published data only}
  • Harrell JS, McMurray RG, Bangdiwala SI, Frauman AC, Gansky SA, Bradley CB. Effects of a school-based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in elementary school children: The Cardiovascular Health in Children (CHIC) Study. Journal of Pediatrics 1996;128:797-805.
Harrell 1998 {published data only}
  • Harrell JS, Bangdiwala SI, Deng S, Webb JP, Bradley CB. Smoking initiation in youth: The roles of gender, race, socioeconomics, and developmental status. Journal of Adolescent Health 1998;23:271-9.
Higgs 2000 {published data only}
  • Higgs PE, Harbin RE, Edwards D, Higgs PC. Evaluation of a self-directed smoking prevention and cessation program. Pediatric Nursing 2000;26(2):150-5.
Homel 1981 {published data only}
  • Homel PJ, Daniels P, Reid TR, Lawson JS. Results of an experimental school-based health development programme in Australia. International Journal of Health Education 1981;24:263-70.
Hovell 1996 {published data only}
  • Hovell MF, Slymen DJ, Jones JA, Hofstetter CR, Burkham-Kreitner S, Conway TL, et al. An adolescent tobacco-use prevention trial in orthodontic offices. American Journal of Public Health 1996;86(12):1760-6.
Hurd 1980 {published data only}
  • Hurd PD, Johnson CA, Pechacek T, Bast LP, Jacobs DR, Luepker RV. Prevention of cigarette smoking in seventh grade students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1980;3:15-28.
  • Luepker RV, Johnson CA, Murray DM, Pechacek T. Prevention of cigarette smoking: Three-year follow-up of an educational program for youth. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1983;6:53-62.
Jason 1982 {published data only}
Johnson 1986 {published data only}
Katz 1989 {published data only}
Kersch 1998 {published data only}
  • Kersch B. Tobacco-distance - An evaluation criterion of drug prevention measures in schools with 13 to 16 year old students. Results of a longitudinal study in Leipzig, Germany ["Tabakdistanz" -ein Evaluationskriterium unterrichtlicher Suchtpraeventionsmaßnahmen bei 13- bis 16 jaehrigen Schuelerinnen und Schuelern. Ergebnisse einer Leipziger Laengschnittstudie]. Sucht 1998;44(1):15-24.
Killen 1988 {published data only}
Killen 1989 {published data only}
Kim 1982 {published data only}
  • Kim S. Feeder Area Approach: An impact evaluation of a prevention program on student drug abuse. The International Journal of the Addictions 1982;17(2):305-13.
Kim 1993 {published data only}
Knutsen 1991 {published data only}
  • Knutsen SF, Knutsen R. The Tromso Survey: The Family Intervention Study - the effect of intervention on some coronary risk factors and dietary habits, a 6-year follow-up. Preventive Medicine 1991;20:197-212.
Kröger 2000 {published data only}
  • Kröger C, Reese A. Substance abuse prevention in schools through life skills training-results of a four year intervention study [Schulische Suchtprävention nach dem Lebenskompetenzkonzept- Ergebnisse einer vierjährigen Jnterventionsstudie]. Sucht 46;3:209-17.
Lammers 1984 {published data only}
  • Lammers JW, Kreuter MW, Smith BC. The effects of the SHCP on selected aspects of decision-making among fifth graders. Health Education 1984;March/April:14-17.
Ledwith 1985 {published data only}
  • Ledwith F, Osman L. The evaluation of a secondary school smoking education intervention. Health Education Journal 1985;44(3):131-5.
Lillington 1984 {published data only}
  • Lillington L, Royce J, Novak D, Ruvalcaba M, Chlebowski R. Evaluation of a smoking cessation program for pregnancy minority women. Cancer Practice 1995;3(3):157-63.
Litrownik 2000 {published data only}
  • Litrownik AJ, Elder JP, Campbell NR, Ayala GX, Slymen DJ, Parra-Medina D, et al. Evaluation of a tobacco and alcohol use prevention program for Hispanic migrant adolescents: promoting the protective factor of parent-child communication. Preventive Medicine 2000;31:124-33.
