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Intervention Review

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School-based programmes for preventing smoking

  1. R Thomas

Editorial Group: Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group

Published Online: 22 APR 2002

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001293

How to Cite

Thomas R. School-based programmes for preventing smoking. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD001293. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001293.

Author Information

*Prof Roger Thomas, Professor of Family Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, UCMC, #1707-1632 14th Avenue, Calgary, Alberta, T2M 1N7, CANADA. rthomas@ucalgary.ca.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 22 APR 2002

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Abernathy 1992{published data only}
  • Abernathy TJ, Bertrand LD. Preventing cigarette smoking among children: Results of a four-year evaluation of the PAL program. Can J Public Health 1992;83:226-229. [MedLine: 92405049].
  • Bertrand L, Abernathy TJ. Predicting smoking among adolescents using cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. J School Health 1993;63:100-105.
Andrews 1984{published data only}
  • Andrews RL, Hearne JT. Effects of Primary Grades Health Curriculum Project on student and parent smoking attitudes and behavior. Journal of School Health 1984;54:18-20. [MedLine: 84140186].
Armstrong 1990{published data only}
  • Armstrong BK, de Klerk NH, Shean RE, Dunn DA, Dolin PJ. Influence of education and advertising on the uptake of smoking by children. Medical J Australia 1990;152:117-124. [MedLine: 90136263].
  • Fisher DA, Armstrong BK, de Klerk NH. A randomised-controlled trial of education for prevention of smoking in 12 year old children. Proceedings of the 5th World Conference on Smoking and Health, Winnipeg, Canada 1983. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Smoking and Health, 1985.
  • Shean RE, de Klerk NH, Armstrong BK, Walker NR. Seven-year follow-up a smoking-prevention program for children. Aust J Public Health 1994;18:205-208.
Ary 1990{published data only}
  • Ary DV, Biglan A, Glasgow R, Zoref L, Black C, Ochs L, et al. The efficacy of social-influence prevention programs versus "standard care": Are new initiatives needed?. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1990;13(3):281-296. [MedLine: 91012567].
Aveyard 1999{published data only}
  • Aveyard P, Cheng KK, Almond J, Sherratt E, Lancashire R, Lawrence T, et al. Cluster randomised controlled trial of expert system based on the transtheoretical (''stages of change'') model for smoking prevention and cessation in schools. Br Med J 1999;319:948-953. [MedLine: 99443824].
Biglan 1987a{published data only}
  • Biglan A, Glasgow RE, Ary DV, Thompson R, Severson H, Lichtenstein E, et al. How generalizable are the effects of smoking prevention programs? Refusal skills training and parent messages in a teacher-administered program. J Behav Med 1987;10:613-628.
Biglan 1987b{published data only}
  • Biglan A, Severson H, Ary D, Faller C, Gallison C, Thompson R, et al. Do smoking prevention programs really work? Attrition and the internal and external validity of an evaluation of a refusal skills training program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1987;10:159-171.
  • Hops H, Weissman W, Biglan A, Thompson R, Faller C, Severson HH. A taped situation test of cigarette refusal skills among adolescents. Behavioral Assessment 1986;8:145-54.
Biglan 2000{published data only}
  • Biglan A, Ary DV, Smolkowski K, Duncan T, Black C. A randomised controlled trial of a community intervention to prevent adolescent tobacco use. Tobacco Control 2000;9:24-32.. [MedLine: 20156896].
Botvin 1980{published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Eng A. A comprehensive school-based smoking prevention program. Journal of School Health 1980;50:209-213.
  • Botvin GJ, Eng A, Williams C. Preventing the onset of cigarette smoking through life skills training. Prev Med 1980;9:135-43. [MedLine: 80145514].
Botvin 1982{published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Eng A. The efficacy of a multicomponent approach to the prevention of cigarette smoking. Preventive Medicine 1982;11:199-211. [MedLine: 82222079].
Botvin 1983{published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Renick NL, Baker E. The effects of scheduling format and booster sessions on a broad-spectrum psychosocial approach to smoking prevention. J Behav Med 1983;6:359-379. [MedLine: 84138639].
Botvin 1990a{published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Botvin EM, Diaz T. Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a White middle-class population. JAMA 1995;273:1106-1112.
  • Botvin GJ, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Tortu S, Botvin EM. Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: Results of a 3-year study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1990;58(4):437-446. [MedLine: 91010086].
  • Botvin GJ, Tortu S, Baker E, Dusenbury L. Preventing adolescent cigarette smoking: Resistance skills training and development of life skills. Special Services in the Schools 1990;6:37-61.
Botvin 1990b{published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Baker E, Filazzola AD, Botvin EM. A cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention: One-year follow-up. Addictive Behaviors 1990;15:47-63. [MedLine: 90195702].
  • Botvin GJ, Baker E, Renick NL, Filazzola AD, Botvin EM. A cognitive-behavioral approach to substance-abuse prevention. Addictive Behaviors 1984;9:137-147.
  • Donaldson SI, Graham JW, Piccinin AM, Hansen WB. Resistance-skills training and onset of alcohol use: Evidence of beneficial and potentially harmful effects in public schools and private Catholic schools. Health Psychology 195;14(4):291-300.
