Intervention Review

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Topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot.

  1. Fay Crawford1,*,
  2. Sally Hollis2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Skin Group

Published Online: 18 JUL 2007

Assessed as up-to-date: 23 MAY 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001434.pub2


How to Cite

Crawford F, Hollis S. Topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot.. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD001434. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001434.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    NHS Fife, Queen Margaret Hospital, Dunfermline, UK

  2. 2

    University of Manchester, Centre for Biostatistics, Institute of Population Health, Manchester, UK

*Fay Crawford, NHS Fife, Queen Margaret Hospital, Dunfermline, KY12 0SU, UK. fay.crawford@nhs.net.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 18 JUL 2007

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Ablon 1996 {published data only}
Akers 1989 {published data only}
  • Akers WA, Lane A, Lynfield Y, Greenberg J, Hall J, Mangan C, et al. Sulconazole nitrate 1% cream in the treatment of chronic moccasin type tinea pedis caused by trichophyton rubrum. Journal the of American Academy of Dermatology 1989;21(4):686-9.
Aly 2003 {published data only}
  • Aly R, Fisher G, Katz HI, Levine N, Lookingbill DP, Lowe N, et al. Ciclopirox gel in the treatment of patients with interdigital tinea pedis. International Journal of Dermatology 2003;42(Suppl 1):29-35.
Bagatell 1986 {published data only}
  • Bagatell FK. Elimination of dermatophytes causing tinea pedis interdigitalis with once daily application of bifonazole 1% solution. Advances in Therapeutics 1986;3:265-71.
Bagatell 1991a {published data only}
  • Bagatell FK, Bart BJ, Cole GW, Drake LA, Ellis CN, Arbor A, et al. Naftifine Gel in the treatment of tinea pedis: Two double blind multi-centre studies. Cutis 1991;48:85-8.
Bagatell 1991b {published data only}
  • Bagatell FK, Bart BJ, Cole GW, Drake LA, Ellis CN, Arbor A, et al. Naftifine Gel in the treatment of tinea pedis: Two double blind multi-centre studies. Cutis 1991;48:85-8.
Bergstresser 1993 {published data only}
  • Bergstresser PR, Elewski B, Hanifin J, Lesher J, Savin R, Shupack J, et al. Topical terbinafine and clotrimazole in interdigital tinea pedis: a multicentre comparison of cure and relapse rates with 1 and 4 week treatment regimens. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1993;28:648-51.
Berman 1992 {published data only}
  • Berman B, Ellis C, Leyden J, Lowe N, Savin R, Shupack J, et al. Efficacy of a 1-week, twice-daily regimen of terbinafine 1% cream in the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1992;26:956-60.
Bojanovsky 1985 {published data only}
  • Bojanovsky A, Haas P. Antimycotic efficacy of naftifine - double blind comparative study with bifonazole in tinea pedis. Fortschritte der Medizin 1985;103:677-9.
Buck 1994 {published data only}
  • Buck DS, Nidorf DM, Addino JG. Comparison of topical preparations for the treatment of onychomycosis: Melanlenca alternifolia (tea tree oil) and clotrimazole. Journal of Family Practice 1994;38:601-605.
Carter 1972 {published data only}
Chretien 1980 {published data only}
Coffey 1986 {published data only}
  • Coffey W. Management of tinea pedis interdigitalis with bifonazole 1% cream: double blind study. Advances in Therapy 1986;3:301-7.
Del Palacio 1989 {published data only}
Dobson 1989 {published data only}
  • Dobson RL, Binder R, Hickman JG, Katz HI, Landow RK, Rex IH, et al. Once daily naftifine cream 1% (Naftin) in the treatment of tinea pedis. Clin Trials J 1989;26:418-23.
Elewski 1996 {published data only}
  • Elewski B, Jones T, Zaias N. Comparison of an antifungal agent used alone with an antifungal used with a topical steroid in inflammatory tinea pedis. Cutis 1996;58:305-7.