Luepker 1983 {published data only}
MacKinnon 1991 {published data only}
  • MacKinnon DP, Johnson CA, Pentz MA, Dwyer JH, Hansen WB, Flay BR, et al. Mediating mechanisms in a school-based drug prevention program: First-year effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project. Health Psychology 1991;10(3):164-72.
McAlister 1980 {published data only}
McFall 1993 {published data only}
  • McFall SL, Michener A, Rubin D, Flay BR, Mermelstein RJ, Burton D, et al. The effects of maintenance newsletters in a smoking cessation intervention. Addictive Behaviors 199;18:151-8.
Moberg 1990 {published data only}
Moskowitz 1984 {published data only}
Murray 1982 {published data only}
  • Murray M, Swan AV, Clarke G. Long term effect of a schoolbased anti-smoking programme. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1984;38:247-52.
  • Murray M, Swan AV, Enock C, Johnson MRD, Banks MH, Reid DJ. The effectiveness of the Health Education Council's "My Body" Schools Health Education Project. Health Education Journal 1982;41:126-32.
Murray 1984a {published data only}
  • Murray M, Rona RJ, Morris RW, Tait N. The smoking and dietary behaviour of Lambeth schoolchildren. I. The effectiveness of an anti-smoking and nutrition education programme for children. Public Health 1984;98:163-72.
Newman 1991 {published data only}
  • Newman R, Smith C, Nutbeam D. Teachers' views of the 'Smoking and Me' Project. Health Education Journal 1991;50(3):107-10.
Nishioka 2005 {published data only}
  • Nishioka N, Kawabata T, Minagawa K, Nakamura M, Ohshima A, Mochizuki Y. Three-year follow-up on the effects of a smoking prevention program for elementary school children with a quasi-experimental design in Japan. Japanese Journal of Public Health 2005;42(11):971-8.
Olsen 1980 {published data only}
  • Olsen LK, Redican KJ, Krus PH. The School Health Curriculum Project: A review of research studies. Health Education 1980;11(1):16-21.
Parcel 1995 {published data only}
  • Parcel GS, O'Hara-Tompkins N, Harrist RB, Basen-Engquist KM, McCormick LK, Gottlieb NH, et al. Diffusion of an effective tobacco prevention program. Part II: evaluation of the adoption phase. Health Education Research 1996;10(3):297-307.
Pederson 1981a {published data only}
  • Pederson LL, Baskerville JC, Lefcoe NM. Change in smoking status among school-aged youth: Impact of a smoking-awareness curriculum, attutudes, knowledge and environmental factors. American Journal of Public Health 1981;71(12):1401-4. [MEDLINE: 82088902]
Pederson 1981b {published data only}
  • Pederson LL, Stennett RG, Lefcoe NM. The effects of a smoking education program on the behavior, knowledge and attitudes of children in grades 4 and 6. Journal of Drug Education 1981;11:141-9.
Pederson 1987 {published data only}
  • Pederson LL, Lefcoe NM. Short- and long-term prediction of self-reported cigarette smoking in a cohort of later adolescents: report of an 8-year follow-up of public school students. Preventive Medicine 1987;16(3):432-47.
Pentz 1989 {published data only}
  • Chou CP, Montgomery S, Pentz MA, Rohrbach LA, Johnson CA, Flay BR, et al. Effects of a community-based prevention program on decreasing drug use in high-risk adolescents. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88:944-8.
  • Johnson CA, Pentz MA, Weber MD, Dwyer JH, Baer N, MacKinnon DP, et al. Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuse prevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1990;58:447-56.
  • MacKinnon DP, Johnson CA, Pentz MA, Dwyer JH, Hansen WB, Flay BR, et al. Mediating mechanisms in a school-based drug prevention program: First-effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project. Health Psychology 1991;10:164-72.