Botvin 1999{published data only}
  • Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Diaz T, Miller N, Ifill-Williams M. Smoking initiation and escalation in early adolescent girls: one-year follow-up of a school-based prevention intervention for minority youth. J Am Med Womens Assoc 1999;54:139-143, 152.
Bush 1989{published data only}
  • Bush PJ, Zuckerman AE, Theiss PK, Taggart VS, Horowitz C, Sheridan MJ, et al. Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black schoolchildren: Two-year results of the "Know Your Body" Program. Am J Epidemiology 1989;129:466-482. [MedLine: 89132525].
Cameron 1999{published data only}
  • Cameron R, Brown KS, Best JA, Pelkman CL, Madill CL, Manske SR, et al. Effectiveness of a social influences smoking prevention program as a function of provider type, training method, and school risk. Am J Public Health 1999;89:1827-1831.
  • Santi SM, Best JA, Payne ME, Brown KS, Cameron R. A comparison between instructional experience and performance of teachers and nurses delivering a smoking prevention program. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1992;83:433-436.
  • Santi SM, Cargo M, Brown KS, Best JA, Cameron R. Dispositional risk factors for smoking-stage transitions: A social influences program as an effect modifier. Addictive Behaviors 1994;19(3):269-285.
Chatrou 1999{published data only}
  • Chatrou M, Maes S, Dusseldorp E, Seegers G. Effects of the Brabant smoking prevention programme: A replication of the Wisconsin programme. Psychology and Health 1999;14:159-178.
  • Leventhal H, Fleming R, Glynn K. A cognitive-development approach to smoking intervention. In: Maes S, Spielberger CD, Defares PB, Sarason IG editor(s). Topics in health psychology. New York: John Wiley, 1988:79-105.
Clarke 1986{published data only}
  • Clarke JH, MacPherson B, Holmes DR, Jones R. Reducing adolescent smoking: A comparison of peer-led, teacher-led, and expert interventions. J School Health 1986;56(3):102-106. [MedLine: 86173244].
Clayton 1996{published data only}
  • Clayton RR, Cattarello AM, Johnstone BM. The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (Project DARE): 5-year follow-up results. Preventive Medicine1996;25:307-318. Ennett ST, Tobler NS, Ringwalt CL, Flewelling RL. How effective is Drug Abuse Resistance Education: A meta-analysis of Project DARE outcome evaluations. American J Public Health 1994;84(9):1394-1401. Ennett ST, Rosenbaum DP, Flewelling RL, Bieler GS, Ringwalt CL, Bailey SL. Long-term evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education. Addictive Behaviors 1994;19(2): 113-125. Harmon MA. Reducing the risk of drug involvement among early adolescents: An evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE). Evaluation Review 1993;17(2):221-239. Becker HW, Agopian MW. Impact evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Educaation (DARE). J Drug Education 1992;22(4):283-291. DeJong W. A short-term evaluation of Project Dare (Drug Abuse Resistance Education): Preliiminary indications of effectiveness. Prev Med 1996;25:307-318.
  • Lynam DR, Milich R, Zimmerman R, Novak SP, Logan TK, Martin C, et al. Project DARE: no effects at 10-year follow-up. J Consult Clin Psychol 1999;67:590-593.
Coe 1982{published data only}
  • Coe RM, Crouse E, Cohen JD, Fisher Jr EB. Patterns of change in adolescent smoking behavior and results of a one year follow-up of a smoking prevention program. J School Health 1982;August:348-353. [MedLine: 83011299].
Cohen 1989{published data only}
  • Cohen RY, Felix MR, Brownell KD. The role of parents and older peers in school-based cardiovascular prevention programs: implications for program development. Health Educ Q 1989;16:245-253. [MedLine: 89277732].
De Vries 1994{published data only}
  • De Vries H, Backbier E, Dijkstra M, Van Breukelen G, Parcel G, Kok G. A Dutch socal influence smoking prevention approach for vocational school students. Health Educ Res 1994;9:365-374.
  • De Vries H, Dijkstra M, Kok G. A Dutch Smoking Prevention Project: Overview. Hygie 1992;11:14-18.
  • De Vries H, Weijts W, Dijkstra M, Kok G. The utilization of qualitative and quantitative data for health education program planning, implementation, and evaluation: A spiral approach. Health Educ Q 1992;19:101-115.
Denson 1981{published and unpublished data}
  • Denson R, Stretch S. Prevention of smoking in elementary schools. Can J Public Health 1981;72:259-263.
Dijkstra 1999{published data only}
  • Dijkstra M, Mesters I, Devries H, van Breukelen G, Parcel GS. Effectiveness of a social influence approach and boosters to smoking prevention. Health Educ Res 1999;14:791-802.
Eckhardt 1997{published data only}
  • Eckhardt L, Woodruff SI, Elder JP. Relative effectiveness of continued, lapsed, and delayed smoking prevention intervention in senior high school students. Am J Health Promotion 1997;11:418-21.
