Intervention Review

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School-based programmes for preventing smoking

  1. Roger E Thomas1,*,
  2. Julie McLellan2,
  3. Rafael Perera2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group

Published Online: 30 APR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 5 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001293.pub3


How to Cite

Thomas RE, McLellan J, Perera R. School-based programmes for preventing smoking. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD001293. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001293.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Calgary, Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

  2. 2

    University of Oxford, Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford, UK

*Roger E Thomas, Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, UCMC, #1707-1632 14th Avenue, Calgary, Alberta, T2M 1N7, Canada. rthomas@ucalgary.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 30 APR 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Abernathy 1992 {published data only}
  • Abernathy TJ, Bertrand LD. Preventing cigarette smoking among children: Results of a four-year evaluation of the PAL program. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1992;83:226-9. [MEDLINE: 92405049]
  • Bertrand L, Abernathy TJ. Predicting smoking among adolescents using cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Journal of School Health 1993;63:100-5.
Armstrong 1990 (Peer) {published data only}
  • Armstrong BK, de Klerk NH, Shean RE, Dunn DA, Dolin PJ. Influence of education and advertising on the uptake of smoking by children. Medical Journal of Australia 1990;152:117-24. [MEDLINE: 90136263]
  • Fisher DA, Armstrong BK, de Klerk NH. A randomised-controlled trial of education for prevention of smoking in 12 year old children. Proceedings of the 5th World Conference on Smoking and Health, Winnipeg, Canada 1983. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Smoking and Health, 1985.
  • Shean RE, de Klerk NH, Armstrong BK, Walker NR. Seven-year follow-up a smoking-prevention program for children. Australian Journal of Public Health 1994;18:205-8.
Armstrong 1990 (Teacher) {published data only}

 

Ary 1990 {published data only}
  • Ary DV, Biglan A, Glasgow R, Zoref L, Black C, Ochs L, et al. The efficacy of social-influence prevention programs versus "standard care": Are new initiatives needed?. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1990;13(3):281-96.
Ausems 2004 (Combined) {published data only}

 

Ausems 2004 (In school) {published data only}
  • Ausems M, Mesters I, Van Breukelen G, de Vries H. Effects of in-school and tailored out-of-school smoking prevention among Dutch vocational school students. Health Education Research 2004;19(1):51-63.
Ausems 2004 (Out School) {published data only}

 

Aveyard 1999 {published data only}
  • Aveyard P, Cheng KK, Almond J, Sherratt E, Lancashire R, Lawrence T, et al. Cluster randomised controlled trial of expert system based on the transtheoretical (''stages of change'') model for smoking prevention and cessation in schools. BMJ 1999;319:948-53.
  • Aveyard P, Markham WA, Almond J, Lancashire E, Cheng KK. The risk of smoking in relation to engagement with a school-based smoking intervention. Social Science & Medicine 2003;56:869-82.
  • Aveyard P, Sherratt E, Almond J, Lawrence T, Lancashire R, Griffin C, Cheng KK. The change-in-stage and updated smoking status results from a cluster-randomised trial of smoking prevention and cessation using the transtheoretical model among British adolescents. Preventive Medicine 2001;33:313-324.
Biglan 1987b {published data only}
  • Biglan A, Severson H, Ary D, Faller C, Gallison C, Thompson R, et al. Do smoking prevention programs really work? Attrition and the internal and external validity of an evaluation of a refusal skills training program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1987;10:159-71.
  • Hops H, Weissman W, Biglan A, Thompson R, Faller C, Severson HH. A taped situation test of cigarette refusal skills among adolescents. Behavioral Assessment 1986;8:145-54.
Biglan 2000 {published data only}
  • Biglan A, Ary DV, Smolkowski K, Duncan T, Black C. A randomised controlled trial of a community intervention to prevent adolescent tobacco use.. Tobacco Control 2000;9:24-32. [MEDLINE: 20156896]
  • Biglan A, Ary DV, Yudelson H, Duncan TE, Hood D, James L, et al. Experimental evaluation of a modular approach to mobilizing anti tobacco influences of peers and parents. American Journal of Community Psychology 1996;24(3):311-39.
Botvin 1980 {published data only}
Botvin 1982 {published data only}
Botvin 1983 (Intensive) {published data only}

 

Botvin 1983 (LST) {published data only}
Botvin 1990a (Video) {published data only}

 

Botvin 1990a (Workshop) {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Botvin EM, Diaz T. Long-term follow-up results of a randomised drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. JAMA 1995;273:1106-12.
  • Botvin GJ, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Tortu S, Botvin EM. Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: Results of a 3-year study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1990;58(4):437-46. [MEDLINE: 91010086]
  • Botvin GJ, Tortu S, Baker E, Dusenbury L. Preventing adolescent cigarette smoking: Resistance skills training and development of life skills. Special Services in the Schools 1990;6:37-61.
  • Nichols TR, Graber JA, Brooks-Gunn J, Botvin GJ. Ways to say no: refusal skill strategies among urban adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior 2006;30(3):227-36.
  • Scheier LM, Botvin GJ, Griffin KW. Preventive intervention effects on developmental progression in drug use: Structural equation modeling using longitudinal data. Prevention Science 2001;2(2):91-112.
Botvin 1990b {published data only}
Botvin 1999 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Diaz T, Miller N, Ifill-Williams M. Smoking initiation and escalation in early adolescent girls: one-year follow-up of a school-based prevention intervention for minority youth. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association 1999;54:139-43, 152.
Botvin 2001 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Diaz T, Ifill-Wiliams M. Drug abuse prevention among minority adolescents: Posttest and one-year follow-up of a school-based preventive intervention. Prevention Science 2001;2(1):1-13.
  • Griffin KW, Botvin GJ, Nichols TR, Doyle MM. Effectiveness of a universal drug abuse prevention approach for youth at high risk for substance use initiation. Preventive Medicine 2003;36(1):1-7.
Brown 2002 {published data only}
  • Brown KS, Cameron R, Madill C, Payne ME, Filsinger S, Manske SR, Best JA. Outcome evaluation of a high school smoking reduction intervention based on extracurricular activities. Preventive Medicine 2002;35(5):506-10.
Brown 2005 {published data only}
  • Brown EC, Catalano RF, Fleming CB, Haggerty KP, Abbott RD. Adolescent substance use outcomes in the Raising Healthy Children Project: A two-part latent growth curve analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2005;73(4):699-710.
Buller 2008 (Australia) {published data only}
  • Buller DB, Borland R, Woodall WG, Hall JR, Hines JM, Burris-Woodall P, et al. Randomized trials on consider this, a tailored, internet-delivered smoking prevention program for adolescents. Health Education & Behavior 2008;35(2):260-81.
Buller 2008 (USA) {published data only}

 

Bush 1989 {published data only}
  • Bush PJ, Zuckerman AE, Theiss PK, Taggart VS, Horowitz C, Sheridan MJ, et al. Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black schoolchildren: Two-year results of the "Know Your Body" Program. American Journal of Epidemiology 1989;129:466-82. [MEDLINE: 89132525]
Byrne 2005 {published data only}
  • Byrne DG, Mazanov J. Prevention of adolescent smoking: a prospective test of three models of intervention. Journal of Substance Use 2005;10(6):363-74.
Cameron 1999 {published data only}
  • Cameron R, Brown KS, Best JA, Pelkman CL, Madill CL, Manske SR, et al. Effectiveness of a social influences smoking prevention program as a function of provider type, training method, and school risk. American Journal of Public Health 1999;89:1827-31.
  • Santi SM, Best JA, Payne ME, Brown KS, Cameron R. A comparison between instructional experience and performance of teachers and nurses delivering a smoking prevention program. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1992;83:433-6.
  • Santi SM, Cargo M, Brown KS, Best JA, Cameron R. Dispositional risk factors for smoking-stage transitions: A social influences program as an effect modifier. Addictive Behaviors 1994;19(3):269-85.
  • Sashegyi AI, Brown KS, Farrell PJ. Application of a generalized random effects regression model for cluster-correlated longitudinal data to a school-based smoking prevention trial. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000;152(12):1192-200.
Campbell 2008 {published data only}
  • Audrey S, Cordall K, Moore L, Cohen D, Campbell R. The development and implementation of a peer-led intervention to prevent smoking among secondary school students using their established social networks. Health Education Journal 2004;63:266-84.
  • Audrey S, Holliday J, Campbell R. Commitment and compatibility: Teachers' perspectives on the implementation of an effective school-based, peer-led smoking intervention. Health Education Journal 2008;67(2):74-90.
  • Campbell R, Starkey F, Holliday J, Audrey S, Bloor M, Parry-Langdon N, et al. An informal school-based peer-led intervention for smoking prevention in adolescence (ASSIST): a cluster randomised trial.[see comment]. Lancet 2008;371(9624):1595-602.
  • Holliday J, Audrey S, Moore L, Parry-Langdon N, Campbell R. High fidelity? How should we consider variations in the delivery of school-based health promotion interventions?. Health Education Journal 2009;68:44-62.
  • Hollingworth W, Cohen D, Hawkins J, Hughes RA, Moore LAR, Holliday JC, et al. Reducing smoking in adolescents: Cost-effectiveness results from the cluster randomized ASSIST (A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial). Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2012;14(2):161-8.
  • Mermelstein R. Moving tobacco prevention outside the classroom. Lancet 2008;371(9624):1556-7.
  • Starkey F, Audrey S, Holliday J, Moore L, Campbell R. Identifying influential young people to undertake effective peer-led health promotion: the example of A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial (ASSIST). Health Education Research 2009;24(6):977-88.
  • Starkey F, Holliday J, Audrey S, Campbell R. Identifying influential young people for peer education: the case study of a stop smoking in schools trial, England and Wales, 2001-2005. European Journal of Public Health 2005;15:72-3.
  • Starkey F, Moore L, Campbell R, Sidaway M, Bloor M. Correction: rationale, design and conduct of a comprehensive evaluation of a school-based peer-led anti-smoking intervention in the UK: the ASSIST cluster randomised trial. BMC Public Health 2007;7:301.
  • Starkey F, Moore L, Campbell R, Sidaway M, Bloor M. Rationale, design and conduct of a comprehensive evaluation of a school-based peer-led anti-smoking intervention in the UK: the ASSIST cluster randomised trial [ISRCTN55572965]. BMC Public Health 2005;5(1):43.
  • Varun N. A novel approach to preventing adolescent smoking in schools. Thorax 2008;63(10):882.
Chatrou 1999 {published data only}
  • Chatrou M, Maes S, Dusseldorp E, Seegers G. Effects of the Brabant smoking prevention programme: A replication of the Wisconsin programme. Psychology and Health 1999;14:159-78.
  • Leventhal H, Fleming R, Glynn K. A cognitive-development approach to smoking intervention. In: Maes S, Spielberger CD, Defares PB, Sarason IG editor(s). Topics in health psychology. New York: John Wiley, 1988:79-105.
Chou 2006 {published data only}
  • Chen X, Li Y, Unger JB, Gong J, Johnson CA, Gun Q. Hazard of smoking initiation among adolescents in Wuhan, China. Preventive Medicine 2001;32:437-45.
  • Chou CP, Li Y, Unger JB, Xia J, Sun P, Guo Q, et al. A randomised intervention of smoking for adolescents in urban Wuhan, China [see comment]. Preventive Medicine 2006;42(4):280-5.
  • Sakuma KK, Sun P, Unger J, Johnson CA. Evaluating depressive symptom Interactions on adolescent smoking prevention program mediators: A mediated moderation analysis. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2010;12(11):1099-107.
  • Sun P, Unger JB, Guo Q, Gong J, Ma H, Palmer PH, et al. Comorbidity between depression and smoking moderates the effect of a smoking prevention program among boys in China. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2007;9(Suppl. 4):599-609.
  • Unger J, Yan L, Chen X, Jiang X, Azen S, Qian G, et al. Adolescent smoking in Wuhan, China: Baseline data from the Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2001;21(3):162-9.
Clark 2010 {published data only}
  • Clark HK, Ringwalt CL, Hanley S, Shamblen SR, Flewelling RL, Hano MC. Project SUCCESS' effects on the substance use of alternative high school students. Addictive Behaviors 2010;35:209-17.
  • Clark HK, Ringwalt CL, Shamblen SR, Hanley SM. Project success' effects on substance use-related attitudes and behaviours: a randomised controlled trial in alternative high schools. Journal of Drug Education 2011;41(1):17-44.
Clarke 1986 {published data only}
Clayton 1996 {published data only}
  • Bennett GT. An Exploration of Patterns of Drug Use and of the Effectiveness of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program According to Adolescents' Level of Academic Achievement. University of Kentucky Ph.D. Dissertation DAI-A 55/10; April 1995:3091.
  • Clayton RR, Cattarello AM, Johnstone BM. The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (Project DARE): 5-year follow-up results. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:307-18.
  • Cleckler PEJ. An Evaluation of an Educational Substance Abuse Prevention Program. EDD Dissertation University of Georgia. University of Georgia. DA-A 52/06 p. 1956, 1991.
  • Lynam DR, Milich R, Zimmerman R, Novak SP, Logan TK, Martin C, et al. Project DARE: no effects at 10-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67:590-3.
  • Wysong E, Wright DW. A decade of DARE: efficacy, politics and drug education. Sociological Focus 1995;28(3):283-311.
Coe 1982 {published data only}
  • Coe RM, Crouse E, Cohen JD, Fisher Jr EB. Patterns of change in adolescent smoking behavior and results of a one year follow-up of a smoking prevention program. Journal of School Health 1982;August:348-53. [MEDLINE: 83011299]
Cohen 1989 {published data only}
Connell 2007 {published data only}
  • Connell AM. Employing compiler average causal effect analytic methods to examine effects of randomised encouragement trials. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse 2009;35(4):253-9.
  • Connell AM, Dishion TJ, Yasui M, Kavanagh K. An adaptive approach to family intervention: linking engagement in family centred intervention to reductions in adolescent problem behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2007;75(4):568-79.
Conner 2010 (I) {published data only}
  • Connor M, Higgins AR. Long-term effects of implementation intentions on prevention of smoking uptake among adolescents: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Health Psychology 2010;29(5):529-38.
Conner 2010 (SE) {published data only}

 

Crone 2003 {published data only}
  • Crone MR, Reijneveld SA, Willemsen MC, Van Leerdam FJ, Spruijt RD, Sing RA. Prevention of smoking in adolescents with lower education: a school based intervention study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2003;57(9):675-80.
Crone 2011 {published data only}
  • Crone MR, Spruijt R, Dijkstra NS, Willemsen MC, Paulussen TG. Does a smoking prevention program in elementary schools prepare children for secondary school?. Preventive Medicine 2011;52(1):53-9.
Denson 1981 {published and unpublished data}
De Vries 1994 (High) {published data only}

 

De Vries 1994 (Voc) {published data only}
  • De Vries H, Backbier E, Dijkstra M, Van Breukelen G, Parcel G, Kok G. A Dutch social influence smoking prevention approach for vocational school students. Health Education Research 1994;9:365-74.
  • De Vries H, Dijkstra M, Kok G. A Dutch Smoking Prevention Project: An overview. Hygie 1992;11:14-8.
  • De Vries H, Weijts W, Dijkstra M, Kok G. The utilization of qualitative and quantitative data for health education program planning, implementation, and evaluation: A spiral approach. Health Education Quarterly 1992;19:101-15.
De Vries 2003 (Denmark) {published data only}