  • Pentz MA, Dwyer JH, MacKinnon DP, Flay BR, Hansen WB, Wang EY, et al. A multicommunity trial for primary prevention of adolescent drug abuse. Effects on drug use prevalence. American Journal of Public Health 1989;261:3259-66.
  • Pentz MA, MacKinnon DP, Dwyer JH, Wang EYI, Hansen WB, Flay BR, et al. Longitudinal effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project on regular and experimental smoking in adolescents. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:304-21.
  • Pentz MA, MacKinnon DP, Flay BR, Hansen WB, Johnson CA, Dwyer JH. Primary prevention of chronic diseases in adolescence: Effects of the Midwester prevention project on tobacco use. American Journal of Epidemiology 1989;130(4):713-24.
Perry 1980 {published data only}
  • Perry C, Killen J, Telch M, Slinkard LA, Danaher BG. Modifying smoking behavior of teenagers: A school-based intervention. American Journal of Public Health 1980;70:722-5.
  • Perry CL, Killen J, Slinkard LA. Peer teaching and smoking prevention among junior high students. Adolescence 1980;15(58):277-81.
  • Perry CL, Maccoby N, McAlister AL. Adolescent smoking prevention: A third year follow-up. World Smoking and Health 1980;50:40-5.
Perry 1990 {published data only}
Perry 1992 {published data only}
  • Blackburn H, Luepker RV, Kline FG, et al. The Minnesota Heart Health Program: a research and demonstration project in cardiovascular disease prevention. In: Matarazzo JD, Weiss SM, Herd JA, et al. editor(s). Behavioral Health: A Handbook of Health Enhancement and Disease Prevention. New York: Wiley, 1984:1171-8.
  • Jacobs DR Jr, Lueker RV, Mittelmark MB, Folsom AR, Pirie PL, Mascioli SR, et al. Community-wide prevention strategies: evaluation design of the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1986;39:775-88.
  • Klepp KI, Halper I, Perry CL. The efficacy of peer leaders in drug abuse prevention. Journal of School Health 1986;56:407-11.
  • Perry CL, Griffin G, Murray DM. Assessing needs for youth health promotion. Preventive Medicine 1985;14:379-93.
  • Perry CL, Jessor R. The concept of health promotion and the prevention of adolescent drug abuse. Health Education Quarterly 1985;12:169-84.
  • Perry CL, Kelder SH, Klepp KI. Community-wide cardiovascular disease prevention in young people: long-term outcomes of the Class of 1989 Study. European Journal of Public Health 1994;4:188-94.
  • Perry CL, Kelder SH, Murray DM, Klepp KI. Community-wide smoking prevention: Long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program and the Class of 1989 Study. American Journal of Public Health 1992;82(9):1210-6.
  • Perry CL, Klepp KI, Siler C. Community-wide strategies for cardiovascular health: the Minnesota Heart Health Program youth program. Health Education Research 1989;4:87-101.
Perry 1999 {published data only}
  • Perry CL, Komro KA, Dudovitz B, Veblen-Mortensen S, Jeddeloh R, Koele R, et al. An evaluation of a theatre production to encourage non-smoking among elementary age children: 2 Smart 2 Smoke. Tobacco Control 1999;8:169-74.
Pfau 1994 {published data only}
Philips 1990 {published data only}
  • Philips BU, Longoria JM, Parcel GS, Ebeling EW. Expectations of preschool children to protect themselves from cigarette smoke: Results of a smoking prevention program for preschool children. Journal of Cancer Education 1990;5(1):27-31.
Pilgrim 1998 {published data only}
  • Pilgrim C, Abbey A, Hendrickson P, Lorenz S. Implementation and impact of a family-based substance abuse prevention program in rural communities. Journal of Primary Prevention 1998;18(3):341-61.
Piper 1971 {published data only}
  • Piper GW, Jones JA, Matthews VL. The Saskatoon Smoking Study - Results of the first year. Canadian Journal of Public Health September/0ctober 1971;62:432-40.