Elder 1993{published data only}
  • Elder JP, Sallis JF, Woodruff SI, Wildey MR. Tobacco-refusal skills and tobacco use among high-risk adolescents. J Behav Med 1993;16:629-641.
  • Elder JP, Wildey M, de Moor C, Sallis Jr JF, Eckhardt L, et al. The long-term prevention of tobacco use among junior high school students: Classroom and telephone interventions. Am J Public Health 1993;83:1239-124.
  • Elder JP, Woodruff SI, Sallis JF, de Moor C, Edwards C, Wildey MB. Effects of health facilitator performance and attendance at training sessions on the acquisition of tobacco refusal skills among multi-ethnic, high-risk adolescents. Health Education Research 1994;9(2):225-233.
  • Young RL, Elder JP, Green MS, de Moor C, Wildey MB. Tobacco use prevention and health facilitator effectiveness. J Sch Health 1988;58(9):370-373.
Elder 1996{published data only}
  • Edmundson E, Parcel GS, Perry CL, Feldman HA, Smyth M, Johnson CC, et al. The effects of the child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health intervention on psychosocial determinants of cardiovascular disease risk behavior among third-grade students. American Journal of Health Promotion 1996;10(3):217-225.
  • Elder JP, McGraw SA, Stone EJ, Reed DB, Harsha DW, Greene T, et al. CATCH: Process evaluation of environmental factors and programs. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Supplement 2:S107-S127..
  • Elder JP, Perry CL, Stone EJ, Johnson CC, Yang M, Edmundson EW, et al. Tobacco use measurement, prediction and intervention in elementary schools in four states: The CATCH Study. Prev Med 1996;25:486-494.
  • Johnson CC, Osganian SK, Budman SB, Lytle LA, Barrera EP, Bonura SR, et al. CATCH: Family process evaluation in a multicenter trial. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Supplement 2:S91-S106..
  • Nader PR, Sellers DE, Johnson CC, Perry CL, Stone EJ, Cook KC, et al. The effect of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to improve children's diet and physical activity: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:455-464..
  • Perry CL, Sellers DE, Johnson C, Pedersen S, Bachman KJ, Parcel, et al. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH): Intervention, implementation, and feasibility for elementary schools in the United States. Health Education & Behavior 1997;24(6):716-735..
  • Perry CL, Stone EJ, Parcel GS, Ellison RC, Nader PR, Webber LS, et al. School-based cardiovascular health promotion: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Journal of School Health 1990;60(3):406-413..
  • Stone EJ, Osganian SK, McKinlay SM, Wu MC, Webber LS, Luepker RV, et al. Operational design and quality control in the CATCH multicenter trial. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:384-399..
Ellickson 1990{published data only}
  • Bell RM, Ellickson PL, Harrison ER. Do drug prevention effects persist into high school? How Project ALERT did with Ninth Graders. Prev Med 1993;22:463-83.
  • Ellickson PL, Bell RM. Drug prevention in Junior High: A multi-site longitudinal test. Science 1990 16 March;247:1299-1305.
  • Ellickson PL, Bell RM, Harrison ER. Changing adolescent propensities to use drugs: Results from Project ALERT. Health Education Quarterly 1993;20:227-242.
  • Ellickson PL, Bell RM, McGuigan K. Preventing adolescent drug use: Long-term results of a Junior High program. Am J Public Health 1993;83(6):856-861.
Ennett 1994{published data only}
  • Ennett ST, Rosenbaum DP, Flewelling RL, Bieler GS, Ringwalt CL, Bailey SL. Long-term evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education. Addict Behav 1994;19:113-125.
Figa-Talamanca 1989{published data only}
  • Figa-Talamanca I, Modolo M. Evaluation of an anti-smoking educational programme among adolescents in Italy. Hygie 1989;8(3):24-28.
Flay 1985
  • Best JA, Flay BR, Brown JS. Smoking prevention in the Schools: Program Dissemination. Ontario Ministry of Health Report No. CHS-R26 1983.
  • Flay BR, Koepke D, Thomson SJ, Santi S, Best JA, Brown KS. Six-year follow-up of the First Waterloo School Smoking Prevention Trial. Am J Public Health 1989;79(10):1371-1376.
  • Flay BR, Ryan CB, Best JA, Brown KS, Kersell MW, d'Avernas JR, et al. Are social-psychological smoking programs effective? The Waterloo study. J Behav Med 1985;8(1):37-59.
Flay 1995{published data only}
  • Brannon BR, Dent CW, Flay BR, Smith G, Sussman S, Pentz MA, et al. The Television, School and Family Project. V. The impact of curriculum delivery. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:492-502.
  • Flay BR, Brannon BR, Johnson CA, Hanson WB, Ulene AL, Whitney-Saltiel DA, et al. The Television, School, and Family Smoking Prevention and Cessation Project. I. Theoretical basis and program development. Preventive Medicine 1988;17:585-607.
  • Flay BR, Hu FB, Richardson J. Psychosocial predictors of different stages of cigarette smoking among high school students. Prev Med 1998;27 (5 Pt 3):A19-A18.