 

De Vries 2003 (Finland) {published data only}
  • Ariza C, Nebot M, Tomas Z, Gimenez E, Valmayor S, Tarilonte V, et al. Longitudinal effects of the European smoking prevention framework approach (ESFA) project in Spanish adolescents. European Journal of Public Health 2008;18(5):491-7.
  • De Vries H, Dijk F, Wetsels J, Mudde A, Kremers S, Ariza C, et al. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): effects after 24 and 30 months. Health Education Research 2006;21(1):116-32.
  • De Vries H, Mudde A, Kremers S, Wetzels J, Uiters E, Ariza C, et al. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): short-term effects. Health Education Research 2003;18(6):649-63.
  • De Vries H, Mudde A, Leijs I, Charlton A, Vartiainen E, Buijs G, et al. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (EFSA): an example of integral prevention. Health Education Research 2003;18(5):611-26.
  • Haukkala A, Vartianen E, de Vries H. Progression of oral snuff use among Finnish 13-16 year old students and its relation to smoking behavior. Addiction 2006;101(4):581-9.
  • Mercken L, Candel M, Willems P, de Vries H. Social influence and selection effects in the context of smoking behavior. Changes during early and mid adolescence. Health Psychology 2009;28(1):73-82.
  • Vartianen E, Pennanen M, Haukkala A, Dijk F, Lehtovuori R, de Vries H. The effects of a three-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki. European Journal of Public Health 2007;17(3):249-56.
De Vries 2003 (Portugal) {published data only}

 

De Vries 2003 (UK) {published data only}

 

Dijkstra 1999 (DM + B) {published data only}

 

Dijkstra 1999 (DM + no B) {published data only}

 

Dijkstra 1999 (SI + B) {published data only}

 

Dijkstra 1999 (SI + no B) {published data only}
Eisen 2003 {published data only}
  • Eisen M. Intermediate outcomes from a life skills education program with a media literacy component. In: Crano WD, Burgoon M editor(s). Mass Media and Drug Prevention. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., 2002:187-212.
  • Eisen M, Zellman GL, Massett HA, Murray DM. Evaluating the Lions-Quest "Skills for Adolescence" drug education program: First-year behavior outcomes. Addictive Behaviors 2002;27:619-32.
  • Eisen M, Zellman GL, Murray DM. Evaluating the Lions-Quest "Skills for Adolescence" drug education program: Second-year behavior outcomes. Addictive Behaviors 2003;28:883-97.
  • Sprunger B, Pellaux D. Skills for adolescence: experience with the International Lions-Quest program. Crisis: Journal of Crisis Intervention & Suicide 1989;10(1):88-104.
Elder 1993 {published data only}
  • Eckhardt L, Woodruff SI, Elder JP. Relative effectiveness of continued, lapsed, and delayed smoking prevention intervention in senior high school students. American Journal of Health Promotion 1997;11:418-21.
  • Elder JP, Sallis JF, Woodruff SI, Wildey MR. Tobacco-refusal skills and tobacco use among high-risk adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1993;16:629-41.
  • Elder JP, Wildey M, de Moor C, Sallis Jr JF, Eckhardt L, et al. The long-term prevention of tobacco use among junior high school students: Classroom and telephone interventions. American Journal of Public Health 1993;83:1239-44.
  • Elder JP, Woodruff SI, Eckhardt L. Participation in a telephone-based tobacco use prevention program for adolescents. American Journal of Health Promotion 1994;9(2):92-5.
  • Elder JP, Woodruff SI, Sallis JF, de Moor C, Edwards C, Wildey MB. Effects of health facilitator performance and attendance at training sessions on the acquisition of tobacco refusal skills among multi-ethnic, high-risk adolescents. Health Education Research 1994;9(2):225-33.
  • Young RL, Elder JP, Green MS, de Moor C, Wildey MB. Tobacco use prevention and health facilitator effectiveness. Journal of Sch Health 1988;58(9):370-3.
Elder 1996 {published data only}
  • Edmundson E, Parcel GS, Perry CL, Feldman HA, Smyth M, Johnson CC, et al. The effects of the child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health intervention on psychosocial determinants of cardiovascular disease risk behavior among third-grade students. American Journal of Health Promotion 1996;10(3):217-25.
  • Elder JP, McGraw SA, Stone EJ, Reed DB, Harsha DW, Greene T, et al. CATCH: Process evaluation of environmental factors and programs. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Supplement 2:S107-S127.
  • Elder JP, Perry CL, Stone EJ, Johnson CC, Yang M, Edmundson EW, et al. Tobacco use measurement, prediction and intervention in elementary schools in four states: The CATCH Study. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:486-94.
  • Johnson CC, Li D, Galati T, Pedersen S, Smth M, Parcel GS. Maintenance of the Classroom Health Education Curricula: Results from the CATCH-ON study. Health Education & Behavior 2003;30(4):476-88.
  • Johnson CC, Li D, Perry CL, Elder JP, Feldman HA, Kelder SH, et al. Fifth through eighth grade longitudinal predictors of tobacco use among a racially diverse cohort CATCH. Journal of School Health 2002;72(2):58-64.
  • Johnson CC, Osganian SK, Budman SB, Lytle LA, Barrera EP, Bonura SR, et al. CATCH: Family process evaluation in a multicenter trial. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Supplement 2:S91-S106.
  • Nader PR, Sellers DE, Johnson CC, Perry CL, Stone EJ, Cook KC, et al. The effect of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to improve children's diet and physical activity: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:455-64.
  • Perry CL, Sellers DE, Johnson C, Pedersen S, Bachman KJ, Parcel GS, et al. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH): Intervention, implementation, and feasibility for elementary schools in the United States.. Health Education & Behavior 1997;24(6):716-35.
  • Perry CL, Stone EJ, Parcel GS, Ellison RC, Nader PR, Webber LS, et al. School-based cardiovascular health promotion: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Journal of School Health 1990;60(3):406-13.
  • Stone EJ, Osganian SK, McKinlay SM, Wu MC, Webber LS, Luepker RV, et al. Operational design and quality control in the CATCH multicenter trial. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:384-99.
Ellickson 1990 (HealthEd) {published data only}
Ellickson 1990 (Teen) {published data only}

 

Ellickson 2003 {published data only}
  • Ellickson PL, McCaffrey DF, Ghosh Dastidar B, Longshore DL. New inroads in preventing adolescent drug use: results from a large-scale trial of Project ALERT in middle schools. American Journal of Public Health 2003;93(11):1830-6.
  • Ghosh-Dastidar B, Longshore DL, Ellickson PL, McCaffrey DF. Modifying pro-drug risk factors in adolescents: results from Project ALERT. Health Education & Behavior 2004;31:318-34.
  • Orlando M, Ellickson PL, McCaffrey DF, Longshore DL. Mediation analysis of a school-based drug prevention program: effects of Project ALERT. Prevention Science 2005;6(1):35-46.
Ennett 1994 {published data only}
  • Ennett ST, Rosenbaum DP, Flewelling RL, Bieler GS, Ringwalt CL, Bailey SL. Long-term evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education. Addictive Behaviors 1994;19:113-25.
  • Ennett ST, Tobler NS, Ringwalt CL, Flewelling RL. How effective is Drug Abuse Resistance Education? A meta-analysis of Project DARE outcome evaluations. American Journal of Public Health 1994;84(9):1394-1400.
  • Rosenbaum DP, Flewelling RL, Bailey SL, Ringwalt CL, Wilkinson DL. Cops in the classroom: A longitudinal evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE). Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 1994;31(1):3-31.
Faggiano 2008 {published data only}
  • Faggiano F, Galanti MR, Bohrn K, Burkhart G, Vigna-Taglianti F, Cuomo L, et al. The effectiveness of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: EU-Dap cluster randomised controlled trial. Preventive Medicine 2008;47(5):537-43.
  • Faggiano F, Richardson C, Bohrn K, Galanti MR, EU-Dap Study Group. A cluster randomised controlled trial of school-based prevention of tobacco, alcohol and drug use: the EU-Dap design and study population. Preventive Medicine 2007;44(2):170-3.
  • Faggiano F, Vigna-Taglianti F, Burkhart G, Bohrn K, Cuomo L, Gregori D, et al. The effectiveness of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: 18-month follow-up of the EU-Dap cluster randomised controlled trial. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2010;108(1-2):56-64.
  • Van der Kreeft P, Wiborg G, Galanti MR, Siliquini R, Bohrn K, Scatigna M, et al. ‘Unplugged’: a new European school programme against substance abuse. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 2009;16(2):167-81.
  • Vigna-Taglianti F, Vadrucci S, Faggiano F, Burkhart G, Siliquini R, Galanti MR. Is universal prevention against youths' substance misuse really universal? Gender-specific effects in the EU-Dap school-based prevention trial. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2009;63(9):722-8.
Figa-Talamanca 1989 (F) {published data only}
  • Figa-Talamanca I, Modolo M. Evaluation of an anti-smoking educational programme among adolescents in Italy. Hygie 1989;8(3):24-8.
Figa-Talamanca 1989 (N.F) {published data only}

 

Flay 1985 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Best JA, Flay BR, Brown JS. Smoking prevention in the Schools: Program Dissemination. Ontario Ministry of Health Report No. CHS-R26 1983.
  • Flay BR, Koepke D, Thomson SJ, Santi S, Best JA, Brown KS. Six-year follow-up of the first Waterloo school smoking prevention trial. American Journal of Public Health 1989;79(10):1371-6.
  • Flay BR, Ryan CB, Best JA, Brown KS, Kersell MW, d'Avernas JR, et al. Are social-psychological smoking programs effective? The Waterloo study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1985;8(1):37-59.
Flay 1995 {published data only}
  • Brannon BR, Dent CW, Flay BR, Smith G, Sussman S, Pentz MA, et al. The Television, School and Family Project. V. The impact of curriculum delivery. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:492-502.
  • Flay BR, Brannon BR, Johnson CA, Hanson WB, Ulene AL, Whitney-Saltiel DA, et al. The Television, School, and Family Smoking Prevention and Cessation Project. I. Theoretical basis and program development. Preventive Medicine 1988;17:585-607.
  • Flay BR, Hu FB, Richardson J. Psychosocial predictors of different stages of cigarette smoking among high school students. Preventive Medicine 1998;27 (5 Pt 3):A18-A19.
  • Flay BR, Miller TQ, Hedeker D, Siddiqui O, Britton CF, Brannon BR, et al. The Television, School, and Family Smoking Prevention and Cessation Project. VIII student outcomes and mediating variables. Preventive Medicine 1995;24:29-40.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Brannon BR, Glowacz KJ, Gleason LR, Ullery S, et al. The Television, School and Family Smoking Prevention and Cessation Project. IV. controlling for program expectancies across experimental and control conditions. Addictive Behaviors 1989;14:601-10.
  • Sussman S, Flay BR, Sobel JL, Rauch JM, Hansen WB, Johnson CA. Viewing and evaluation of a televised drug education program by students previously or concurrently exposed to school-based substance abuse prevention programming. Health Education Research 1987;2(4):373-83.
Focarile 1994 {published data only}
  • Focarile F, Scaffino L. Results of a randomised controlled trial on preventing the smoking habit in adolescents [Risultati di uno studio controllato randomizzato sulla prevenzione dell'abitudine al fumo degli adolescenti]. Epidemiologia e Prevenzione 1994;18:157-63.
  • Focarile FA, Scaffino L, Nardi A, Vaccari R. Protocol and feasibility of a randomized controlled study on preventing the smoking habit in adolescents [Protocollo e fattibilita di uno studio controllato randomizzato sulla prevenzione dell'abitudine al fumo negli adolescenti]. Epidemiologia e Prevenzione 1989;11:41-6.
Forman 1990 (SI) {published data only}
  • Forman SG, Linney JA, Brondino MJ. Effects of coping skills training on adolescents at risk for substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behavior 1990;4(2):67-76.
Forman 1990 (SI - NP) {published data only}
  • Forman SG, Linney JA, Brondino MJ. Effects of coping skills training on adolescents at risk for substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behavior 1990;4(2):67-76.
Forman 1990 (SI - P) {published data only}
  • Forman SG, Linney JA, Brondino MJ. Effects of coping skills training on adolescents at risk for substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behavior 1990;4(2):67-76.
Gabrhelik 2012 {published data only}
  • Gabrhelik R, Duncan A, Lee MH, Stastna L, Furr-Holden CDM, Miovsky M. Sex specific trajectories in cigarette smoking behaviours among students participating in the Unplugged school-based randomised control trial for substance use prevention. Addictive Behaviors 2012;37(10):1145-50.
  • Gabrhelik R, Duncan A, Miovsky M, Furr-Holden CDM, Stastna L, Jurystova L. “Unplugged”: A school-based randomised control trial to prevent and reduce adolescent substance use in the Czech Republic. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2012;124:79-87.
Garcia 2005 {published data only}
  • García P, Fernández A, Sánchez JM, Carrillo A, Alcaraz J, Abad E. Randomized controlled trial of a health prevention program against smoking in a population of secondary school students. Revista de Calidad Asistencial 2005;20(1):4-13.
Gatta 1991 {published data only}
Gersick 1988 {unpublished data only}
Gilchrist 1986 {published data only}
Gindre 1995 {published data only}
  • Gindre C, Conard J, Ducos-Mieral C, Champetier de Ribes G. Departmental programme for the early prevention of tobacco addiction among school children. In: Slama K editor(s). Tobacco and Health. Proceedings of the 9th World Conference on Tobacco and Health 1994. New York: Plenum Press, 1995.
Glanz 2007 {published data only}
Gordon 2008 {published data only}
  • Gordon J, Biglan A, Smolkowski K. The impact on tobacco use of branded youth anti-tobacco activities and family communications about tobacco. Prevention Science 2008;9(2):73-87.
Hamilton 2005 {published data only}
Hanewinkel 1994 {published data only}
  • Hanewinkel R, Ferstl R, Burow F. Conception and evaluation of a behavioural non-smoking intervention in schools [Konzeption und Evaluation einer verhaltensorientierten Nichtraucherförderung an Schulen]. Verhaltenstherapie 1994;4:104-10.
Hansen 1988a {published data only}
  • Graham JW, Johnson CA, Hansen WB, Flay BR, Gee M. Drug use prevention programs, gender and ethnicity: evaluation of three seventh-grade Project SMART cohorts. Preventive Medicine 1990;19:305-13.
  • Hansen WB, Johnson CA, Flay BR, Graham JW, Sobel J. Affective and social influences approaches to the prevention of multiple substance abuse among seventh grade students: Results from Project SMART. Preventive Medicine 1988;17:135-54.
  • Unger JB, Johnson CA, Stoddard JL, Nezami E, Chou CP. Indentification of the adolescents at risk for smoking initiation: validation of a measure of susceptibility. Addictive Behaviors 1997;22(1):81-91.
Hansen 1991 {published data only}
  • Donaldson SI, Graham JW, Hansen WB. Testing the generalisability of intervening mechanism theories: understanding the effects of adolescent drug use prevention interventions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1994;17(2):195-216.
  • Donaldson SI, Graham JW, Piccinin AM, Hansen WB. Resistance-skills training and onset of alcohol use: evidence for beneficial and potentially harmful effects in public schools and in private Catholic schools. Health Psychology 1995;14(4):291-300.
  • Donaldson SI, Thomas CW, Graham JW, Au JG, Hansen WB. Verifying drug abuse prevention program effects using reciprocal best friend reports. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2000;23(6):585-601.
  • Hansen WB, Graham JW. Preventing alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use among adolescents: Peer Pressure Resistance Training versus Establishing Conservative Norms. Preventive Medicine 1991;20:414-30.
  • Hansen WB, Graham JW, Wolkenstein BH, Rohrbach LA. Program integrity as a moderator of prevention program effectiveness: results for fifth-grade students in the Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trial. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 1991;53(5):568-79.
  • Palmer RF, Graham JW, White EL, Hansen WB. Applying multilevel analytic strategies in adolescent substance use prevention research. Preventive Medicine 1998;27:328-36.
  • Rohrbach LA, Graham JW, Hansen WB. Diffusion of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: predictors of program implementation. Preventive Medicine 1993;22:237-60.
  • Taylor BJ, Graham JW, Cumsille P, Hansen WB. Modeling prevention program effects on growth in substance use: analysis of five years of data from the Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trial. Prevention Science 2000;1(4):183-97.
Hecht 2003 {published data only}
  • Hecht ML, Graham JW, Elek E. The drug resistance strategies intervention: program effects on substance use. Health Communication 2006;20(3):267-76.
  • Hecht ML, Krieger JLR. The principle of cultural grounding in school-based substance abuse prevention. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 2006;25(3):301-19.
  • Hecht ML, Marsiglia FF, Elek E, Wagstaff DA, Kulis S, Dustman P, et al. Culturally grounded substance use prevention: an evaluation of the keepin' it REAL curriculum. Prevention Science 2003;4(4):233-48.
  • Warren JR, Hecht ML, Wagstaff DA, Elek E, Ndiaye K, Dustman P, et al. Communicating prevention: The effects of the keepin' it REAL classroom videotapes and televised PSAs on middle-school students substance use.. Journal of Applied Communication Research 2006;34(2):209-27.
Hecht 2008 {published data only}
  • Elek E, Wagstaff DA, Hecht ML. Effects of the 5th and 7th grade enhanced versions of the keepin' it real substance use prevention curriculum. Journal of Drug Education 2010;40(1):61-79.
  • Hecht ML, Elek E, Wagstaff DA, Kam JA, Marsiglia FF, Dustman P, et al. Immediate and short-term effects of the 5th grade version of the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention intervention. Journal of Drug Education 2008;38(3):225-51.
Hedman 2010 (Interview) {published data only}
  • Hedman E, Riis U, Gabre P. The impact of behavioural interventions on young people's attitudes toward tobacco use. Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry 2010;8(1):23-32.
Hedman 2010 (Lecture) {published data only}