  • Piper GW, Jones JA, Matthews VL. The Saskatoon Smoking Study - Results of the second year. Canadian Journal of Public Health March/April 1974;62:127-9.
Pomrehn 1995 {published data only}
  • Pomrehn PR, Jones MP, Ferguson KJ, Becker SL. Tobacco use initiation in middle school children in three Iowa communities: Results of the Iowa Program Against Smoking (I-PAS). Journal of Health Education 1995;26:92-100.
Price 1992 {published data only}
  • Price JH, Telljohann SK, Roberts SM, Smit D. Effects of incentives in an inner city junior high school smoking prevention program. Journal of Health Education 1992;23:388-96.
Price 1998 {published data only}
Prokhorov 1994 {published data only}
  • Prokhorov AV, Alexandrov AA. Prevention of adolescent smoking in Russia: General situation and results from a Moscow randomized trial. European Journal of Public Health 1994;4:169-74.
Reimers 1990 {published data only}
Renaud 2002 {published and unpublished data}
Ringwalt 1991 {published data only}
Robinson 1999 {published data only}
  • Robinson LA, Klesges RC, Levy MC, Zbikowski SM. Preventing cigarette use in a bi-ethnic population: Results of the Memphis Smoking Prevention Program. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 1999;6:136-43.
Rohrbach 1993 {published data only}
Sarvela 1987 {published data only}
Schinke 1981 {published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Blythe BJ. Cognitive-behavioral prevention of children's smoking. Child Behavior Therapy 1981;3:25-42.
Schinke 1983 {published data only}
Schinke 1994 {published data only}
Schinke 1996 {published data only}
Schinke 2004 {published data only}
  • Schinke SR, Schwinn TM, Noia JD, Cole KC. Reducing the effects of alcohol use among urban youth: Three-year effects of a computer-based intervention with and without parental involvement. Journal of Studies in Alcohol 2004;65:443-9.
Scholz 1985 {published data only}
  • Scholz H. Experience of antismoking training for pupils [Erfahrungen aus einem Nichtrauchertraining mit Schülern]. Prävention 1985 8 Jahrgang;2(1):57-9.
Secker-Walker 1997 {published data only}
  • Secker-Walker RH, Worden K, Holland RR, Flynn BS, Detsky SS. A mass media programme to prevent smoking among adolescents: costs and cost effectiveness. Tobacco Control 1997;6:207-12.
Secker-Walker 1998 {published data only}
  • Secker-Walker RH, Solomon LJ, Flynn BS, Skelly JM, Mead PB. Reducing smoking during pregnancy and postpartum: Physician's advice supported by individual counseling. Preventive Medicine 1988;27:422-30.
Seid 1994 {published data only}
  • Seid M. The prevention of tobacco use: The S.T.E.P. program. Peer Facilitator Quarterly 1994;12(2):23-9.
Shaffer 1983 {published data only}
Skinner 1985 {published data only}
Spitzzeri 1979 {published data only}
Steenkamp 1990 {published data only}
  • Steenkamp HJ, Jooste PL, Jordaan PCJ, Swanepoel ASP, Rossouw JE. Changes in smoking during a community-based cardiovascular disease intervention programme. South African Journal of Medicine 1990;79:250-3.
Stone 1978 {published data only}
Sussman 2001B {published data only}
  • Lichtman K, Dent CW, Colwell B, Smith DW, Sussman S. Case Study - Project EX component study. In: Sussman S editor(s). Handbook of program development for health behaviour research and practice. Sage, 2000:348-60 (Chapter 14).
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Lichtman KL. Project EX: outcomes of a teen smoking cessation program. Addictive Behaviors 2001;26:425-38.
Svoen 1999 {published data only}
  • Svoen N, Schei E. Adolescent smoking prevention - primary health care in cooperation with local schools: A controlled intervention study. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 1999;17:54-8.