  • Flay BR, Miller TQ, Hedeker D, Siddiqui O, Britton CF, Brannon BR, et al. The television, school, and family smoking prevention and cessation project. VIII student outcomes and mediating variables. Prev Med 1995;24:29-40.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Brannon BR, Glowacz KJ, Gleason LR, Ullery S, et al. The Television, School and Family Smoking Prevention/Cessation Project. IV. Controlling for program expectancies across experimental and control conditions. Addictive Behaviors 1989;14:601-610.
Focarile 1994{published data only}
  • Focarile F, Scaffino L. Risultati di uno studio controllato randomizzato sulla prevenzione dell'abitudine al fumo degli adolescenti. Epidemiologia e Prevenzione 1994;18:157-163.
  • Focarile FA, Scaffino L, Nardi A, Vaccari R. Protocol and feasibility of a randomized controlled study on preventing the smoking habit in adolescents [Protocollo e fattibilita di uno studio controllato randomizzato sulla prevenzione dell'abitudine al fumo negli adolescenti]. Epidemiol Prev 1989;11:41-46.
Gatta 1991{published data only}
  • Gatta G, Malvezzi I, Sant M, Micheli A, Panico S, Ravasi G, et al. Randomized trial of primary school education against smoking. Tumori 1991;77:367-371.
Gersick 1988{unpublished data only}
  • Gersick KE, Grady K, Snow DL. Social-cognitive skill development with sixth graders and its initial impact on substance use. J Drug Education 1988;18(1):55-70.
  • Snow DL, Tebes JK, Arthur MW, Tapasak RC. Two-year follow-up of a social-cognitive intervention to prevent substance use. J Drug Educ 1992;22:101-114.
Gilchrist 1986{published data only}
  • Gilchrist LD, Schinke SP, Bobo JK, Snow WH. Self-control skills for preventing smoking. Addictive Behaviors 1986;11:169-174.
Gilchrist 1987{published data only}
  • Gilchrist LD, Schinke SP, Trimble JE, Cvetkovich GT. Skills enhancement to prevent substance abuse among American-Indian adolescents. Int J Addictions 1987;22:869-879.
Hanewinkel 1994{published data only}
  • Hanewinkel R, Ferstl R, Burow F. Conception and evaluation of a behavioural non-smoking intervention in schools [Konzeption und Evaluation einer verhaltensorientierten Nichtraucherförderung an Schulen]. Verhaltenstherapie 1994;4:104-110.
Hansen 1988{published data only}
  • Graham JW, Johnson CA, Hansen WB, Flay BR, Gee M. Drug use prevention programs, gender and ethnicity: Evaluation of three seventh-grade Project SMART cohorts. Prev Med 1990;19:305-313.
  • Hansen WB, Johnson CA, Flay BR, Graham JW, Sobel J. Affective and social influences approaches to the prevention of multiple substance abuse among seventh grade students: Results from Project SMART. Prev Med 1988;17:135-154.
  • Parcel GS, O'Hara- Tompkins NM, Harrist RB, Basen-Engquist KM, McCormick LK, Gottlieb NH, et al. Diffusion of an effective tobacco prevention program. Part II: evaluation of the adoption phase. Health Education Research 1995;10(3):287-307.
Hansen 1991{published data only}
  • Donaldson SI, Graham JW, Hansen WB. Testing the generalisability of intervening mechanism theories: Understanding the effects of adolescent drug use prevention interventions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1994;17(2):195-216..
  • Hansen WB, Graham JW. Preventing alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use among adolescents: Peer Pressure Resistance Training versus Establishing Conservative Norms. Prev Med 1991;20:414-430.
  • Palmer RF, Graham JW, White EL, Hansen WB. Applying multilevel analytic strategies in adolescent substance use prevention research. Prev Med 1998;27:328-336.
Hirschmann 1989{published data only}
  • Hirschman RS, Leventhal H. Preventing smoking behavior in school children: An initial test of a cognitive-development program. J Applied Social Psychology 1989;19(7):559-583.
Hort 1995{published data only}
  • Hort W, Hort H, Willers R. Interventionsstudie gegen das Zigarettenrauchen von Düsseldorfer Hauptschülern 1992-94. Zeitschrift Kardiologie 1995;84:700-711.
Howard 1996{published data only}
  • Howard JK, Bindler RM, Synoground G, van Gemert FC. A cardiovascular risk reduction program for the classroom. J Sch Nurs 1996;12:4-11.
Josendal 1998{published data only}
  • Josendal O, Aaro LE, Bergh I. Effects of a school-based smoking prevention program among subgroups of adolescents. Health Educ Res 1998;13:215-224.
Kaufman 1994{published data only}
  • Kaufman JS, Jason LA, Sawlski LM, Halpert JA. A comprehensive multi-media program to prevent smoking among Black students. J Drug Educ 1994;24:95-108.
Kellam 1998{published data only}
  • Kellam SG, Anthony JC. Targeting early antecedents to prevent tobacco smoking: findings from an epidemiologically based randomized field trial [Am J Public Health]. Am J Public Health 1998;88:1490-1495.
Laniado-Laborín 1993{published data only}
  • Laniado-Laborín R, Molgaard CA, Elder JP. Efectividad de un programa de prevención de tabaquismo en escolares mexicanos. Salud Publica de Mexico 1993;35(4):403-408.