 

Hirschmann 1989 {published data only}
Hort 1995 {published data only}
  • Hort W, Hort H, Willers R. Intervention study against cigarette smoking in Duesseldorf high school pupils [Interventionsstudie gegen das Zigarettenrauchen von Düsseldorfer Hauptschülern 1992-94]. Zeitschrift Kardiologie 1995;84:700-11.
Howard 1996 {published data only}
  • Howard JK, Bindler RM, Synoground G, van Gemert FC. A cardiovascular risk reduction program for the classroom. Journal of School Nursing 1996;12:4-11.
Johnson 2009 {published data only}
  • Johnson CC, Myers L, Webber LS, Boris NW. Profiles of the adolescent smoker:models of tobacco use among 9th grade high school students Acadiana Coalition of Teens against Tobacco (ACTT). Preventive Medicine 2004;39:551-8.
  • Johnson CC, Myers L, Webber LS, Boris NW, He H, Brewer D. A school-based environmental intervention to reduce smoking among high school students: The Acadiana Coalition of Teens against Tobacco (ACTT). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2009;6(4):1298-316.
Jøsendal 1998 (P) {published data only}

 

Jøsendal 1998 (P + T) {published data only}
Jøsendal 1998 (T) {published data only}

 

Kaufman 1994 {published data only}
Kellam 1998 (GBG) {published data only}
  • Kellam SG, Anthony JC. Targeting early antecedents to prevent tobacco smoking: findings from an epidemiologically based randomised field trial. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88:1490-5.
  • Kellam SG, Brown CH, Poduska JM, Ialongo NS, Wang W, Toyinbo P, et al. Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2008;95(Supplement 1):S5-28.
  • Kellam SG, Mackenzie AC, Brown CH, Poduska JM, Wang W, Petras H, et al. The good behavior game and the future of prevention and treatment. Addicion Science & Clincial Practice 2011;6(1):73-84.
  • Petras H, Kellam SG, Brown CH, Muthen BO, Ialongo NS, Poduska JM. Developmental epidemiological courses leading to antisocial personality disorder and violent and criminal behavior: Effects by young adulthood of a universal preventive intervention in first- and second- grade classrooms. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2008;95(Supplement 1):S45-59.
  • Poduska JM, Kellam SG, Wang W, Brown CH, Ialong NS, Toyinbo P. Impact of the Good Behavior Game, a universal classroom-based behavior intervention, on young adult service use for problems with emotions, behavior, or drugs or alcohol. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2008;95(Supplement 1):S29-44.
  • Wilcox H, Kellam SG, Brown CH, Poduska JM, Ialongo NS, Wang W, et al. The impact of two universal randomised first- and second-grade classroom interventions on young adult suicide ideation and attempts. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2008;95(Supplement 1):S60-73.
Kellam 1998 (ML) {published data only}

 

Laniado-Laborín 1993 {published data only}
  • Laniado-Laborín R, Molgaard CA, Elder JP. Effectiveness of a tobacco prevention programme in Mexican students [Efectividad de un programa de prevención de tabaquismo en escolares mexicanos]. Salud Publica de Mexico 1993;35(4):403-8.
La Torre 2010 (A) {published data only}
  • La Torre G, Chiaradia G, Monte L, Moretti C, Mannocci A, Capitanio D, et al. A randomised controlled trial of a school-based intervention to prevent tobacco use among children and adolescents in Italy. Journal of Public Health 2010;18(6):533-42.
La Torre 2010 (C) {published data only}

 

Lloyd 1983 {published data only}
  • Alexander HM, Callcott R, Dobson AJ, Hardes GR, Lloyd DM, O'Connell DL, et al. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: IV--factors associated with changes in smoking behaviour. International Journal of Epidemiology 1983;12:59-66.
  • Hardes GR, Alexander HM, Dobson AJ, Lloyd DM, O'Connell DL, Purcell I, et al. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren in the Hunter Region, New South Wales. I. Tobacco, alcohol and analgesic use in 10 to 12 year and primary school children. Medical Journal of Australia 1981;1:579-81.
  • LLoyd DM, Alexander HM, Callcott R, Dobson AJ, Hardes GR, O'Connell DL, et al. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: III - Evaluation of a smoking prevention education programme. International Journal of Epidemiology 1983;12:51-8.
Longshore 2006 {published data only}
  • Longshore D, Ellickson PL, McCaffrey DF, St Clair PA. School-based drug prevention among at-risk adolescents: effects of ALERT plus. Health Education & Behavior 2007;34(4):651-68.
  • Longshore D, Ghosh-Dastidar B, Ellickson PL. National youth anti-drug media campaign and school-based drug prevention: Evidence for a synergistic effect in ALERT plus. Addictive Behaviors 2006;31(3):496-508.
Lotrean 2010 {published data only}
  • Lotrean LM, Dijk F, Mesters I, Ionut C, De Vries H. Evaluation of a peer-led smoking prevention programme for Romanian adolescents. Health Education Research 2010;25(5):803-14.
MacPherson 1980 {published data only}
McCambridge 2011 {published data only}
  • McCambridge J, Hunt C, Jenkins RJ, Strang J. Cluster randomised trial of the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing for universal prevention. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011;114(2-3):117-84.
Murray 1984a {published data only}
Murray 1992 (MDEG) {published data only}

 

Murray 1992 (MSPP) {published data only}
Murray 1992 (SFG) {published data only}

 

Noland 1998 {published data only}
  • Noland MP, Kryscio RJ, Riggs RS, Linville LH, Ford VY, Tucker TC. The effectiveness of a tobacco prevention program with adolescents living in a tobacco-producing region. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88:1862-5.
Norman 2008 {published data only}
  • Norman CD, Maley O, Li X, Skinner HA. Using the internet to assist smoking prevention and cessation in schools: A randomised, controlled trial. Health Psychology 2008;27(6):799-810.
  • Norman CD, Skinner HA. Engaging youth in e-health promotion: lessons learned from a decade of TeenNet research. Adolescent Medicine 2007;18(2):357-69.
  • Skinner H, Maley O, Norman C. Website intervention for youth smoking prevention: findings from school-based randomised controlled trial. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 11th Annual Meeting, 20-23 March 2005; Prague, Czech Republic. 2005.
Nutbeam 1993 (FSE) {published data only}
  • Newman R, Nutbeam D. Teachers' views of the family smoking education project. Health Education Journal 1989;48:9-13.
  • Nutbeam D, Macaskill P, Smith C, Simpson JM, Catford J. Evaluation of two school smoking education programmes under normal classroom conditions. BMJ 9 January 1993;Vol 306:102-7.
Nutbeam 1993 (FSE+SAM) {published data only}

 

Nutbeam 1993 (SAM) {published data only}

 

O'Donnell 1995 {published data only}
Perry 1996 {published data only}
  • Komro KA, Perry CL, Veblen-Mortensen S, Williams CL. Peer participation in project Northland: a community-wide alcohol use prevention project. Journal of School Health 1994;64(8):318-22.
  • Perry CL, Williams CL, Forster JL, Wolfson M, Wagenaar AC, Finnegan JR, et al. Background, conceptualisation and design of a community-wide research program on adolescent alcohol use: Project Niorthland. Health Education Research 1993;8(1):125-36.
  • Perry CL, Williams CL, Veblen Mortenson S, Toomey TL, Komro KA, Anstine PS, et al. Project Northland: outcomes of a community wide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence [see comments]. American Journal of Public Health 1996;86(7):956-65.
Perry 2003 (Dare+ boys) {published data only}

 

Perry 2003 (Dare+ girls) {published data only}

 

Perry 2003 (Dare boys) {published data only}
  • Eischens A, Komro KA, Perry CL, Bosma LM, Farbakhsh K. The association of extracurricular activity participation with substance use among youth in the DARE Plus Project. American Journal of Health Education 2004;35(2):68-75.
  • Perry CL, Komro KA, Veblen-Mortenson S, Bosma LM, Farbakhsh K, Munson KA, et al. A randomised controlled trial of the middle and junior high school D.A.R.E. and D.A.R.E. Plus programs. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2003;157:178-84.
  • Perry CL, Komro KA. Veblen-Mortensen S, Bosma L, Munson K, Stigler M, et al. The Minnesota DARE PLUS project: Creating community partnerships to prevent drug use and violence. Journal of School Health 2000;70(3):84-8.
Perry 2003 (Dare girls) {published data only}

 

Perry 2009 {published data only}
  • Arora M, Gupta VK, Nazar GP, Stigler MH, Perry CL, Reddy KS. Impact of tobacco advertisements on tobacco use among urban adolescents in India: results from a longitudinal study. Tobacco Control 2012;21:318-24.
  • Arora M, Reddy KS, Stigler MH, Perry CL. Associations between tobacco marketing and use among urban youth in India. American Journal of Health Behavior 2008;32(3):283-94.
  • Babar AA, Stigler MH, Perry CL, Arora M, Shrivastav R, Reddy KS. Tobacco-use psychosocial risk profiles of girls and boys in urban India: implications for gender-specific tobacco intervention development. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2010;12(1):29-36.
  • Bate SL, Stigler MH, Thompson MS, Arora M, Perry CL, Reddy KS, et al. Psychosocial mediators of a school-based tobacco prevention program in India: results from the first year of project MYTRI. Prevention Science 2009;10(2):116-28.
  • Goenka S, Tewari A, Arora M, Stigler MH, Perry CL, Arnold JP, et al. Process evaluation of a tobacco prevention program in Indian schools--methods, results and lessons learnt. Health Education Research 2010;25(6):917-35.
  • Mishra A, Arora M, Stigler MH, Komro KA, Lytle LA, Reddy KS, et al. Indian youth speak about tobacco: results of focus group discussions with school students. Health Education & Behavior 2005;32(3):363-79.
  • Perry CL, Stigler MH, Arora M, Reddy KS. Preventing tobacco use among young people in India: Project MYTRI. American Journal of Public Health 2009;99(5):899-906.
  • Perry CL, Stigler MH, Arora M, Reddy KS. Prevention in translation: tobacco use prevention in India. Health Promotion Practice 2008;9(4):378-86.
  • Stigler MH, Perry CL, Arora M, Reddy KS. Why are urban Indian 6th graders using more tobacco than 8th graders? Findings from Project MYTRI. Tobacco Control 2006;15 Suppl 1:54-60.
  • Stigler MH, Perry CL, Arora M, Shrivastav R, Mathur C, Reddy KS. Intermediate outcomes from project MYTRI: Mobilizing youth for tobacco-related initiatives in India. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2007;16(6):1050-6.
  • Stigler MH, Perry CL, Smolenski D, Arora M, Reddy KS. A mediation analysis of a tobacco prevention program for adolescents in India: how did project MYTRI work?. Health Education & Behavior 2011;38(3):231-40.
Peterson 2000 {published data only}
  • Kealey KA, Peterson AV Jr, Gaul MA, Dinh KT. Teacher training as a behavior change process: principles and results from a longitudinal study. Health Education & Behavior 2000;27:64-81.
  • Mann SL, Peterson AV Jr, Marek PM, Kealey KA. The Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project trial: design and baseline characteristics. Preventive Medicine 2000;30:485-95. [MEDLINE: 20356663]
  • Peterson AV Jr, Kealey KA, Mann SL, Marek PM, Sarason IG. Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project: long-term randomised trial in school-based tobacco use prevention-results on smoking. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000;92:1979-91. [MEDLINE: 21063807]
  • Peterson AV Jr, Mann SL, Kealey KA, Marek PM. Experimental design and methods for school-based randomised trials: Experience from the Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project (HSSP). Controlled Clinical Trials 2000;21:144-65.
Piper 2000 (HFL) {published data only}
  • Moberg DP, Piper DL, Wu J, Serlin RC. When total randomisation is impossible: Nested randomised assignment. Evaluation Review 1993;17(3):271-91.
  • Piper DL, Moberg DP, King MJ. The healthy for life project: Behavioral outcomes. Journal of Primary Prevention 2000;21:47-73.
Piper 2000 (HFL Age) {published data only}

 

Prokhorov 2008 {published data only}
  • Minnix JA, Blalock JA, Marani S, Prokhorov AV, Cinciripini PM. Self-efficacy mediates the effect of depression on smoking susceptibility in adolescents. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2011;13(8):699-705.
  • Prokhorov AV, Kelder SH, Shegog R, Conroy JL, Murray N, Peters R, et al. Project ASPIRE: an interactive, multimedia smoking prevention and cessation curriculum for culturally diverse high school students. Substance Use & Misuse 2010;45(6):983-1006.
  • Prokhorov AV, Kelder SH, Shegog R, Murray N, Peters R, Jr, Agurcia-Parker C, et al. Impact of A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), an interactive, multimedia smoking prevention and cessation curriculum for culturally diverse high-school students. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2008;10(9):1477-85.
Rabinowitz 1974 {published data only}
  • Rabinowitz HS, Zimmerli WH. Effects of a health education program on junior high school students' knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning tobacco use. Journal of School Health 1974;64:324-30.
Reddy 2002 (School + F) {published data only}