Ellis 1989 {published data only}
  • Ellis CN, Gammon WR, Goldfarb MT, Griffin TB, Jegasothy BV, Kamm AR, Katz HI, Kornberg R, et al. A placebo controlled evaluation of once daily vs twice daily oxiconazole nitrate (1%) cream in the treatment of tinea pedis. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1989;46:269-76.
Evans 1991 {published data only}
  • Evans EGV, James IGV, Joshipura RC. Two week treatment of tinea pedis with terbinafine: a placebo controlled study. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 1991;2:95-7.
Evans 1993a {published data only}
Evans 1993b {published data only}
Evans 1994 {published data only}
Friederich 1992 {published data only}
  • Friederich h, Hagedorn M, Lachnit H. Wirksamkeit von mycosspor creme bei fubmykosen. Z Allgmein Med 1992;68:325-9.
Fuerst 1980 {published data only}
  • Fuerst JF, Cox GF, Weaver SM, Duncan WC. Comparison between undeclynic acid and tolnaftate in the treatment of tinea pedis. Cutis 1980;25:544-9.
Gentles 1974 {published data only}
Gomez 1986 {published data only}
Gupta 2000a {published data only}
Gupta 2000b {published data only}
  • Gupta AK, Fleckman P, Baran R. 2000. Ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2000;43(4):S70-S80.
Haas 1985 {published data only}
Hollmen 2002 {published data only}
Holti 1970 {published data only}
  • Holti G. A double blind controlled trial of Whitfield's ointment and Variotin in ringworm infections with a two year 'follow-up. Acta Dermato-Venereol 1970;50:229-31.
Ison 1990 {published data only}
  • Ison AE, Lufrano L, Thorne EG. Once daily application of econazole nitrate in the treatment of tinea pedis. Advances in Therapy 1990;7:119-23.
Izuno 1986 {published data only}
  • Izuno GT. A double blind study of bifonazole 1% cream applied once daily in the treatment of tinea (pityriasis) veriscolor and tinea pedis interdigitalis. Advances in Therapy 1986;3:308-33.
Kagawa 1985 {published data only}
  • Kagawa S. Comparative clinical trial of Naftifine and Clotrimazole in Tinea pedum, Tinea cruris and Tinea corporis. Mykosen 1985;28:82-8.
Klaschka 1984 {published data only}
Kligman 1985a {published data only}
  • Kligman AM, Bogaert H, Cordero C, et al. Evaluation of ciclopirox olamine cream for the treatment of tinea pedis: Multicentre double blind comparative studies. Clinical Therapeutics 1985;7:409-17.
Kligman 1985b {published data only}
  • Kligman AM, Bogaert H, Cordero C, et al. Evaluation of ciclopirox olamine cream for the treatment of tinea pedis: Multicentre double blind comparative studies. Clinical Therapeutics 1985;7:409-17.
Korting 1997 {published data only}
  • Korting HC, Klovekorn W, Klovekorn G, Orfanos C, Heilgemeir E, et al. Comparatice efficacy and tolerability of econazole loiposomal gel 1%, branded econazole conventional cream 1% and generic clotrimazole cream 1% in tinea pedis. Clinical drug investigation 1997;14:246-93.
Korting 2001 {published data only}
  • Korting HC, Tietz HJ, Brautigam M, Mayser P, Rapatz G, Paul C. One week terbinafine 1% cream (Lamisil) once daily is effective in the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis: a vehicle controlled study. LAS-INT-06 Study Group. Med Mycol 2001;39(4):335.
Kuhlwein 1990 {published data only}
  • Kuhlwein A, Busch T. Tinea inguinalis und Tinea Pedis. Therapiewoche 1990;40:1643-5.
Ledezma 2000 {published data only}
  • Ledezema E, Marcano K, Jorquera A, De Sousa L, Padila, Pulgar M, Apitz-Castro R. Efficacy of ajoene in the treatment of tinea pedis: A double blind and comparative study with terbinafine. Journal of the American Academy 2000;43:829-32.
Leenutaphong 1999 {published data only}