Lloyd 1983{published data only}
  • Alexander HM, Callcott R, Dobson AJ, Hardes GR, Lloyd DM, O'Connell DL, et al. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: IV--factors associated with changes in smoking behaviour. Int J Epidemiol 1983;12:59-66.
  • Hardes GR, Alexander HM, Dobson AJ, Lloyd DM, O'Connell DL, Purcell I, et al. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren in the Hunter Region, New South Wales. I. Tobacco, alcohol and analgesic use in 10 to 12 year and primary school children. Medical Journal of Australia 1981;1:579-581.
  • LLoyd DM, Alexander HM, Callcott R, Dobson AJ, Hardes GR, O'Connell DL, Leeder SR. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: III - Evaluation of a smoking prevention education programme. Int J Epidemiology 1983;12:51-58.
MacPherson 1980{published data only}
  • MacPherson BV, Ashikaga T, Dickstein MS, Jones RP Jr. Evaluation of a respiratory health education program. J Sch Health 1980;50:564-567.
Murray 1984{published data only}
  • Arkin RM, Roemhild HF, Johnson CA, Luepker RV, Murray DM. The Minnesota Smoking Prevention Program: A seventh-grade health curriculum supplemen. J School Health 1981;51:611-616.
  • Murray DM, Davis-Hearn M, Goldman AI, Pirie P, Luepker RV. Four- and five-year follow-up results from seventh grade smoking prevention strategies. J Behav Med 1988;11:395-405.
  • Murray DM, Luepker RV, Johnson CA, Mittelmark MB. The prevention of cigarette smoking in children: A comparison of four strategies. J Appl Social Pschol 1984;14:274-288.
  • Murray DM, Pirie P, Luepker RV, Pallonen U. Five- and six-year follow-up results from four seventh-grade smoking prevention strategies. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1989;12(2):207-218.
  • Murray DM, Richards PS, Luepker RV, Johnson CA. The prevention of cigarette smoking in children: Two- and three-year follow-up comparisons of four prevention strategies. J Behav Med 1987;10:595-611.
Murray 1992{published data only}
  • Murray DM, Perry CL, Griffin G, Harty KC, Jacobs DR Jr, Schmid L, et al. Results from a statewide approach to adolescent tobacco use prevention. Preventive Medicine 1992;21:449-472..
  • Perry CL, Murray DM, Griffin G. Evaluating the statewide dissemination of smoking prevention curricula: Factors in teacher compliance. Journal of School Health 1990;60(10):501-504.
Noland 1998{published data only}
  • Noland MP, Kryscio RJ, Riggs RS, Linville LH, Ford VY, Tucker TC. The effectiveness of a tobacco prevention program with adolescents living in a tobacco-producing region. Am J Public Health 1998;88:1862-1865.
Nutbeam 1993{published data only}
  • Newman R, Nutbeam D. Teachers' views of the family smoking education project. Health Education Journal 1989;48:9-13.
  • Nutbeam D, Macaskill P, Smith C, Simpson JM, Catford J. Evaluation of two school smoking education programmes under normal classroom conditions. British Medical Journal 9 January 1993;Vol 306:102-107.
Peterson 2000{published data only}
  • Kealey KA, Peterson-AV J, Gaul MA, Dinh KT. Teacher training as a behavior change process: principles and results from a longitudinal study. Health Educ Behav 2000;27:64-81.
  • Mann SL, Peterson AV, Jr, Marek PM, Kealey KA. The Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project trial: design and baseline characteristics. Prev Med 2000;30:485-495. [MedLine: 20356663].
  • Peterson AV, Jr, Kealey KA, Mann SL, Marek PM, Sarason IG. Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project: Long-Term Randomized Trial in School-Based Tobacco Use Prevention-Results on Smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:1979-1991. [MedLine: 21063807].
  • Peterson AV Jr, Mann SL, Kealey KA, Marek PM. Experimental design and methods for school-based randomised trials: Experience from the Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project (HSSP). Controlled Clinical Trials 2000;21:144-165..
Rabinowitz 1974{published data only}
  • Rabinowitz HS, Zimmerli WH. Effects of a health education program on junior high school students' knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning tobacco use. J Sch Health 1974;64:324-330.
Schinke 1984{published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD. Preventing cigarette smoking with youth. J Primary Prevention 1984;5:48-56.
Schinke 1985a{published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD, Snow WH. Skills intervention to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescents. Am J Public Health 1985;75:665-667.
Schinke 1985b{published data only}
  • Schincke SP, Gilchrist LD. Preventing substance abuse with children and adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol 1985;53:596-602.
Schinke 1985c{published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD, Snow WH, Schilling II RF. Skills-building methods to prevent smoking by adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 1985;6:439-444.
Schinke 1986a{published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Bebel MY, Orlandi MA, Botvin GJ. Prevention strategies for vulnerable pupils. School social work practices to prevent substance abuse. Urban Education 1988;22(4):510-519.
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD, Schilling RF II, Senechal VA. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adolescents: trends and intervention results. Public Health Reports 1986;101:373-378.