 

Reddy 2002 (School only) {published data only}
  • Reddy KS, Arora M, Perry CL, Nair B, Kohli A, Lytle LA, et al. Tobacco and alcohol use outcomes of a school-based intervention in New Delhi. American Journal of Health Behavior 2002;26(3):173-81.
Resnicow 2008 (Harm Min) {published data only}

 

Resnicow 2008 (LST) {published data only}
  • Resnicow K, Reddy SP, James S, Gabebodeen OR, Kambaran NS, Langner HG, et al. Comparison of two school-based smoking prevention programs among South African high school students: results of a randomised trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2008;36(3):231-43.
  • Resnicow K, Zhang N, Vaughan RD, Reddy SP, James S, Murray DM. When intra-class correlation coefficients go awry: A case study from a school-based smoking prevention study in South Africa. American Journal of Public Health 2010;100(9):1714-8.
Ringwalt 2009a {published data only}
  • Clark HK, Ringwalt CL, Hanley S, Shamblen SR. Project ALERT's effects on adolescents' prodrug beliefs: a replication and extension study. Health Education & Behavior 2010;37(3):357-76.
  • Clark HK, Ringwalt CL, Shamblen SR, Hanley SM, Flewelling RL. Are substance use prevention programs more effective in schools making adequate yearly progress? A study of Project ALERT. Journal of Drug Education 2011;41(3):271-88.
  • Clark HK, Ringwalt Cl, Shamblen SR. Predicting adolescent substance use: The effects of depressed mood and positive expectancies. Addictive Behaviors 2011;36(5):488-93.
  • Ringwalt CL, Clark HK, Hanley S, Shamblen SR, Flewelling RL. Project ALERT: a cluster randomized trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2009;163(7):625-32.
  • Ringwalt CL, Kovach Clark H, Hanley S, Shamblen SR, Flewelling RL. The effects of Project ALERT one year past curriculum Completion. Prevention Science 2010;11:172-84.
Rohrbach 2010a {published data only}
  • Rohrbach LA, Gunning M, Sun P, Sussman S. The Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND) Dissemination Trial: Implementation fidelity and immediate outcomes. Prevention Science 2010;11:77-88.
  • Rohrbach LA, Sun P, Sussman S. One-year follow-up evaluation of the Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND) Dissemination Trial. Preventive Medicine 2010;51:313-9.
Scheier 2001 {published data only}
  • Scheier LM, Botvin GJ, Griffin KW. Preventive intervention effects on developmental progression in drug use: structural equation modelling analyses using longitudinal data. Prevention Science 2001;2(2):91-112.
Schinke 1984 {published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD. Preventing cigarette smoking with youth. Journal of Primary Prevention 1984;5:48-56.
Schinke 1985a {published data only}
Schinke 1985b {published data only}
Schinke 1985c {published data only}
Schinke 1986a {published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Bebel MY, Orlandi MA, Botvin GJ. Prevention strategies for vulnerable pupils. School social work practices to prevent substance abuse. Urban Education 1988;22(4):510-9.
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD, Schilling RF II, Senechal VA. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adolescents: trends and intervention results. Public Health Reports 1986;101:373-8.
Schinke 1986b {published data only}
Schinke 1986c {published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD. Preventing tobacco use among young people. Health and Social Work 1986;11:59-65.
Schinke 1988 {published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Botvin GJ, Trimble JE, Orlandi MA, Gilchrist LD, Locklear VS. Preventing substance abuse among American-Indian adolescents: A bicultural competence skills approach. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1988;35:87-90.
Schinke 2000 {published data only}
Schofield 2003 {published data only}
  • Lynagh M, Knight J, Schofield MJ, Paras L. Lessons learned from the Hunter Region Health Promoting Schools project in New South Wales, Australia. Journal of School Health 1999;9(6):227-32.
  • Schofield MJ, Lynagh M, Mishra G. Evaluation of a Health Promoting Schools program to reduce smoking in Australian secondary schools. Health Education Research 2003;18(6):678-92.
Scholz 2000 (G, female) {published data only}

 

Scholz 2000 (G, male) {published data only}
  • Scholz M, Kaltenbach M. Promoting non-smoking behavior in 13-year-old students in primary schools and high schools. A prospective, randomised intervention study with 1,956 students [Förderung des Nichtraucherverhaltens bei 13-jährigen Schülerinnen und Schülern von Realschule und Gymnasium. Eine prospektive, randomisierte Interventionsstudie bei 1956 Schülern]. Gesundheitswesen 2000;62(2):78-85.
Scholz 2000 (R, female) {published data only}

 

Scholz 2000 (R, male) {published data only}

 

Schulze 2006 {published data only}
Seal 2006 {published data only}
Severson 1991 (High, F) {published data only}

 

Severson 1991(high, M) {published data only}
  • Severson HH, Glasgow R, Wirt R, Brozovsky P, Zoref L, et al. Preventing the use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes by teens: results of a classroom intervention. Health Education Research 1991;6(1):109-20.
Severson 1991 (Middle, F) {published data only}

 

Severson 1991 (Middle, M) {published data only}

 

Shope 1996 {published data only}
Simons-Morton 2005 {published data only}
Sloboda 2009 {published data only}
  • Sloboda Z, Stephens RC, Stephens PC, Grey SF, Teasdale B, Hawthorne RD, et al. The Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study: A randomised field trial of a universal substance abuse prevention program.[see comment]. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2009;102(1-3):1-10.
  • Stephens PC, Sloboda Z, Grey S, Stephens R, Hammond A, Hawthorne R, et al. Is the receptivity of substance abuse prevention programming affected by students' perceptions of the instructor. Health Education & Behavior 2009;36(4):724-45.
  • Teasdale B, Stephens PC, Sloboda Z, Grey SF, Stephens RC. The influence of program mediators on eleventh grade outcomes for seventh grade substance users and nonusers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2009;102:11-8.
Smith 2004 {published data only}
  • Smith EA, Swisher JD, Vicary JR, Bechtel LJ, Minner D, Henry KL, et al. Evaluation of Life Skills Training and Infused-Life Skills Training in a rural setting: Outcomes at two years. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education 2004;48:51-70.
  • Swisher JD, Smith EA, Vicary JR, Bechtel LJ, Hopkins AM. A cost-effectiveness comparison of two approaches to life skills training. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education 2004;48:71-87.
  • Vicary JR, Smith EA, Swisher JD, Bechtel LJ, Elek E, Henry KL, et al. Results of a 3-year study of two methods of delivery of life skills training. Health Education & Behavior 2006;33:325-39.
Spoth 2001 (ISFP) {published data only}
  • Guyll M, Spoth RL, Wickrama KAS, Russell D. Family-focused preventive interventions: Evaluating parental risk moderation of substance use trajectories. Journal of Family Psychology 2004;18(2):293-301.
  • Spoth R, Redmond C, Shin C, Azevedo K. Brief family intervention effects on adolescent substance initiation: School-level growth curve analyses 6 years following baseline. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2004;72(3):535-42.
  • Spoth R, Reyes ML, Redmond C, Shin C. Assessing a public health approach to delay onset and progression of adolescent substance use: Latent transition and log-linear analyses of longitudinal family preventive intervention outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67(5):619-30.
  • Spoth R, Trudeau L, Guyll M, Shin C, Redmond C. Universal intervention effects on substance use among young adults by delayed adolescent substance initiation. Journal of Consulting and Clincial Psychology 2009;77(4):620-32.
  • Spoth RL, Redmond C, Shin C. Randomized trial of brief family interventions for general populations: adolescent substance use outcomes 4 years following baseline. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2001;69(4):627-42.
  • Trudeau L, Spoth R, Randall K, Azevedo K. Longitudinal effects of a universal family-focused intervention on growth patterns of adolescent internalising symptoms and polysubstance use: Gender comparisons. Journal of Youth Adolescence 2007;36:725-40.
Spoth 2001 (PDFY) {published data only}

 

Spoth 2002 (LST) {published data only}

 

Spoth 2002 (LST + SFP) {published data only}
  • Spoth R, Randall GK, Shin C, Redmond C. Randomised study of combined universal family and school preventive interventions: patterns of long-term effects on initiation, regular use, and weekly drunkness. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours 2005;19(4):372-81.
  • Spoth RL, Randall GK, Trudeau L, Shin C, Redmond C. Substance use outcomes 5½ years past baseline for partnership-based, family-school preventive interventions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2008;96(1-2):57-68.
  • Spoth RL, Redmond C, Trudeau L, Shin C. Longitudinal substance initiation outcomes for a universal preventive intervention combining family and school programs. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2002;16(2):129-34.
  • Trudeau L, Spoth R, Lillehoj C, Redmond C, Wickrama KAS. Effects of a preventive intervention on adolescent substance use initiation, expectancies, and refusal intentions. Prevention Science 2003;4(2):109-22.
Spoth 2007 {published data only}
  • Greenberg MT, Feinberg ME, Meyer-Chilenski S, Spoth R, Redmond, C. Community and team member factors that influence the early phase functioning of community prevention teams: the PROSPER Project. Journal of Primary Prevention 2007;28:485-504.
  • Redmond C, Spoth R, Shin C, Schainker LM, Greenberg MT, Feinberg ME. Long-term protective factor outcomes of evidence-based interventions implemented by community teams through a community-university partnership. Journal of Primary Prevention 2009;30:513-30.
  • Spoth R, Clair S, Greenberg MT, Redmond C, Shin C. Toward dissemination of evidence-based family interventions: Maintenance of community-based partnership recruitment results and associated factors. Journal of Family Psychology 2007;21(2):137-46.
  • Spoth R, Greenberg MT, Bierman K, Redmond C. PROSPER Community-university partnership model for public education systems: capacity-building for evidence-based, competence-building prevention. Prevention Science 2004;5(1):31-9.
  • Spoth R, Redmond C, Clair S, Shin C, Greenberg M, Feinberg M. Preventing substance misuse through community-university partnerships: Randomized controlled trial outcomes 4½ years past baseline. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2011;40(4):440-7.
  • Spoth R, Redmond C, Shin C, Greenberg M, Clair S, Feinberg M. Substance-use outcomes at 18 months past baseline. The PROSPER community-university partnership trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007;32(5):395-402.
Storr 2002 (CC) {published data only}
  • Furr-Holden CD, Ialongo NS, Anthony JC, Petras H, Kellam SG. Developmentally inspired drug prevention: middle school outcomes in a school-based randomised prevention trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2004;73:149-58.
  • Ialongo NS, Werthamer L, Kellam SG, Brown CH, Wang S, Lin Y. Proximal impact of two first-grade preventive interventions on the early risk behaviours for later substance abuse, depression, and antisocial behavior. American Journal of Community Psychology 1999;27(5):599-641.
  • Lambert SF, Brown TL, Phillips CM, Ialongo NS. The relationship between perceptions of neighbourhood characteristics and substance use among urban African American adolescents. Amerian Journal of Community Psychology 2004;34(3/4):205-18.
  • Ramchand R, Ialong NS, Chilcoat HD. The effect of working for pay on adolescent tobacco use. American Journal of Public Health 2007;97(11):2056-62.
  • Ramchand R, Ialongo NS, Chilcoat HD. Sex differences in the linkage between adolescent work experience and alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use in an urban environment. 67th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. 2005.
  • Storr CL, Ialongo NS, Kellam SG, Anthony JC. A randomised controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2002;66(1):51-60.
  • Wang Y, Browne DC, Petras H, Stuart EA, Wagner FA, Lambert SF, et al. Depressed mood and the effect of two universal first grade preventive interventions on survival to the first tobacco cigarette smoked among urban youth. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2009;100(3):194-203.
  • Wang Y, Ialongo N, Wagner FA, Lambert SF, Storr CL, Browne DC. Gender differences in the efficacy of intervention trials on preventing tobacco smoking among children and adolescents. 68th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. 2006.
  • Wang Y, Storr CL, Green KM, Zhu S, Stuart EA, Lynne-Landsman SD, et al. The effect of two elementary school-based preventions on being offered tobacco and the transition to smoking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2012;120:202-8.
Storr 2002 (FSP) {published data only}

 

St Pierre 2005 (Adult) {published data only}
  • St Pierre TL, Osgood DW, Mincemoyer CC, Kaltreider DL, Kauh TJ. Results of an independent evaluation of Project ALERT delivered in schools by cooperative extension. Pevention Science 2005;6(4):305-17.
  • St Pierre TL, Osgood DW, Siennick SE, Kauh TJ, Burden FF. Project ALERT with outside leaders: What leader characteristics are important for success?. Prevention Science 2007;8:51-64.
St Pierre 2005 (Teen) {published data only}

 

Sun 2008 (Cognitive) {published data only}
Sun 2008 (Combined) {published data only}

 

Sussman 1993 {published data only}
  • Burton D, Chakravorty B, Weeks K, Flay BR, Dent C, Stacy A, et al. Outcome of a tobacco use cessation randomised trial with high-school students. Substance Use & Misuse 2009;44(7):965-80.
  • Dent CW, Sussman S, Stacy AW, Craig S, Burton D, Flay BR. Two-year behavior outcomes of Project Towards No Tobacco Use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1995;63:676-7.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Hodgson CS, Burton D, Flay BR. Project Towards No Tobacco Use: implementation, process and post-test knowledge evaluation. Health Education Research 1993;8:109-23.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Sun P, Craig S, Simon TR, et al. Project Towards No Tobacco Use: 1-year behavior outcomes. American Journal of Public Health 1993;83:1245-50.
  • Turner GE, Burciaga C, Sussman S, Kleinselski E, Craig S, Dent CW, et al. Which lesson components mediate refusal assertion skill improvement in school-based adolescent tobacco use prevention. International Journal of the Addictions 1993;28(8):749-66.
Sussman 1995 TND1 CHS C {published data only}
  • Dent CW, Galaif ER, Sussman S, Stacy AW. Use of the "Theme Study" as means of curriculum development in continuation high schools. Journal of Drug Education 1996;26(4):377-93.
  • Dent CW, Sussman S, Hennesy M, Galaif ER, Stacy AW, Moss MA, et al. Implementation and process evaluation of a school-based drug abuse prevention program Project Towards No Drug Abuse. Journal of Drug Education 1998;28(4):361-75.
  • Simon TR, Sussman S, Dahlberg LL, Dent CW. Influence of a substance abuse prevention curriculum on violence-related behavior. American Journal of Health Behavior 2002;26(2):103-10.
  • Sun P, Unger JB, Sussman S. A new measure of smoking initiation and progression among adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior 2005;29(1):3-11.
  • Sun W, Skara S, Sun P, Dent CW, Sussman S. Project Towards No Drug Abuse: Long-Term substance use outcomes evaluation. Preventive Medicine 2006;42:188-192.
  • Sussman S. Development of a school-based drug abuse prevention curriculum for high risk youths. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1996;28(2):169-82.
  • Sussman S, Craig S, Simon TR, Galaif ER. School-as-community activity selection at continuation high schools. Substance Use & Misuse 1997;32(2):113-31.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW. Project Towards No Drug Abuse. In: Hansen WB, Giles SM, Fearnow-Kenney editor(s). Increasing Drug Prevention Effectiveness: Readings for Educators. Clemmons N.C.: Tanglewood Research, 1999:1-10.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Caig S, Ritt-Olsen A, McCuller WJ. Development and immediate impact of a self-instruction curriculum for an adolescent indicated drug abuse prevention trial. Journal of Drug Education 2002;32(2):121-37.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Simon TR, Stacy AW, Galaif ER, Moss AM, et al. Immediate impact of social influence-oriented substance abuse prevention curricula in traditional and continuation high schools. Drugs & Society 1995;8(3/4):65-81 (Simultaneous publication in: Prevention Practice in Substance Abuse. CG Leukefeld & RR Clayton (eds). The Haworth Press Inc. 1995, pp. 65-81).
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW. Project Towards No Drug Abuse: A review of the findings and future directions. American Journal of Health Behavior 2002;26(5):354-65.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Craig S. One-year outcomes of Project Towards No Drug Abuse. Preventive Medicine 1998;27:632-42.
  • Sussman S, Galaif ER, Newman R, Hennesy M, Pentz MA, Dent CW, et al. Implementation and process evaluation of a student "School-as-Community" group. Evaluation Review 1997;21(1):94-123.
  • Sussman S, Simon TR, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Galaif ER, Moss AM, et al. Immediate impact of thirty-two drug use prevention activities among students at continuation high schools. Substance Use & Misuse 1997;32(3):265-81.
  • Sussman S, Stacy AW, Dent CW, Simon TR, Galaif ER, Moss MA, et al. Continuation high schools: Youth at risk for drug abuse. Journal of Drug Education 1995;25(3):191-209.
  • Sussman S, Sun P, McCuller WJ, Dent CW. Project Towards No Drug Abuse: two-year outcomes of a trial that compares health educator delivery to self-instruction. Preventive Medicine 2003;37:155-62.
  • Sussman S, Yang D, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Dent CW. Drug abuse prevention program development: Results among Latino and non-Latino white adolescents. Evaluation & the Health Professions 2003;26:355-79.
Sussman 1995 TND1 CHS SAC {published data only}