Szymborski 1999 {published data only}
  • Szymborski J, Kowalczyk T, Sito A. Anti-smoking educational programmes for children and young people at different educational levels [Edukacyjne programy antytytoniowe dla Dzieci i Mlodziezy na róznych poziomach nauczania]. Medycyna Wieku Rozwojowego 1999;4:471-84.
Tudor-Smith 1998 {published data only}
  • Tudor-Smith C, Nutbeam D, Moore L, Catford J. Effects of the Heartbeat Wales programme for over five years on behavioural risks for cadiovasacular disease: quasi-experimental comparison of results from Wales and a matched reference area. BMJ March 14 1998;316(7134):818-822 (Comments BMJ September 26 1998;317(7162):886; and BMJ 26 September 1998;317(7162):887).
Turner 1993 {published data only}
  • Turner GE, Burciaga C, Sussman S, Klein-Selski E, Craig S, Dent CW, et al. Which lesson components mediate refusal assertion skill improvement in school-based adolescent tobacco use prevention?. International Journal of the Addictions 1993;28:749-66.
Van Dyke 2002 {published data only}
Vartiainen 1990 {published data only}
  • Vartiainen E, Fallonen U, McAlister AL, Puska P. Eight-year follow-up results of an adolescent smoking prevention program:The North Karelia Youth Project. American Journal of Public Health 1990;80:78-9.
  • Vartiainen E, Paavola M, McAlister A, Puska P. Fifteen-year follow-up of smoking prevention effects in the North Karelia Youth Project. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88:81-5.
  • Vartiainen E, Pallonen U, McAlister AL, Koskela K, Puska P. Four-year follow-up results of the smoking prevention program inThe North Karelia Youth Project. Preventive Medicine 1986;15:692-8.
Wahlgren 1997 {published data only}
  • Wahlgren OR, Hovell MF, Slymen OJ, Conway TL, Hofstetter CR, Jones JA. Predictors of tobacco use initiation in adolescents: a two-year prospective study and theoretical discussion. Tobacco Control 1997;6:95-103.
Webster 2002 {published data only}
Werch 1991 {published data only}
Wiist 1991 {published data only}
Williamson 1981 {published data only}
Worden 1988 {published data only}
  • Worden JK, Flynn BS, Geller BM, Chen M, Shelton LG, Secker-Walker RH, et al. Development of a smoking prevention mass media program using diagnostic and formative research. Preventive Medicine 1988;17:531-58.
Worden 1996 {published data only}
Wu 2003 {published data only}
  • Santon B, Cole M, Galbraith J, Li X, Pendleton S, Cottrell L, et al. Randomized trial of a parental intervention. Parents can make a difference in long-term adolescent behaviors, perceptions, and knowledge. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2004;158:947-55.
  • Wu Y, Stanton BF, Galbraith J, Kaljee L, Cottrell L, Li X, et al. Sustaining and broadening intervention impact: A longitudinal randomized trial of 3 adolescent risk reduction approaches. Pediatrics 2003;111(1):e32-e38.
Young 1996 {published data only}
Zavela 2004 {published data only}
Zoller 1986 {published data only}
  • Zoller U, Maymon T. Attitude modification in health education through an interventive, antismoking program incorporated within traditional science curriculum. Journal of Research in Science Education 1989;26:385-99.
  • Zoller U, Maymon T. Effectiveness evaluation of smoking, drug, and alcohol education courses via actual relevant behavior (The smoking education curriculum MSACS as an illustrative case study). Journal of Drug Education 1986;16:1-12.
Zollinger 2003 {published data only}

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Equipo OCTOPUS 1998 {published data only}
  • Lopez González ML, Comas Fuentes A, Herrero Puente P, Pereiro Gallo S, Fernández Carral M, Thomas H, et al. Intervención educativa escolar para prevenir el tabaquismo: evaluación del proceso. Rev Esp Salud Pública 1998;72:303-318.
Lynagh 1999 {published data only}
Oehrig 2001 {published data only}
  • Öhrig E, Geiß HC, Haas G-M, Schwandt P. The Prevention Education Program (PEP) Nuremberg: design and baseline data of a family-oriented intervention study. International Journal of Obesity 2001;25(Suppl 1):589-592.