Schinke 1986b{published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD, Schilling RF II, Snow WH, Bobo JK. Skills methods to prevent smoking. Health Educ Q 1986;13:23-27.
Schinke 1986c{published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD. Preventing tobacco use among young people. Health and Social Work 1986;11:59-65.
Schinke 1988{published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Botvin GJ, Trimble JE, Orlandi MA, Gilchrist LD, Locklear VS. Preventing substance abuse among American-Indian adolescents: A bicultural competence skills approach. J Counseling Psychology 1988;35:87-90.
Schinke 2000{published data only}
  • Schinke SP, Tepavac L, Cole KC. Preventing substance use among native american youth: Three-year results. Addict Behav 2000;25:387-397.
Scholz 2000{published data only}
  • Scholz M, Kaltenbach M. Promoting non-smoking behavior in 13-year-old students in primary schools and high schools. A prospective, randomized intervention study with 1,956 students [Förderung des Nichtraucherverhaltens bei 13-jährigen Schülerinnen und Schülern von Realschule und Gymnasium. Eine prospektive, randomisierte Interventionsstudie bei 1956 Schülern]. Gesundheitswesen 2000;62(2):78-85.
Severson 1991{published data only}
  • Severson HH, Glasgow R, Wirt R, Brozovsky P, Zoref L, et al. Preventing the use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes by teens: results of a classroom intervention. Health Educ Res 1991;6(1):109-120.
Shaps 1986{published data only}
  • Shaps E, Moskowitz JM, Malvin JH, Schaeffer GA. Evaluation of seven school-based prevention programs: A final report on the Napa Project. The International Journal of the Addictions 1986;21(9 & 10):1081-1112.
Shope 1996{published data only}
  • Shope JT, Copeland LA, Kamp ME, Lang SW. Twelfth grade follow-up of the effectiveness of a middle school- based substance abuse prevention program. J Drug Educ 1998;28:185-197.
  • Shope JT, Copeland LA, Marcoux BC, Kamp ME. Effectiveness of a school-based substance abuse prevention program. J Drug Educ 1996;26:323-337.
Sussman 1993{published data only}
  • Dent CW, Sussman S, Stacy AW, Craig S, Burton D, Flay BR. Two-year behavior outcomes of Project Towards No Tobacco Use. J Consult Clin Psychol 1995;63:676-677.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Hodgson CS, Burton D, Flay BR. Project Towards No Tobacco Use: implementation, process and post- test knowledge evaluation. Health Educ Res 1993;8:109-123.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Sun P, Craig S, Simon TR, et al. Project Towards No Tobacco Use: 1-year behavior outcomes. Am J Public Health 1993;83:1245-1250.
Sussman 1995{published data only}
  • Dent CW, Galaif ER, Sussman S, Stacy AW. Use of the "Theme Study" as means of curriculum development in continuation high schools. Journal of Drug Education 1996;26(4):377-393.
  • Dent CW, Sussman S, Hennesy M, Galaif ER, Stacy AW, Moss MA, et al. Implementation and process evaluation of a school-based drug abuse prevention program Project Towards No Drug Abuse. Journal of Drug Education 1998;28(4):361-375.
  • Simon TR, Sussman S, Dahlberg LL, Dent CW. Influence of a substance abuse prevention curriculum on violence-related behavior. (Manuscript submitted to American Journal of Health Behavior).
  • Sussman S. Development of a school-based drug abuse prevention curriculum for high risk youths. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1996;28(2):169-182.
  • Sussman S, Craig S, Simon TR, Galaif ER. School-as-community activity selection at continuation high schools. Substance Use & Misuse 1997;32(2):113-131.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW. Project Towards No Drug Abuse. In: Hansen WB, Giles SM, Fearnow-Kenney editor(s). Increasing Drug Prevention Effectiveness: Readings for Educators. Clemmons N.C.: Tanglewood Research, 1999:1-10.
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Caig S, Ritt-Olsen A, McCuller WJ. Development and immediate impact of a self-instruction curriculum for an adolescent indicated drug abuse prevention trial. (Manuscript).
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Simon TR, Stacy AW, Galaif ER, Moss AM, et al. Immediate impact of social influence-oriented substance abuse prevention curricula in traditional and continuation high schools. Drugs & Society 1995;8(3/4):65-81 (Simultaneous publication in: Prevention Practice in Substance Abuse. CG Leukefeld & RR Clayton (eds). The Haworth Press Inc. 1995, pp. 65-81).
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW. Project Towards No Drug Abuse: A review of the findings and future directions. American Journal of Health Behavior (under review).
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Craig S. One-year outcomes of Project Towards No Drug Abuse. Preventive Medicine 1998;27:632-642.
  • Sussman S, Galaif ER, Newman R, Hennesy M, Pentz MA, Dent CW, et al. Implementation and process evaluation of a student "School-as-Community" group. Evaluation Review 1997;21(1):94-123.
  • Sussman S, Simon TR, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Galaif ER, Moss AM, et al. Immediate impact of thirty-two drug use prevention activities among students at continuation high schools. Substance Use & Misuse 1997;32(3):265-281.