 

Sussman 2007 {published data only}
  • Sun P, Miyano J, Rohrbach LA, Dent CW, Sussman S. Short-term effects of Project EX-4: A classroom-based prevention and cessation intervention program. Addictive Behaviors 2007;32:342-350.
  • Sussman S, Miyano J, Rohrbach LA, Dent CW, Sun P. Corrigendum to 'Six-month and 1-year effects of Project EX-4, a classroom-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention program. Addictive Behaviors 2010;35(8):803.
  • Sussman S, Miyano J, Rohrbach LA, Dent CW, Sun P. Six-month and one-year effects of Project EX-4: A classroom-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention program. Addictive Behaviors 2007;32:3005-14.
Telch 1990 (No peers) {published data only}

 

Telch 1990 (Peers) {published data only}
  • Telch MJ, Miller LM, Killen JD, Cooke S, Maccoby N. Social influences approach to smoking prevention: The effects of videotape delivery with and without same-age peer leader participation. Addictive Behaviors 1990;15:21-8.
Unger 2004 (CHIPS) {published data only}

 

Unger 2004 (FLAVOR) {published data only}
  • Johnson CA, Cen S, Gallaher P, Palmer PH, Xiao L, Ritt-Olson A, et al. Why smoking prevention programs sometimes fail. Does effectiveness depend on sociocultural context and individual characteristics?. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2007;16(6):1043-9.
  • Johnson CA, Unger JB, Ritt-Olson A, Palmer PH, Cen SY, Gallaher P, et al. Smoking prevention for ethnically diverse adolescents; 2-year outcomes of a multicultural, school-based smoking prevention curriculum in Southern California. Preventive Medicine 2005;40:842-52.
  • Unger JB, Chou CP, Palmer PH, Ritt-Olson A, Gallaher P, Cen S, et al. Project FLAVOR: 1-year outcomes of a multicultural, school-based smoking prevention curriculum for adolescents. American Journal of Public Health 2004;94(2):263-5.
  • Unger JB, Gallaher P, Palmer PH, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Trinidad DR, Cen S, et al. No news is bad news: Characteristics of adolescents who provide neither parental consent nor refusal for participation in school-based survey research. Evaluation Review 2004;28(1):52-63.
  • Valente TW, Hoffman BR, Ritt-Olson A, Lichtman K, Johnson CA. Effects of a social-network method for group assignment strategies on peer-led tobacco prevention programs in schools. American Journal of Public Health 2003;93:1837-43.
  • Valente TW, Unger JB, Ritt-Olson A, Cen SY, Anderson JC. The interaction of curriculum type and implementation method on 1-year smoking outcomes in a school-based prevention program. Health Education Research 2006;21(3):315-24.
  • Weiss JW, Mouttapa M, Cen S, Johnson CA, Unger J. Longitudinal effects of hostility, depression, and bullying on adolescent smoking initiation. Journal of Adolescent Health 2011;48(6):591-6.
Valente 2007 (TND) {published data only}
Valente 2007 (TNDNetwork) {published data only}

 

Van Lier 2009 {published data only}
  • Huizink AC, Van Lier PA, Crijnen AA. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking. European Addiction Research 2009;15(1):1-9.
  • Van Lier P, Huizink A, Crijnen A. Impact of a preventive intervention targeting childhood disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol initiation from age 10 to 13 years. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2009;100(3):228-33.
  • Van Lier PA, Huizink A, Vuijk P. The role of friends' disruptive behavior in the development of children's tobacco experimentation: results from a preventive intervention study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2011;39:45-57.
  • Van Lier PAC, Muthen BO, Van de Sar RM, Crijnen AAM. Preventing disruptive behaviour in elementary schoolchildren: impact of a universal classroom-based intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clincial Psychology 2004;72(3):467-78.
Vaughan 2007 {unpublished data only}

 

Villalbí 1993 {published data only}
  • Villalbí JR, Aubà J, Garcia González A. Results of a school addictive substances abuse prevention program: the Barcelona PASE pilot project [Resultados de un programa escolar de prevención del abuso de sustancia adictivas: proyecto piloto PASE de Barcelona]. Gaceta Sanitaria 1993;7:70-7.
  • Villalbí JR, Aubà J, García-González A. Evaluation of a project of primary prevention of smoking: the Barcelona PASE project [Evaluacion de un proyecto de prevencion primaria del tabaquismo: el proyecto piloto PASE de Barcelona]. Revista de Sanidad E Higiene Publica (Madrid) 1992;66:143-8.
Walter 1985 {published data only}
  • Walter HJ. Primary prevention of chronic disease among children: The school-based "Know Your Body" intervention trials. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):201-4.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL. Primary prevention of chronic disease in childhood: Changes in risk factors after one year of intervention. American Journal of Epidemiology 1985;122:772-81.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Modification of risk factors for coronary heart disease. Five-year results of a school-based intervention trial. New England Journal of Medicine 1988;318(17):1093-100.
  • Walter HJ, Wynder EL. The development, implementation, evaluation, and future directions of a chronic disease prevention program for children: The "Know Your Body" studies.. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:59-71.
Walter 1986 {published data only}
  • Walter HJ. Primary prevention of chronic disease among children: The school-based "Know Your Body" intervention trials. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):201-4.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Barrett LT, Connelly PA, Kost KL, Walk EH, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among children: three year results of a randomised intervention trial. In: Hetzel BS, Berenson GS editor(s). Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood: Epidemiology and prevention. Amsterdam: Elsevier North Holland Biomed, 1987:161-81.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL. Coronary heart disease prevention in childhood: One-year results of a randomised intervention study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1986;2:239-49.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Modification of risk factors for coronary heart disease. Five-year results of a school-based intervention trial. New England Journal of Medicine 1988;318(17):1093-100.
  • Walter HJ, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Primary prevention of cancer among children: Changes in cigarette smoking and diet after six years of intervention. Journal of National Cancer Institute 1989;81:995-9.
  • Walter HJ, Wynder EL. The development, implementation, evaluation, and future directions of a chronic disease prevention program for children: The "Know Your Body" studies.. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:59-71.
Weichold 2011 (Peer) {published data only}

 