Prinz 2000 {published data only}
  • Dumas JE. Lynch AM. Laughlin JE. Phillips Smith E. Prinz RJ. Promoting intervention fidelity. Conceptual issues, methods, and preliminary results from the EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2001;20(1 Suppl):38-47.
  • Prinz RJ, Dumas JE, Smith EP, Laughlin JE. The EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial. A dual design to test reduction of risk for conduct problems, substance abuse, and school failure in childhood. Controlled Clinical Trials 2000;21(3):286-302.
  • Prinz RJ, Smith EP, Dumas JE, Laughlin JE, Barron R. Recruitment and retention of participants involving family-based interventions. Am J Prev Med 2001;20(1 Suppl):31-37.
Unger 2001 {published data only}

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Bandura 1977
  • Bandura A. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1977.
Bangert-Drowns 1988
Bliss 2001
  • Bliss HA. Re: Hutchison smoking prevention project; Long-term randomized trial in school-based tobacco use prevention - results on smoking. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2001;93:1268.
Botvin 1984
Botvin 1995
Bruvold 1993
Clayton 2001
  • Clayton RR, Scutchfield FD, Wyatt SW. Re: Hutchison smoking prevention project; Long-term randomized trial in school-based tobacco use prevention - results on smoking: Response. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2001;93:1270-1.
Dielman 1994
  • Dielman TE. Correction for the design effect in school-based substance use and abuse prevention research: Sample size requirements and analysis considerations. NIDA Research Monographs. Vol. 139, Washington, D.C: National Institute of Drug Addiction, 1994:115-26.
Epstein 2000b
  • Epstein JA, Griffin KW, Botvin GJ. A model of smoking among inner-city adolescents: The role of personal competence and perceived social benefits of smoking. Preventive Medicine 2000;31:107-14.
Estabrooks 2003
Evans 1976
Higgins 2003
Hwang 2004
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La Torre 2005
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McGuire 1968
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Murray 1990
Murray 1997
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Palmer 1998
Pechacek 1984
Pierce 1996
Pletcher 2000
Reid 1999
Rooney 1996
Siddiqui 1996
Skara 2003
Soldz 2000
Surgeon General 2000
  • US Surgeon General. Reducing tobacco use. A report of the Surgeon General. Executive summary.. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2000 Dec 22; Vol. 49, issue RR - 16:1-27.
Sussman 2001
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Sussman 2005
Thornton 1999
Tobler 2000
  • Tobler NS, Roona MR, Ochshorn P, Marshall DG, Streke AV, Stackpole KM. School-based adolescent drug prevention programs: 1998 meta-analysis. Journal of Primary Prevention 2000;20(4):275-336.
Tyas 1998
US DHHS 1993
  • US DHHS. Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey [TAPS II]. Hyatsville MD: US DHHS National Center for Health Statistics, 1993.
US DHHS 1994
  • U.S Department of Health and Human Services. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services]. Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People. A Report of the Surgeon General. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994.
US DHHS 2000
  • US DHHS. Reducing tobacco use: A report of the Surgeon General - 2000. www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr_tobacco_use.htm [accessed 12th April 2004]. US Department of Health and Human Services, 2000.
Wenter 2002
  • Wenter DL, Blackwell S, Davis KS, Farrelly MC. Using multiple strategies in tobacco use prevention. Legacy first look report 8 [http://www.americanlegacy.org/content/PDF/FLR8.pdf]. Washington, DC: American Legacy Foundation, February 2002.
WHO 2000
  • Currie C, Hurrelmann K, Settertobulte W, Smith R, Todd J. Health and health behaviour among young people. Health behaviour in school-aged children: a WHO cross-national study. International report. WHO Regional Office for Europe 2000; Vol. www.ruhbc.ed.ac.uk/hbsc/download/hbsc.pdf [accessed 30th April 2004].
Wiehe 2005

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Thomas 2002