  • Sussman S, Stacy AW, Dent CW, Simon TR, Galaif ER, Moss MA, et al. Continuation high schools: Youth at risk for drug abuse. Journal of Drug Education 1995;25(3):191-209.
Telch 1990{published data only}
  • Telch MJ, Miller LM, Killen JD, Cooke S, Maccoby N. Social influences approach to smoking prevention: The effects of videotape delivery with and without same-age peer leader participation. Addictive Behaviors 1990;15:21-28.
Tell 1984{published data only}
  • Klepp KI, Tell GS, Vellar OD. Ten-year follow-up of the Oslo Youth Study Smoking Prevention Program. Prev Med 1993;22:453-462.
  • Klepp KI, Øygard L, Tell GS, Vellar OD. Twelve-year follow-up of a school-based health education progrmme: The Oslo Youth Study. Eur J Public Health 1994;4:195-200.
  • Tell GS, Klepp KI, Vellar OD, McAlister A. Preventing the onset of cigarette smoking in Norwegian adolescents: The Oslo Youth Study. Preventive Medicine 1984;13:256-275.
  • Øygard L, Klepp K-I, Tell GS, Vellar OD. Parental and peer influences on smoking among young adults: ten-year follow-up of the Oslo youth study participants. Addiction 1995;90:561-569.
Villalbí 1993{published data only}
  • Villalbí JR, Aubà J, Garcia González A. Results of a school addictive substances abuse prevention program: the Barcelona PASE pilot project [Resultados de un programa escolar de prevención del abuso de sustancia adictivas: proyecto piloto PASE de Barcelona]. Gac Sanit 1993;7:70-77.
  • Villalbí JR, Aubà J, García-González A. Evaluation of a project of primary prevention of smoking: the Barcelona PASE project [Evaluacion de un proyecto de prevencion primaria del tabaquismo: el proyecto piloto PASE de Barcelona]. Rev Sanid Hig Publica Madr 1992;66:143-148.
Walter 1985{published data only}
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL. Primary prevention of chronic disease in childhood: Changes in risk factors after one year of intervention. Am J Epidemiology 1985;122:772-781.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Modification of risk factors for coronary heart disease. Five-year results of a school-based intervention trial. New England Journal of Medicine 1988;318(17):1093-1100.
  • Walter HJ, Wynder EL. The development, implementation, evaluation, and future directions of a chronic disease prevention program for children: The "Know Your Body" studies. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:59-71..
  • Walter HJ. Primary prevention of chronic disease among children: The school-based "Know Your Body" intervention trials. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):201-204..
Walter 1986{published data only}
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Barrett LT, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among children: three year results of a randomized intervention trial. In: Hetzel BS, Berenson GS editor(s). Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood in childhood: Epidemiology and prevention. Amsterdam: Elsevier North Holland Biomed, 1987:161-181.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL. Coronary heart disease prevention in childhood: One-year results of a randomized intervention study. Am J Prev Med 1986;2:239-249.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Modification of risk factors for coronary heart disease. Five-year results of a school-based intervention trial. New England Journal of Medicine 1988;318(17):1093-1100.
  • Walter HJ, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Primary prevention of cancer among children: Changes in cigarette smoking and diet after six years of intervention. J National Cancer Inst 1989;81:995-999.
  • Walter HJ, Wynder EL. The development, implementation, evaluation, and future directions of a chronic disease prevention program for children: The "Know Your Body" studies. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:59-71..
  • Walter HJ. Primary prevention of chronic disease among children: The school-based "Know Your Body" intervention trials. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):201-204..

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Aarø 1983
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Abernathy 1994
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Arciti 1986
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Barrueco 1998
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Beaglehole 1978
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Becker 1992
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Botvin 1989a
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Botvin 1989b
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Botvin 1997
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Botvin 2000
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Bowen 1991
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Burke 1987
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Burke 1992
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Calafat 1995
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Calman 1985
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Charlton 1986
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Connell 1985
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Davis 1995
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De Jong 1987
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Del Greco 1986
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Dielman 1985
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Donato 1994
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Dupont 1984
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Epstein 2000a
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Errecart 1991
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  • Ross JG, Gold RS, Lavin AT, Errecart MT, Nelson GD. Design of the Teenage Health Teaching Modules: Evaluation. Journal of School Health 1991;61(1):21-25.
Evans 1978
  • Evans RI, Rozelle RM, Maxwell SE, Raines BE, Dill CA, Guthrie T J. Social modeling films to deter smoking in adolescents: Results of a three-year field investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology 1981;66(4):399-414.
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Evans 1981
  • Evans RI, Rozelle RM, Maxwell SE, Raines BE, Dill CA, Guthrie TJ, et al. Social modeling films to deter smoking in adolescents: Results of a three-year field investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology 1981;66(4):399-414.
Flay 1987
  • Flay BR, Hansen WB, Johnson CA, Collins LM, Dent CW, Dwyer KM, et al. Implementaton effectiveness of a social influences smoking prevention program using schools and television. Health Education Research 1987;2(4):385-400.