Weichold 2012 (Teacher) {published data only}
  • Weichold K, Silbereisen RK. Peers and teachers as facilitators of the Life Skills Program IPSY - Results from a pilot study. Sucht 2012;58:247-58.
Wen 2010 {published data only}
  • Wen X, Chen W, Gans KM, Colby SM, Lu C, Liang C, et al. Two-year effects of a school-based prevention programme on adolescent cigarette smoking in Guangzhou, China: a cluster randomised trial. International Journal of Epidemiology 2010;39(3):860-76.
  • Wen XZ, Chen WQ, Lu CY, Liang CH, Zhang CX, Han K, et al. Process evaluation on a health promotion model regarding smoking prevention among Chinese secondary school students. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2007;28(3):224-8.
Werch 2005 {published data only}
  • Werch C, Moore MJ, Diclemente CC, Bledsoe R, Jobli E. A multi health behavior intervention integrating physical activity and substance use prevention for adolescents. Prevention Science 2005;6(3):213-26.
Zheng 2005 {published data only}
  • Zheng PP, Fu YY, Yang SY, Cui HW, Guo FX, Ye TT, et al. Smoking prevention and control among elementary school students in Xuhui district, Shanghai. Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 2005;26(10):782-5.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Aarø 1983 {published data only}
Abernathy 1994 {published data only}
  • Abernathy TJ. Compliance for Kids: A community-based tobacco prevention project. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1994;March-April:82-4.
Andrews 1984 {published data only}
Arciti 1986 {published data only}
  • Arciti C, Santi L. An Italian program of information and education on cancer prevention and the hazards of smoking: A 3-year report. Cancer Detection and Prevention 1986;9:421-7.
Arora 2011 {published data only}
  • Arora M, Stigler MH, Reddy KS. Effectiveness of health promotion in preventing tobacco use among adolescents in India: research evidence informs the National Tobacco Control Programme in India. Global Health Promotion 2011;18(1):9-12.
Aslan 2007 {published data only}
  • Aslan D, Sahin A. Adolescent peers and anti-smoking activities. Promotion et Education 2007;14(1):36-40.
Aßhauer 1999 {published data only}
  • Aßhauer M, Hanewinkel R. Life skills training and drug prevention in the primary school: Development, implementation and evaluation of primary prevention [Lebenskompetenzfðrderung und Suchtprophylaxe in der Grundschule: Entwicklung, Implementation und Evaluation primär -präventiver Unterrichtseinheiten]. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie 1999;7(4):158-71.
Ausems 2002 {published data only}
  • Ausems M, Mesters I, Van Breukelen G, De Vries H. Do Dutch 11-12 years old who never smoke, smoke experimentally or smoke regularly have different demographic backgrounds and perceptions of smoking?. European Journal of Public Health 2003;13(2):160-7.
  • Ausems M, Mesters I, Van Breukelen G, De Vries H. Short-term effects of a randomised computer-based out-of-school smoking prevention trial aimed at elementary school children. Preventive Medicine 2002;34:581-9.
  • Ausems M, Mesters I, Van Breukelen G, De Vries H. Smoking among Dutch elementary schoolchildren: gender-specific predictors. Health Education Research 2009;24(5):818-29.
Banerjee 2007 {published data only}
  • Banerjee SC, Greene K. Antismoking initiatives: effects of analysis versus production media literacy interventions on smoking-related attitude, norm, and behavioral intention. Health Communication 2007;22(1):37-48.
Barrueco 1998 {published data only}
  • Barrueco M, Vicente M, Garavís JL, García J, Blanco A, Rodríguez MC. Smoking prevention in the school: results of a 3-year program [Prevención del tabaquismo en la escuela: resultados de un programa realizado durante 3 años]. Archivos de Bronconeumologia 1998;34(7):323-8.
Beaglehole 1978 {published data only}
Becker 1992 {published data only}
Beets 2009 {published data only}
  • Beets MW, Flay BR, Vuchinich S, Snyder FJ, Acock A, Li K, et al. Use of a social and character development program to prevent substance use, violent behaviours, and sexual activity among elementary-school students in Hawaii. American Journal of Public Health 2009;99(8):1438-45.
Benni 2011 {published data only}
  • Benni E, Sacco S, Roncarolo F, Bonfanti M, Tenconi MT. Evaluation of the efficacy of a school-based program to prevent tobacco smoking among adolescents in Lombardy (Italy) [Valutazione dell'efficacia del programma ' Liberi di decidere' per la prevenzione del tabagismo nella Scuola Secondaria di secondo grado]. Igieni e Sanità Pubblica 2011;67(6):683-95.
Bergamaschi 2000 {published data only}
  • Bergamaschi A, Gambi A, Gentilini F, Monti C, Stampi S, Zanetti F. Tobacco smoking among high school students in Romagna (Italy) and evaluation of a prevention campaign. Substance Use & Misuse 2000;35(9):1277-95.
Berman 2011 {published data only}
  • Berman B, Guthmann A, Crespi CM, Liu W. Development and testing of an anti tobacco school-based curriculum for deaf and hard of hearing youth. American Annals of the Deaf 2011;155(5):592-604.
Bier 2011a {published data only}
  • Bier MC, Schmidt SJ, Shields D. School-based smoking prevention with media literacy: a pilot study. Journal of Media Literacy Education 2011;2(3):185-98.
Biglan 1987a {published data only}
  • Biglan A, Glasgow RE, Ary DV, Thompson R, Severson H, Lichtenstein E, et al. How generalisable are the effects of smoking prevention programs? Refusal skills training and parent messages in a teacher-administered program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1987;10:613-28.
Bloor 2000 {published data only}
  • Bloor M, Frankland J, Langdon NP, Robinson M, Allerston S, Catherine A, et al. A controlled evaluation of an intensive, peer-Ied, schools-based anti-smoking programme. Health Education JoumaI 1999;58:17-24.
Botvin 1989a {published data only}
Botvin 1989b {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Batson HW, Witts-Vitale S, Bess V, Baker E, Dusenbery L. A psychosocial approach to smoking prevention for urban black youth. Public Health Reports 1989;184(6):573-82.
Botvin 1992 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Dusenbury L, Baker E, James-Ortiz S, Botvin EM. Smoking prevention among urban minority youth: Assessing effects on outcome and mediating variables. Health Psychology 1992;11(5):290-9.
Botvin 1997 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Epstein JA, Baker E, Diaz T, Ifill-Williams M. School-based drug abuse prevention with inner-city minority youth. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 1997;6:5-19.
Botvin 2000 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Diaz T, Scheier LM, Williams C, Epstein JA. Preventing illicit drug use in adolescents: Long-term follow-up data from a randomised control trial of a school population. Addictive Behaviors 2000;25:769-74.
Botvin 2003 {published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Paul E, Macaulay AP. Preventing tobacco and alcohol use among elementary school students through LIfe Skills Training. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 2003;12(4):1-17.
Bowen 1991 {published data only}
Buhler 2008 {published data only}
Burke 1987 {published data only}
  • Burke JA, Naughton MJ, Becker SL, Arbogast R, Louer RM, Krohn MD. The short-term effects of competition and rewards in an adolescent smoking prevention program. Health Education Quarterly 1987;14(2):141-52.
Burke 1992 {published data only}
  • Burke JA, Salazar A, Daughety V, Becker SL. Activating interpersonal influence in the prevention of adolescent tobacco use: An evaluation of Iowa's Program Against Smoking. Health Communication 1992;4(1):1-17.
Calafat 1995 {published data only}
  • Calafat A, Amengual M, Guimerans C, Rodriguez Martos A, Ruiz R. Decide yourself: Ten years of a school prevention program ['Tu decides': 10 años de un programa de prevención escolar]. Adicciones 1995;7:509-26.
Caldwell 2009 {published data only}
  • Caldwell LL, Bradley S, Coffman D. A person-centred approach to individualizing a school-based universal preventive intervention. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 2009;35(4):214-19.
Calleja 2010 {published data only}
Calman 1985 {published data only}
  • Calman ALH, Carmichael S, Deans HG, Calman KC. Development of a primary school health education programme with special emphasis on the prevention of cigarette smoking. Health Education Journal 1985;44:65-8.
Charlton 1986 {published data only}
  • Charlton A. Evaluation of a family-linked smoking programme in primary schools. Health Education Journal 1986;45(3):140-4.
Chen 2006 {published data only}
  • Chen X, Fang X, Li X, Stanton B, Lin D. Stay away from tobacco: a pilot trial of a school-based adolescent smoking prevention program in Beijing, China. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2006;8(2):227-37.
Connell 1985 {published data only}
Cote 2006 {published data only}
  • Cote F, Godin G, Gagne C. Efficiency of an evidence-based intervention to promote and reinforce tobacco abstinence among elementary schoolchildren in a school transition period. Health Education & Behavior 2006;33(6):747-59.
Cruz 2009 {published data only}
  • Cruz GG, Ferrero MB, Coca IA, Maderuelo JA, Garcia MT. Program for the prevention of smoking in secondary school students. Archivos de Broncomeumologia 2009;45(1):16-23.
Danhua 2005 {published data only}
  • Danhua L, Xiaoyi F. Effects of different leaders on preventing adolescents' smoking behavior. Psychological Science (China) 2005;28(3):702-5.
Davis 1995 {published data only}
  • Davis SM, Lambert LC, Gomez Y, Skipper B. Southwest cardiovascular curriculum project: study findings for American Indian elementary students. Journal of Health Education 1995;26 Suppl:S72-S81.
De Jong 1987 {published data only}
Del Greco 1986 {published data only}
  • Del Greco L, Breitbach L, Rumer S, McCarthy RH, Suissa S. Four-year results of a youth smoking prevention program using assertiveness training. Adolescence 1986;21(83):631-40.
Dielman 1985 {published data only}
  • Dielman TE, Lorenger AT, Leech SL, Lyons AL, Klos DM, Horvath WJ. Fifteen-month follow-up results of an elementary school based smoking prevention project. Resisting pressures to smoke. Hygie 1985;4:28-35.
Donato 1994 {published data only}
  • Donato F, Monarca S, Savaresi AS, Coppini C, Olivetti A, Zanardini A, et al. Health education and smoking: a controlled study of an intervention carried out among the junior high school students in a local health screening unit [Educazione e fumo: studio controllato dell'efficaci di un intervento svolto tra studenti di scuola media inferiore dio una USSl]. Annale Igiene 1994;6:729-39.
Dupont 1984 {published data only}
Elder 1989 {published data only}
  • Elder JP, Atkins C, de Moor C, Edwards CC, Golbeck A, Hovell MF, et al. Prevention of tobacco use among adolescents in public schools in San Diego County, U.S. A.. Sozial und Praeventivmedizin 1989;34:24-9.
Emam Hadi 2008 {published data only}
  • Emam Hadi MA, Jalilvand M, Hadian M, Heydari G. Efficacy of different methods in decreasing the students' tendency towards smoking. Tanaffos 2008;7(3):53-8.
Epstein 2000a {published data only}
Errecart 1991 {published data only}
Evans 1978 {published data only}
  • Evans RI, Rozelle RM, Maxwell SE, Raines BE, Dill CA, Guthrie TJ. Social modelling films to deter smoking in adolescents: Results of a three-year field investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology 1981;66(4):399-414.
  • Evans RI, Rozelle RM, Mittelmark MB, Hansen WB, Bane AL, Havis J. Deterring the onset of smoking in children: Knowledge of immediate physiological effects and coping with peer pressure, media pressure, and parent modelling. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 1978;8:126-35.
Evans 1981 {published data only}
  • Evans RI, Rozelle RM, Maxwell SE, Raines BE, Dill CA, Guthrie TJ, et al. Social modelling films to deter smoking in adolescents: Results of a three-year field investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology 1981;66(4):399-414.
Flay 1987 {published data only}
  • Flay BR, Hansen WB, Johnson CA, Collins LM, Dent CW, Dwyer KM, et al. Implementaton effectiveness of a social influences smoking prevention program using schools and television. Health Education Research 1987;2(4):385-400.
Flay 2004 {published data only}
  • Flay BR, Graumich S, Segawa E, Burns JL, Holliday MY. Effects of 2 prevention programs on high-risk behaviours among African American youth. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2004;158:377-84.
  • Liu LC, Flay BR. Evaluating mediation in longitudinal multivariate data: Mediation effects for the Aban Aya Youth Project Drug Prevention Program. Prevention Science 2009;10:197-207.
Flynn 1992 {published data only}
  • Flynn BS, et al. Cigarette smoking prevention effects of mass media and school interventions targeted to gender and age groups. Journal of Health Education 1995;26(2):s45-51.
  • Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, Badger GJ, Geller BM, Costanza MC. Prevention of cigarette smoking through mass media intervention and school programs. American Journal of Public Health 1992;82:827-34.
  • Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, Pirie PL, Badger GJ, Carpenter JH. Long-term responses of higher and lower risk youth to smoking prevention interviews. Preventive Medicine 1997;26:389-94.
  • Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, Pirie PL, Badger GJ, Carpenter JH, et al. Mass media and school interventions for cigarette smoking prevention: Effects 2 years after completion. American Journal of Public Health 1994;84:1148-50.
Frydman 1985 {published data only}
  • Frydman M. Application and evaluation of antitobacco programs in schools [Mise au point, application et évaluation de programmes anti-tabac en milieu scolaire]. Psychotropes 1985;2(2):83-90.
Gilchrist 1987 {published data only}
  • Gilchrist LD, Schinke SP, Trimble JE, Cvetkovich GT. Skills enhancement to prevent substance abuse among American-Indian adolescents. International Journal of Addictions 1987;22:869-79.
Gillies 1984 {published data only}
Gingiss 2006 {published data only}
Gislason 1995 {published data only}
  • Gislason T, Yngvadottir A, Benediktsdottir B. Alcohol consumption, smoking and drug abuse among Icelandic teenagers: A study into the effectiveness of the 'Skills for Adolescence' programme. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 1995;2(3):243-58.
Gohlke 1989 {published data only}
  • Gohlke H, Gohlke-Bärwolf C, Peters K, Schmitt M, Katzenstein M, Gaida C, et al. Prevention of cigarette smoking at school: A prospective controlled study [Prävention des Zigarettenrauchens in der Schule: Eine prospektive kontrollierte Studie.]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1989;114. Jahrgang Nr. 46:1780-4.
Gomez 2009 {published data only}
  • Gomez CG, Barrueco FM, Aparicio CI, Maderuelo JA, Torrecilla GM. Program for the prevention of smoking in secondary school students. Archivos de Bronconeumologia 2009;45(1):16-23.
Gomez Fraguela 2003 {published data only}
  • Gomez Fraguela JA, Luengo Martin A, Romero Trinanes E. Drug-abuse prevention in the school: Four-year follow-up of a programme. Psychology in Spain 2003;7(1):29-38.
Gordon 1997 {published data only}
  • Gordon I, Whitear B, Guthrie D. Stopping them starting: evaluation of a community-based project to discourage teenage smoking in Cardiff. Health Education Journal 1997;56:42-50.
Gritz 1992 {published data only}
  • Gritz ER, Berman BA, Bastani R, Wu M. A randomised trial of a self-help smoking cessation intervention in a non volunteer female population: Testing the limits of the public health model. Health Psychology 1992;11(5):280-9.
Guilamo-Ramos 2010 {published data only}
  • Guilamo-Ramos V, Jaccard J, Dittus P, Gonzalez B, Bouris A, Banspach S. The linking lives health education program: a randomised clinical trial of a parent-based tobacco use prevention program for African American and Latino youths. American Journal of Public Health 2010;100(9):1641-7.
Hamm 1994 {published data only}
Hanewinkel 1996 {published data only}
  • Hanewinel R, Asshauer M. Effects of a smoking prevention programme in primary schools. In: Tudor-Smith C editor(s). Working together for better health: tackling tobacco. Cardiff: Health promotion Wales, 1999:179-91.
  • Hanewinkel R. The "Smokefree School:" Study of primary- and secondary-preventive interventions for parents, teachers and schoolchildren [Die "Rauchfreie Schule": Studie zu primär- und secundärpräventiven Interventionen für Eltern, Lehrer und Schüler]. Forum Sucht Band 14 Landschaftsverband Wesfalen-Lippe Koordinationstelle für Drogenfragen. Schloß Eringerfeld, 19./20 November 1996.
Hanewinkel 2003 {published data only}
  • Hanewinkel R, Wiborg G. Primary and secondary prevention of smoking in adolescence: Effects of the "Be Smart - Don't Start" campaign [Primär- und Sekundärprävention des Rauchens im Jugendalter: Effekte der Kampagne "Be Smart - Don't Start."]. Gesundheitswesen 2002;64:492-8.
  • Hanewinkel R, Wiborg G. Promotion of nonsmoking in the school: Results of a prospective controlled intervention study [Förderung des Nichtrauchens in der Schule: Ergebnisse einer prospektiven kontrollierten Interventionsstudie]. Sucht 2003;49(6):333-41.
  • Wiborg G, Hanewinkel R. Effectiveness of the "Smoke-Free Class Competition" in delaying the onset of smoking in adolescence. Preventive Medicine 2002;35:241-249.
  • Wiborg G, Hanewinkel R, Kliche K-O. Prevention of starting smoking through the campaign "Be Smart - Don't Start": an analysis by type of school [Verhütung des Einstiegs in das Rauchen durch die Kampagne "Be Smart - Don't Start ": eine Analyse nach Schularten]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 2002;127:430-6.
  • Wiborg, G, Hanewinkel R. Conception and process evaluation of a school non-smoking competition [Konzeption und Prozessevaluation eines schulischen Nichtraucherwettbewerbs]. Sucht 2001;47(1):S25-S32.
Hanewinkel 2004 {published data only}
Hansen 1982 {published data only}
  • Hansen WB, Evans RI. Feedback versus information concerning carbon monoxide as an early intervention strategy in adolescent smoking. Adolescence 1982;17(65):90-8.
Hansen 1988b {published data only}
  • Hansen WB, Malotte CK, Fielding JE. Evaluation of a tobacco and alcohol abuse prevention curriculum for adolescents. Health Education Quarterly 1988;15(1):93-114.
  • Hansen WB, Malotte CK, Fielding JE. Tobacco and alcohol prevention: Preliminary results of a four-year study. Adolescent Psychiatry 1987;14:556-75.
Hansen 1996 {published data only}
Hansen 1997 {published data only}
Harmon 1993 {published data only}
  • Harmon MA. Reducing the risk of drug involvement among early adolescents: An evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE). Evaluation Review 1993;17(2):221-39.
Harrell 1996 {published data only}
  • Harrell JS, McMurray RG, Bangdiwala SI, Frauman AC, Gansky SA, Bradley CB. Effects of a school-based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in elementary school children: The Cardiovascular Health in Children (CHIC) Study. Journal of Pediatrics 1996;128:797-805.
Harrell 1998 {published data only}
  • Harrell JS, Bangdiwala SI, Deng S, Webb JP, Bradley CB. Smoking initiation in youth: The roles of gender, race, socioeconomics, and developmental status. Journal of Adolescent Health 1998;23:271-9.
Hawkins 2009 {published data only}
  • Hawkins JD, Oesterle S, Brown EC, Arthur MW, Abbott RD, Fagan AA, et al. Resutls of a type 2 transitional research trial to prevent adolescent drug use and delinquency: a test of Communities that Care. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2009;163(9):789-98.
  • Kuklinski MR, Briney JS, Hawkins JD, Catalano RF. Cost-benefit analysis of communities that care outcomes at eighth grade. Prevention Science 2012;13(2):150-61.
Hecht 1993 {published data only}
  • Hecht ML, Corman SR, Miller-Rassulo M. An evaluation of the Drug Resistance Project: A comparison of film versus live performance media. Health Communication 1993;5:75-88.
Hiemstra 2009 {published data only}
  • Hiemstra M, Ringlever L, Otten R, Jackson C, Van Schayck OC, Engels RC. Efficacy of smoking prevention program 'smoke-free kids': study protocol of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2009;9:477.
Higgs 2000 {published data only}
  • Higgs PE, Harbin RE, Edwards D, Higgs PC. Evaluation of a self-directed smoking prevention and cessation program. Pediatric Nursing 2000;26(2):150-5.
Hinz 2007 {published data only}
  • Hinz A. A school-based smoking prevention programme: results from a gender-specific intervention for smokers and nonsmokers [Schulische Nikotinprävention. Ergebnisse einer raucherstatus- und geschlectergerechten Intervention]. Sucht: Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaft und Praxis 2007;53(1):42-51.
Hodder 2011 {published data only}
  • Hodder RK, Daly J, Freund M, Bowman J, Hazell T, Wiggers J. A school-based resilience intervention to decrease tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use in high school students. BMC Public Health 2011;11:722.
Homel 1981 {published data only}
  • Homel PJ, Daniels P, Reid TR, Lawson JS. Results of an experimental school-based health development programme in Australia. International Journal of Health Education 1981;24:263-70.
Hovell 1996 {published data only}
  • Hovell MF, Slymen DJ, Jones JA, Hofstetter CR, Burkham-Kreitner S, Conway TL, et al. An adolescent tobacco-use prevention trial in orthodontic offices. American Journal of Public Health 1996;86(12):1760-6.
Hrubá 2007 {published data only}
  • Hrubá D, Zachovalová V, Matějová H, Daňková I. "Our Class Does Not Smoke"; The Czech version of the "Smoke-Free Class Competition" Programme. Central European Journal of Public Health 2007;15(4):163-166.
Hruba 2012 {published data only}
  • Hrubá D, Zaloudiková I. What limits the effectiveness of school-based anti-smoking programmes?. Central European Journal of Public Health 2012;20(1):18-23.
Hurd 1980 {published data only}
  • Hurd PD, Johnson CA, Pechacek T, Bast LP, Jacobs DR, Luepker RV. Prevention of cigarette smoking in seventh grade students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1980;3:15-28.
  • Luepker RV, Johnson CA, Murray DM, Pechacek T. Prevention of cigarette smoking: Three-year follow-up of an educational program for youth. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1983;6:53-62.
Ishaq 2004 {published data only}
  • Ishaq M, Khan SMI. The successful outcome of the role of the mass media & school program in the prevention of smoking amongst adolescent high school boys. Chest: Abstracts of original investigations. 2004:867.
Jason 1982 {published data only}
Johnson 1986 {published data only}
Katz 1989 {published data only}
Kersch 1998 {published data only}
  • Kersch B. Tobacco-distance - An evaluation criterion of drug prevention measures in schools with 13 to 16 year old students. Results of a longitudinal study in Leipzig, Germany ["Tabakdistanz" -ein Evaluationskriterium unterrichtlicher Suchtpraeventionsmaßnahmen bei 13- bis 16 jaehrigen Schuelerinnen und Schuelern. Ergebnisse einer Leipziger Laengschnittstudie]. Sucht 1998;44(1):15-24.
Killen 1988 {published data only}
Killen 1989 {published data only}
Kim 1982 {published data only}
  • Kim S. Feeder Area Approach: An impact evaluation of a prevention program on student drug abuse. The International Journal of the Addictions 1982;17(2):305-13.
Kim 1993 {published data only}
Knutsen 1991 {published data only}
  • Knutsen SF, Knutsen R. The Tromso Survey: The Family Intervention Study - the effect of intervention on some coronary risk factors and dietary habits, a 6-year follow-up. Preventive Medicine 1991;20:197-212.
Kolpin 2008 {published data only}
  • Kolpin TG. Alcohol tobacco and other drugs prevention program for third grade students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 2008;69(4-A):2008, pp-A.
Kovach 2010 {published data only}
  • Kovach, Clark H, Ringwalt CL, Hanley S, Shamblen SR. Project ALERT's effects on adolescents' prodrug beliefs: a replication and extension study. Health Education & Behavior 2010;37(3):357-76.
Kröger 2000 {published data only}
  • Kröger C, Reese A. Substance abuse prevention in schools through life skills training-results of a four year intervention study [Schulische Suchtprävention nach dem Lebenskompetenzkonzept- Ergebnisse einer vierjährigen Jnterventionsstudie]. Sucht 46;3:209-17.
Kupersmidt 2010 {published data only}
  • Kupersmidt JB, Scull TM, Austin EW. Media literacy education for elementary school substance use prevention: study of media detective. Pediatrics 2010;126(3):525-31.
Kupersmidt 2012 {published data only}
  • Kupersmidt JB, Scull TM, Benson JW. Improving media message interpretation processing skills to promote healthy decision making about substance use: The effects of the middle school media ready curriculum. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives 2012;17:546-63.
Lammers 1984 {published data only}
  • Lammers JW, Kreuter MW, Smith BC. The effects of the SHCP on selected aspects of decision-making among fifth graders. Health Education 1984;March/April:14-17.
Ledwith 1985 {published data only}
  • Ledwith F, Osman L. The evaluation of a secondary school smoking education intervention. Health Education Journal 1985;44(3):131-5.
Lee 2007 {published data only}
  • Lee PH, Wu DM, Lai HR, Chu NF. The impacts of a school-wide no smoking strategy and classroom-based smoking prevention curriculum on the smoking behavior of junior high school students. Addictive Behaviors 2007;32(10):2099-107.
Lillington 1984 {published data only}
  • Lillington L, Royce J, Novak D, Ruvalcaba M, Chlebowski R. Evaluation of a smoking cessation program for pregnancy minority women. Cancer Practice 1995;3(3):157-63.
Litrownik 2000 {published data only}
  • Litrownik AJ, Elder JP, Campbell NR, Ayala GX, Slymen DJ, Parra-Medina D, et al. Evaluation of a tobacco and alcohol use prevention program for Hispanic migrant adolescents: promoting the protective factor of parent-child communication. Preventive Medicine 2000;31:124-33.
Lopez Gonalez 1998 {published data only}
  • Lopez González ML, Comas Fuentes A, Herrero Puente P, Pereiro Gallo S, Fernández Carral M, Thomas H, et al. Intervención educativa escolar para prevenir el tabaquismo: evaluación del proceso. Rev Esp Salud Pública 1998;72:303-318.
Luepker 1983 {published data only}
Lwegaba 2005 {published data only}
MacKinnon 1991 {published data only}
  • MacKinnon DP, Johnson CA, Pentz MA, Dwyer JH, Hansen WB, Flay BR, et al. Mediating mechanisms in a school-based drug prevention program: First-year effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project. Health Psychology 1991;10(3):164-72.
Malcon 2011 {published data only}
  • Malcon MC, Menezes AMB, Assuncao MCF, Neutzling MB, Challa P. Effectiveness of an educational intervention on smoking among school adolescents. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia 2011;14(1):63-72.
  • Malcon MC, Menezes AMB, Assuncao MCF, Neutzling MB, Hallal PC. Agreement between self-reported smoking and cotinine concentration in adolescents: A validation study in Brazil. Journal of Adolescent Health 2008;43:226-30.
McAlister 1980 {published data only}
McFall 1993 {published data only}
  • McFall SL, Michener A, Rubin D, Flay BR, Mermelstein RJ, Burton D, et al. The effects of maintenance newsletters in a smoking cessation intervention. Addictive Behaviors 1993;18:151-8.
Metz 2006 {published data only}
  • Metz AE, Fuemmeler BF, Brown RT. Implementation and assessment of an empirically validated intervention program to prevent tobacco use among African-American middle-school youth. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 2006;13(3):229-38.
Moberg 1990 {published data only}
Morehouse 2000 {unpublished data only}
  • Morehouse ER, Tobler NS. Third year cohort results and summary of Project SUCCESS over the three years. Project SUCCESS Final Report (obtained from the authors) 2000.
Moskowitz 1984 {published data only}
Murray 1982 {published data only}
  • Murray M, Swan AV, Clarke G. Long term effect of a school based anti-smoking programme. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1984;38:247-52.
  • Murray M, Swan AV, Enock C, Johnson MRD, Banks MH, Reid DJ. The effectiveness of the Health Education Council's "My Body" Schools Health Education Project. Health Education Journal 1982;41:126-32.
Murray 1984b {published data only}
  • Murray M, Rona RJ, Morris RW, Tait N. The smoking and dietary behaviour of Lambeth schoolchildren. I. The effectiveness of an anti-smoking and nutrition education programme for children. Public Health 1984;98:163-72.
Newman 1991 {published data only}
  • Newman R, Smith C, Nutbeam D. Teachers' views of the 'Smoking and Me' Project. Health Education Journal 1991;50(3):107-10.
Nichols 2006 {published data only}
  • Nichols TR, Graber JA, Brooks-Gunn J, Botvin GJ. Ways to say no: refusal skill strategies among urban adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior 2006;30(3):227-36.
Nilsson 2006 {published data only}
  • Nilsson M, Stenlund H, Bergstrom E, Weinehall L, Janlert U. It takes two: reducing adolescent smoking uptake through sustainable adolescent-adult partnership. Journal of Adolescent Health 2006;39(6):880-6.
Nishioka 2005 {published data only}
  • Nishioka N, Kawabata T, Minagawa K, Nakamura M, Ohshima A, Mochizuki Y. Three-year follow-up on the effects of a smoking prevention program for elementary school children with a quasi-experimental design in Japan. Japanese Journal of Public Health 2005;52(11):971-8.
  • Nishioka N, Kawabata T, Minagawa KH, Nakamura M, Oshima A, Mochizuki Y. The short-term effect of a smoking prevention program for the upper graders of elementary schools--the results of intervention study for two years with quasi-experimental design. [Japanese]. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 1996;43(6):434-45.
Ofstad 2007 {published data only}
  • Ofstad EH, Knudsen K, Skaare C, Svendsrud I, Tveit EJ, Gallefoss F, et al. A randomised controlled intervention study to prevent secondary school students from taking up smoking. American Thoracic Society International Conference, San Francisco, USA. May 18 - 23 2007.
Öhrig 2001 {published data only}
  • Öhrig E, Geiß HC, Haas G-M, Schwandt P. The Prevention Education Program (PEP) Nuremberg: design and baseline data of a family-oriented intervention study. International Journal of Obesity 2001;25(Suppl 1):589-92.
Olsen 1980 {published data only}
  • Olsen LK, Redican KJ, Krus PH. The School Health Curriculum Project: A review of research studies. Health Education 1980;11(1):16-21.
Parcel 1995 {published data only}
  • Brink AG, Basen-Engquist KM, O'Hara-Tompkins NM, Parcel GS, Gottlieb NH, Lovato CY. Diffusion of an effective tobacco prevention program. Part 1: evaluation of the dissemination phase. Health Education Research 1995;10(3):283-95.
  • Parcel GS, O'Hara-Tompkins N, Harrist RB, Basen-Engquist KM, McCormick LK, Gottlieb NH, et al. Diffusion of an effective tobacco prevention program. Part II: evaluation of the adoption phase. Health Education Research 1996;10(3):297-307.
Patrick 2009 {published data only}
  • Patrick ME, Collins LM, Smith E, Caldwell L, Flisher A, Wegner L. A prospective longitudinal model of substance use onset among South African adolescents. Substance Use & Misuse 2009;44(5):647-62.
Pederson 1981a {published data only}
  • Pederson LL, Baskerville JC, Lefcoe NM. Change in smoking status among school-aged youth: Impact of a smoking-awareness curriculum, attitudes, knowledge and environmental factors. American Journal of Public Health 1981;71(12):1401-4.
Pederson 1981b {published data only}
  • Pederson LL, Stennett RG, Lefcoe NM. The effects of a smoking education program on the behavior, knowledge and attitudes of children in grades 4 and 6. Journal of Drug Education 1981;11:141-9.
Pederson 1987 {published data only}
  • Pederson LL, Lefcoe NM. Short- and long-term prediction of self-reported cigarette smoking in a cohort of later adolescents: report of an 8-year follow-up of public school students. Preventive Medicine 1987;16(3):432-47.
Pentz 1989 {published data only}
  • Chou CP, Montgomery S, Pentz MA, Rohrbach LA, Johnson CA, Flay BR, et al. Effects of a community-based prevention program on decreasing drug use in high-risk adolescents. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88:944-8.
  • Duan L, Chou CP, Andreeva VA, Pentz MA. Trajectories of peer social influences as long-term predictors of drug use from early through late adolescence. Journal of Youth & Adolescence 2009;38(3):454-65.
  • Johnson CA, Pentz MA, Weber MD, Dwyer JH, Baer N, MacKinnon DP, et al. Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuse prevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1990;58:447-56.
  • MacKinnon DP, Johnson CA, Pentz MA, Dwyer JH, Hansen WB, Flay BR, et al. Mediating mechanisms in a school-based drug prevention program: First-effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project. Health Psychology 1991;10:164-72.
  • Pentz MA, Dwyer JH, MacKinnon DP, Flay BR, Hansen WB, Wang EY, et al. A multi-community trial for primary prevention of adolescent drug abuse. Effects on drug use prevalence. American Journal of Public Health 1989;261:3259-66.
  • Pentz MA, MacKinnon DP, Dwyer JH, Wang EYI, Hansen WB, Flay BR, et al. Longitudinal effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project on regular and experimental smoking in adolescents. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:304-21.
  • Pentz MA, MacKinnon DP, Flay BR, Hansen WB, Johnson CA, Dwyer JH. Primary prevention of chronic diseases in adolescence: Effects of the Midwester prevention project on tobacco use. American Journal of Epidemiology 1989;130(4):713-24.
  • Rohrbach LA, Hodgson CS, Broder BI, Montgomery SB, Flay B, Hansen WB, et al. Parental participation in drug abuse prevention: Results from the Midwestern Prevention Project. Journal of Research on Adolescence 1994;4(2):295-317.
Perry 1980 {published data only}
  • Perry C, Killen J, Telch M, Slinkard LA, Danaher BG. Modifying smoking behavior of teenagers: A school-based intervention. American Journal of Public Health 1980;70:722-5.
  • Perry CL, Killen J, Slinkard LA. Peer teaching and smoking prevention among junior high students. Adolescence 1980;15(58):277-81.
  • Perry CL, Maccoby N, McAlister AL. Adolescent smoking prevention: A third year follow-up. World Smoking and Health 1980;50:40-5.
Perry 1990 {published data only}
Perry 1992 {published data only}
  • Blackburn H, Luepker RV, Kline FG, et al. The Minnesota Heart Health Program: a research and demonstration project in cardiovascular disease prevention. In: Matarazzo JD, Weiss SM, Herd JA, et al. editor(s). Behavioral Health: A Handbook of Health Enhancement and Disease Prevention. New York: Wiley, 1984:1171-8.
  • Jacobs DR Jr, Lueker RV, Mittelmark MB, Folsom AR, Pirie PL, Mascioli SR, et al. Community-wide prevention strategies: evaluation design of the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1986;39:775-88.
  • Klepp KI, Halper I, Perry CL. The efficacy of peer leaders in drug abuse prevention. Journal of School Health 1986;56:407-11.
  • Perry CL, Griffin G, Murray DM. Assessing needs for youth health promotion. Preventive Medicine 1985;14:379-93.
  • Perry CL, Jessor R. The concept of health promotion and the prevention of adolescent drug abuse. Health Education Quarterly 1985;12:169-84.
  • Perry CL, Kelder SH, Klepp KI. Community-wide cardiovascular disease prevention in young people: long-term outcomes of the Class of 1989 Study. European Journal of Public Health 1994;4:188-94.
  • Perry CL, Kelder SH, Murray DM, Klepp KI. Community-wide smoking prevention: Long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program and the Class of 1989 Study. American Journal of Public Health 1992;82(9):1210-6.
  • Perry CL, Klepp KI, Siler C. Community-wide strategies for cardiovascular health: the Minnesota Heart Health Program youth program. Health Education Research 1989;4:87-101.
Perry 1999 {published data only}
  • Perry CL, Komro KA, Dudovitz B, Veblen-Mortensen S, Jeddeloh R, Koele R, et al. An evaluation of a theatre production to encourage non-smoking among elementary age children: 2 Smart 2 Smoke. Tobacco Control 1999;8:169-74.
Pertusa 2011 {published data only}
  • Pertusa M, Rodriguez JA, Sanchez JP. Effectiveness of two smoking prevention programs according to type of applicator [Efi cacia diferencial de dos programas de prevención escolarsobre el consumo de tabaco, según el tipo de aplicador]. Psicothema 2011;23(4):537-43.
Pfau 1994 {published data only}
Philips 1990 {published data only}
  • Philips BU, Longoria JM, Parcel GS, Ebeling EW. Expectations of preschool children to protect themselves from cigarette smoke: Results of a smoking prevention program for preschool children. Journal of Cancer Education 1990;5(1):27-31.
Pilgrim 1998 {published data only}
  • Pilgrim C, Abbey A, Hendrickson P, Lorenz S. Implementation and impact of a family-based substance abuse prevention program in rural communities. Journal of Primary Prevention 1998;18(3):341-61.
Piper 1971 {published data only}
  • Piper GW, Jones JA, Matthews VL. The Saskatoon Smoking Study - Results of the first year. Canadian Journal of Public Health September/0ctober 1971;62:432-40.
  • Piper GW, Jones JA, Matthews VL. The Saskatoon Smoking Study - Results of the second year. Canadian Journal of Public Health March/April 1974;62:127-9.
Pomrehn 1995 {published data only}
  • Pomrehn PR, Jones MP, Ferguson KJ, Becker SL. Tobacco use initiation in middle school children in three Iowa communities: Results of the Iowa Program Against Smoking (I-PAS). Journal of Health Education 1995;26:92-100.
Price 1992 {published data only}
  • Price JH, Telljohann SK, Roberts SM, Smit D. Effects of incentives in an inner city junior high school smoking prevention program. Journal of Health Education 1992;23:388-96.
Price 1998 {published data only}
Primack 2009 {published data only}
  • Primack BA, Fine D, Yang CK, Wickett D, Zickmund S. Adolescents' impressions of anti-smoking media literacy education: qualitative results from a randomised controlled trial. Health Education Research 2009;24(4):608-21.
Prinz 2000 {published data only}
  • Dumas JE. Lynch AM. Laughlin JE. Phillips Smith E. Prinz RJ. Promoting intervention fidelity. Conceptual issues, methods, and preliminary results from the EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2001;20(1 Suppl):38-47.
  • Prinz RJ, Dumas JE, Smith EP, Laughlin JE. The EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial. A dual design to test reduction of risk for conduct problems, substance abuse, and school failure in childhood. Controlled Clinical Trials 2000;21(3):286-302.
  • Prinz RJ, Smith EP, Dumas JE, Laughlin JE, Barron R. Recruitment and retention of participants involving family-based interventions. Am J Prev Med 2001;20(1 Suppl):31-37.
Prokhorov 1994 {published data only}
  • Prokhorov AV, Alexandrov AA. Prevention of adolescent smoking in Russia: General situation and results from a Moscow randomized trial. European Journal of Public Health 1994;4:169-74.
Reimers 1990 {published data only}
Renaud 2003 {published and unpublished data}
Ringwalt 1991 {published data only}
Ringwalt 2009b {published data only}
  • Giles S, Jackson-Newsom J, Pankratz MM, Hansen WB, Ringwalt CL, Dusenbury L. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program. Journal of Primary Prevention 2008;29:489-501.
  • Ringwalt CL, Pankratz MM, Gottfredson NC, Jackson-Newsom J, Dusenbury L, Giles D, et al. The effects of students' curriculum engagement, attitudes toward their teachers, and perception of their teachers' skills on school-based prevention curriculum outcomes. Journal of Drug Education 2009;39(3):223-37.
  • Ringwalt CL, Pankratz MM, Hansen WB, Dusenbury L, Jackson-Newsom J, Giles SM, et al. The potential of coaching as a strategy to improve the effectiveness of school-based substance use prevention curricula. Health Education & Behavior 2009;36(4):696-710.
Robinson 1999 {published data only}
  • Robinson LA, Klesges RC, Levy MC, Zbikowski SM. Preventing cigarette use in a bi-ethnic population: Results of the Memphis Smoking Prevention Program. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 1999;6:136-43.
Rohrbach 1993 {published data only}
Rohrbach 2010b {published data only}
  • Rohrbach LA, Gunning M, Grana R, Gunning G, Sussman S. Dissemination of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND): Findings from a survey of program adopters. Substance & Misuse 2010;45:2551-66.
Roncarolo 2008 {published data only}
  • Roncarolo F, Ramella FC, Rizzo M, Vlacos E, Bonfanti M, Tenconi MT. Effectiveness of the project "I don't smoke, and you?" against smoking in a secondary school in Italy. Igiene e Sanità Pubblica 2008;64(6):773-86.
Sarvela 1987 {published data only}
Schaps 1986 {published data only}
  • Shaps E, Moskowitz JM, Malvin JH, Schaeffer GA. Evaluation of seven school-based prevention programs: A final report on the Napa Project. International Journal of the Addictions 1986;21(9/10):1081-112.
Schinke 1982 {published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Blythe BJ. Cognitive-behavioral prevention of children's smoking. Child Behavior Therapy 1982;3:25-42.
Schinke 1983 {published data only}
Schinke 1994 {published data only}
Schinke 1996 {published data only}
Schinke 2004 {published data only}
  • Schinke SR, Schwinn TM, Noia JD, Cole KC. Reducing the effects of alcohol use among urban youth: Three-year effects of a computer-based intervention with and without parental involvement. Journal of Studies in Alcohol 2004;65:443-9.
Schinke 2005 {published data only}
Scholz 1985 {published data only}
  • Scholz H. Experience of anti smoking training for pupils [Erfahrungen aus einem Nichtrauchertraining mit Schülern]. Prävention 1985 8 Jahrgang;2(1):57-9.
Secker-Walker 1997 {published data only}
  • Secker-Walker RH, Worden K, Holland RR, Flynn BS, Detsky SS. A mass media programme to prevent smoking among adolescents: costs and cost effectiveness. Tobacco Control 1997;6:207-12.
Secker-Walker 1998 {published data only}
  • Secker-Walker RH, Solomon LJ, Flynn BS, Skelly JM, Mead PB. Reducing smoking during pregnancy and postpartum: Physician's advice supported by individual counselling. Preventive Medicine 1988;27:422-30.
Seid 1994 {published data only}
  • Seid M. The prevention of tobacco use: The S.T.E.P. program. Peer Facilitator Quarterly 1994;12(2):23-9.
Shaffer 1983 {published data only}
Skinner 1985 {published data only}
Sorensen 2012 {published data only}
  • Sorensen G, Gupta PC, Nagler E, Viswanath K. Promoting life skills and preventing tobacco use among low-income Mumbai youth: effects of Salaam Bombay Foundation intervention. PLOS ONE 2012;7(4):e34982.
Spitzzeri 1979 {published data only}
Steenkamp 1990 {published data only}
  • Steenkamp HJ, Jooste PL, Jordaan PCJ, Swanepoel ASP, Rossouw JE. Changes in smoking during a community-based cardiovascular disease intervention programme. South African Journal of Medicine 1990;79:250-3.
Stone 1978 {published data only}
Sussman 2001b {published data only}
  • Lichtman K, Dent CW, Colwell B, Smith DW, Sussman S. Case Study - Project EX component study. In: Sussman S editor(s). Handbook of program development for health behaviour research and practice. Sage, 2000:348-60.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Lichtman KL. Project EX: Outcomes of a teen smoking cessation program. Addictive Behaviors 2001;26:425-38.
Svoen 1999 {published data only}
  • Svoen N, Schei E. Adolescent smoking prevention - primary health care in cooperation with local schools: A controlled intervention study. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 1999;17:54-8.
Szymborski 1999 {published data only}
  • Szymborski J, Kowalczyk T, Sito A. Anti-smoking educational programmes for children and young people at different educational levels [Edukacyjne programy antytytoniowe dla Dzieci i Mlodziezy na róznych poziomach nauczania]. Medycyna Wieku Rozwojowego 1999;4:471-84.
Telch 1982 {published data only}
Tell 1984 {published data only}
  • Klepp KI, Tell GS, Vellar OD. Ten-year follow-up of the Oslo Youth Study Smoking Prevention Program. Preventive Medicine 1993;22:453-62.
  • Klepp KI, Øygard L, Tell GS, Vellar OD. Twelve-year follow-up of a school-based health education programme: The Oslo Youth Study. European Journal of Public Health 1994;4:195-200.
  • Tell GS, Klepp KI, Vellar OD, McAlister A. Preventing the onset of cigarette smoking in Norwegian adolescents: The Oslo Youth Study. Preventive Medicine 1984;13:256-75.
  • Øygard L, Klepp KI, Tell GS, Vellar OD. Parental and peer influences on smoking among young adults: ten-year follow-up of the Oslo youth study participants. Addiction 1995;90:561-9.
Tessier 2008 {published data only}
  • Tessier SF, Bissette E, Bantegnie D, Lebeau C. Evaluation of a tobacco prevention program in secondary schools of the Ile-de-France region. Alcoologie et Addictologie 2008;30(2):173-80.
Thompson 2010 {published data only}
  • Thompson B, McLerran D, Livaudais JC, Coronado GD. A group-randomised tobacco trial among 30 Pacific Northwest colleges: results from the Campus Health Action on Tobacco study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2010;12(6):635-6.
Tudor-Smith 1998 {published data only}
  • Tudor-Smith C, Nutbeam D, Moore L, Catford J. Effects of the Heartbeat Wales programme for over five years on behavioural risks for cardiovasacular disease: quasi-experimental comparison of results from Wales and a matched reference area. BMJ March 14 1998;316(7134):818-822 (Comments BMJ September 26 1998;317(7162):886; and BMJ 26 September 1998;317(7162):887).
Turner 1993 {published data only}
  • Turner GE, Burciaga C, Sussman S, Klein-Selski E, Craig S, Dent CW, et al. Which lesson components mediate refusal assertion skill improvement in school-based adolescent tobacco use prevention?. International Journal of the Addictions 1993;28:749-66.
Van Dyke 2002 {published data only}
  • Van Dyke EM, Riesenberg LA. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention at changing preadolescents' tobacco use and attitudes. Journal of School Health 2002;72(6):221-5.
Vartiainen 1998 {published data only}
  • Vartiainen E, Fallonen U, McAlister AL, Puska P. Eight-year follow-up results of an adolescent smoking prevention project: The North Karelia Youth Project. American Journal of Public Health 1990;80(1):78-9.
  • Vartiainen E, Paavola M, McAlister A, Puska P. Fifteen-year follow-up of smoking prevention effects in the North Karelia Youth Project. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88(1):81-5.
  • Vartiainen E, Pallonen U, McAlister A, Koskela K, Puska P. Four-year follow-up results of the smoking prevention program in the North Karelia Youth project. Preventive Medicine 1986;15:692-8.
  • Vartiainen E, Puska P, Tossavainen K, Viri L, Niskanen E, Moisio S. Prevention of non-communicable diseases: Risk factors in youth. The North Karelia Youth Project (1984-88). Health Promotion 1989;1(3):269-83.
  • Vartiainen E, Tossavainen K, Viri L, Niskanen E, Puska P. The North Karelia Youth Project. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1991;23:332-49.
  • Vartianinen E, Pallonen U, McAlister A, Koskela K, Puska P. Effect of two years of educational intervention on adolescent smoking (The North Karelia Youth Project). Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 1983;61(3):529-32.
Wagner 2006 {published data only}
  • Wagner EF, MacGowan MJ. School-based group treatment for adolescent substance abuse. In: HA Liddle, CL Rowe editor(s). Adolescent substance abuse: research and clinical advances. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006:333-56.
Wahlgren 1997 {published data only}
  • Wahlgren OR, Hovell MF, Slymen OJ, Conway TL, Hofstetter CR, Jones JA. Predictors of tobacco use initiation in adolescents: a two-year prospective study and theoretical discussion. Tobacco Control 1997;6:95-103.
Walsh 2003 {published data only}
  • Walsh MM, Hilton JF, Ellison JA, Gee L, Chesney MA, Tomar SL, et al. Spit (smokeless) tobacco intervention for high school athletes. Results after 1 year. Addictive Behaviors 2003;28(6):1095-113.
Webster 2002 {published data only}
Wenzel 2007 {published data only}
  • Buhler A, Schroder E, Silbereisen RK. The role of life skills promotion in substance abuse prevention: a mediation analysis. Health Education Research 2008;23(4):621-32.
  • Wenzel V, Weichold K, Silbereisen RK. School-type-specific effectiveness of a life-skills programme to influence tobacco use of students in college-bound and professional-level schools. Sucht 2007;53:335-46.
  • Wenzel V, Weichold K, Silbereisen RK. The life skills program IPSY: positive influences on school bonding and prevention of substance misuse. Journal of Adolescence 2009;32(6):1391-401.
Werch 1991 {published data only}
Werch 2008 {published data only}
  • Werch CE, Bian H, Moore MJ, Ames SC, DiClemente CC, Thombs D, et al. Brief multiple behavior health interventions for older adolescents. American Journal of Health Promotion 2008;23(2):92-6.
Wiist 1991 {published data only}
Williamson 1981 {published data only}
Worden 1988 {published data only}
  • Worden JK, Flynn BS, Geller BM, Chen M, Shelton LG, Secker-Walker RH, et al. Development of a smoking prevention mass media program using diagnostic and formative research. Preventive Medicine 1988;17:531-58.
Worden 1996 {published data only}
Wu 2003 {published data only}
  • Santon B, Cole M, Galbraith J, Li X, Pendleton S, Cottrell L, et al. Randomized trial of a parental intervention. Parents can make a difference in long-term adolescent behaviours, perceptions, and knowledge. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2004;158:947-55.
  • Wu Y, Stanton BF, Galbraith J, Kaljee L, Cottrell L, Li X, et al. Sustaining and broadening intervention impact: A longitudinal randomised trial of 3 adolescent risk reduction approaches. Pediatrics 2003;111(1):e32-e38.
Young 1996 {published data only}
Zavela 2004 {published data only}
  • Zavela KJ, Battistich V, Dean BJ, Flores R, Barton R, Delaney RJ. Say Yes First: A longitudinal, school-based alcohol and drug prevention project for rural youth and families. Journal of Early Adolescence 1997;17:67-96.
  • Zavela KJ, Battistich V, Gosselink CA, Dean BJ. Say Yes First: Follow up of a five-year rural drug prevention program. Journal of Drug Education 2004;34(1):73-88.
Zheng 2006 {published data only}
  • Zheng PP, Cui HW, Fu YY, Yang SY. Smoking prevention and control among students of middle schools in Shanghai. Wei sheng yan jiu [Journal of Hygiene Research] 2006;35(3):331-5.
Zoller 1986 {published data only}
  • Zoller U, Maymon T. Attitude modification in health education through an interventive, anti smoking program incorporated within traditional science curriculum. Journal of Research in Science Education 1989;26:385-99.
  • Zoller U, Maymon T. Effectiveness evaluation of smoking, drug, and alcohol education courses via actual relevant behavior (The smoking education curriculum MSACS as an illustrative case study). Journal of Drug Education 1986;16:1-12.
Zollinger 2003 {published data only}