Flynn 1992
  • Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, Badger GJ, Geller BM, Costanza MC. Prevention of cigarette smoking through mass media intervention and school programs. Am J Pub Health 1992;82:827-834.
  • Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, Pirie PL, Badger GJ, Carpenter JH. Long-term responses of higher and lower risk youth to smoking prevention interviews. Preventive Medicine 1997;26:389-394.
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Frydman 1985
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Gillies 1984
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Gislason 1995
  • Gislason T, Yngvadottir A, Benediktsdottir B. Alcohol consumption, smoking and drug abuse among Icelandic teenagers: A study into the effectiveness of the 'Skills for Adolescence' programme. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 1995;2(3):243-258.
Gohlke 1989
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Gordon 1997
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Gritz 1992
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Hamm 1994
  • Hamm NH. Outcomes of the Minnesota smoking prevention program. Psychological Reports 1994;75:880-882.
Hanewinkel 1996
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Hansen 1982
  • Hansen WB, Evans RI. Feedback versus information concerning carbon monoxide as an early intervention strategy in adolescent smoking. Adolescence 1982;XVII(65):90-98.
Hansen 1988a
  • Hansen WB, Malotte CK, Fielding JE. Evaluation of a tobacco and alcohol abuse prevention curriculum for adolescents. Health Education Quarterly 1988;15(1):93-114.
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Hansen 1996
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Hansen 1997a
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Harmon 1993a
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Harmon 1993b
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Harrell 1996
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Harrell 1998
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Higgs 2000
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Homel 1981
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Hovell 1996
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Hurd 1980
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Jason 1982
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Johnson 1986
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Kersch 1998
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Killen 1988
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Killen 1989
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Kröger 2000
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Lammers 1984
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Ledwith 1985
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Lillington 1984
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Litrownik 2000
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MacKinnon 1991
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McAlister 1980
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McFall 1993
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Moberg 1990
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Moskowitz 1984
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Murray 1982
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  • Murray M, Swan AV, Enock C, Johnson MRD, Banks MH, Reid DJ. The effectiveness of the Health Education Council's "My Body" Schools Health Education Project. Health Educ J 1982;41:126-132.
Murray 1984a
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Olsen 1980
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Parcel 1995
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Pederson 1981a
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Pederson 1981b
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Pederson 1987
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Pentz 1989
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  • MacKinnon DP, Johnson CA, Pentz MA, Dwyer JH, Hansen WB, Flay BR, et al. Mediating mechanisms in a school-based drug prevention program: First-effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project. Health Psychol 1991;10:164-172.
  • Pentz MA, Dwyer JH, MacKinnon DP, Flay BR, et al. A multicommunity trial for primary prevention of adolescent drug abuse. Effects on drug use prevalence. Am J Pub Health 1989;261:3259-3266.
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  • Pentz MA, MacKinnon DP, Flay BR, Hansen WB, Johnson CA, Dwyer JH. Primary prevention of chronic diseases in adolescence: Effects of the Midwester prevention project on tobacco use. American Journal of Epidemiology 1989;130(4):713-724.
Perry 1980
  • Perry C, Killen J, Telch M, Slinkard LA, Danaher BG. Modifying smoking behavior of teenagers: A school-based intervention. Am J Pub Health 1980;70:722-725.
Perry 1990
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Perry 1992
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  • Jacobs DR, Lueker RV, Mittelmark MB, et al. Community-wide prevention strategies: evaluation design of the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1986;39:775-788.
  • Klepp K-I, Halper I, Perry CL. The efficacy of peer leaders in drug abuse prevention. Journal of School Health 1986;56:407-411.
  • Perry CL, Griffin G, Murray DM. Assessing needs for youth health promotion. Preventive Medicine 1985;14:379-393.
  • Perry CL, Jessor R. The concept of health promotion and the prevention of adolescent drug abuse. Health Education Quarterly 1985;12:169-184.
  • Perry CL, Kelder SH, Klepp K-I. Community-wide cardiovascular disease prevention in young people: long-term outcomes of the Class of 1989 Study. European Journal of Public Health 1994;4:188-194.
  • Perry CL, Kelder SH, Murray DM, Klepp K-I. Community-wide smoking prevention: Long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program and the Class of 1989 Study. American Journal of Public Health 1992;82(9):1210-1216.
  • Perry CL, Klepp K-I, Siler C. Community-wide strategies for cardiovascular health: the Minnesota Heart Health Program youth program. Health Education Research 1989;4:87-101.
Pfau 1994
  • Pfau M, van Bockern S. The persistence of inoculation in conferring resistance to smoking initiation among adolescents. The second year. Human Communication Research 1994;20:413-430.
Philips 1990
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Piper 1971
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Pomrehn 1995
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Price 1992
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Price 1998
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Prokhorov 1994
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Reimers 1990
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Robinson 1999
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Rohrbach 1993
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Sarvela 1987
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Schinke 1981
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Schinke 1994
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Schinke 1996
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Scholz 1985
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Secker-Walker 1997
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Secker-Walker 1998
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Steenkamp 1990
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Wahlgren 1997
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Werch 1991
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Worden 1988
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Worden 1996
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Zoller 1986
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References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Lynagh 1999
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Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
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