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Andrews 2011 {published data only}
  • Andrews JA, Gordon JS, Hampson SE, Christiansen SM, Gunn B, Slovic P, et al. Short-term efficacy of Click City: Tobacco: changing etiological mechanisms related to the onset of tobacco use. Prevention Science 2011;12(1):89-102.
Bier 2011b {published data only}
  • Bier MC, Zwarun L, Fehrmann Warren V. Getting universal primary tobacco use prevention into priority area schools: a media literacy approach. Health Promotion Prcatice 2011;12:152S-8S.
Cremers 2012 {published data only}
  • Cremers HP, Mercken L, Oenema A, De Vries H. A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol. BMC Public Health 2012;12:277.
Evers 2012 {published data only}
  • Evers KE, Paiva AL, Johnson JL, Cummins CO, Prochaska JO, Prochaska JM, et al. Results of a transtheoretical model-based alcohol, tobacco and other drug intervention in middle schools. Addictive Behaviors 2012;37:1009-18.
Kirshnan-Sarin 2012 {published data only}
  • Krishnan-Sarin S. Incentive-based intervention for smoking cessation and prevention in high schools. Clinical Trials NCT01173835 2012.
O'Leary-Barrett 2011 {published data only}
  • O'Leary-Barrett M, Topper L, MacKie CJ, Castellanos-Ryan N, Al-Khudhairy N, Conrod PJ. The adventure RCT: Effective delivery of personality-targeted interventions for substance misuse by educational professionals. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00776685 2010.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Adams 2008
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Altman 2007
Bandura 1977
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Bangert-Drowns 1988
Botvin 1984
Cochrane Handbook
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Epstein 2000b
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Evans 1976
Griffin 2010
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Higgins 2003
Kenward 2009
McGuire 1968
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Molenberghs 2004
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Pechacek 1984
Pletcher 2000
SAMHSA 2009
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Tyas 1998
Villanti 2010
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Warren 2009
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Wenter 2002
  • Wenter DL, Blackwell S, Davis KS, Farrelly MC. Using multiple strategies in tobacco use prevention. Legacy first look report 8 [http://www.americanlegacy.org/content/PDF/FLR8.pdf]. Washington, DC: American Legacy Foundation, February 2002.
WHO 2000
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Wiehe 2005
Wood 2008
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Thomas 2002
Thomas 2006