  • Leenutaphong V, Niumpradit N, Tangwiwat S, Sritaveesuwan R, Muanprasat C. Double-blind study of the efficacy of 1 week topical terbinafine cream compared to 4 weeks miconazole cream in patients with tinea pedis. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 1999;82(10):1006-10.
Mandy 1974 {published data only}
  • Mandy SH, Garrott TC. Miconazole treatment for severe dermatomycoses. JAMA 1974;230:725.
Mensing 1992 {published data only}
Montana 1994 {published data only}
  • Montana JB, Scher RK. A double-blind vehicle controlled study of the safety and efficacy of fungoid tincture in patients with distal subungual onychomycosis of the toes. Cutis 1994;53:313-6.
Pereda 2003 {published data only}
Plotkin 1990 {published data only}
  • Plotkin E, Machtinger MA, Vlahos M, Lipkin L, Pascente RW, et al. Naftifine cream 1% versus Clotrimazole cream 1% in the treatment of tinea pedis. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 1990;80:314-8.
Qadripur 1979 {published data only}
  • Qadripur SA, Krause U. Doppelblindversuch mit Clotrimazol und Econazol bei Tinea Pedis. Mykosen 1979;22:28-34.
Roberts 1985 {published data only}
Sanchez 1994 {published data only}
  • Sanchez-Carazo JL, Fuente C, Oliver V, Umbert P. A comparative study of terbinafine. Actas dermo-sifiliográficas 1994;85:388-94.
Satchell 2002 {published data only}
  • Satchell AC, Saurajen A, Bell C, Barnetson RStC. Treatment of interdigital tinea pedis with 25% and 50% tea tree oil solution: A randomised placebo-controlled, blinded study. Australasian Journal of Dermatology 2000;45:175-178.
Savin 1990 {published data only}
Savin 1994 {published data only}
  • Savin R, Atton AV, Bergstrasser PR, Elewski B, Jones HE, Levine L, et al. Efficacy of terbinafine 1% cream in the treatment of moccasin type tinea pedis: Results of placebo controlled multicentre trials. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1994;30:663-7.
Savin 1997 {published data only}
  • Savin R, DeVillez RL, Elewski B, Hong S, Jones T, Lowe N, Lucky A, Reyes B, Stewart D, Willis I. One-week therapy with twice-daily butenafine 1% cream versus vehicle in the treatment of tinea pedis: a multicentre double-blind trial. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1997;36:S15-9.
Schachner 1990 {published data only}
  • Schachner LA, Bagatell FK, Whittington CV, Willis I, Sefton J. The saftey and efficacy of Naftifine cream 1% in the treatment of tinea pedis. Advances in Therapy 1990;7:148-52.
Schopf 1999 {published data only}
  • Schopf R, Hettler O, Brautigam M, Weidinger G, Kaben U, Mayser P, Resl V. Efficacy and tolerability of terbinafine 1% topical solution used for 1 week compared with 4 weeks clotrimazole 1% topical solution in the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis: a randomized, double-blind, multi-centre, 8-week clinical trial [Wirksamkeit und Vertäglichkeit einer einwöchenigen Therapie mit 1%iger Terbinafin-Lösung im Vergleich zu einer vierwochigen Therapie mit 1%iger Clotrimazol-Lösung in der Behandlung der interdigitalen Tinea pedis: Eine randomisierte, dopple-blinde, multizentrische, achtwöchige klinische Studie]. Mycoses 1999;42(5-6):415-420.
Smith 1977 {published data only}
Smith 1986 {published data only}
  • Smith EB, Tschen E. Treatment of interdigital tinea pedis and tinea (pityriasis) versicolour with bifonazole 1% solution applied once daily. Advances in Therapy 1986;3:250-6.
Smith 1988a {published data only}
Smith 1988b {published data only}
Smith 1988c {published data only}
Smith 1990a {published data only}
  • Smith EB, Noppakun N, Newton RC. A clinical trial of topical terbinafine (a new allylamine antifungal) in the treatment of tinea pedis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1990;23:790-4.
Smith 1990b {published data only}
  • Smith EB, Wiss K, Hanifin JM, Jordon RE, Rapini RP, Lasser AE, Kirschenbaum MB, Millikan LE, Parish LC, et al. Comparison of once and twice daily Naftifine cream regimens with twice daily Clotrimazole in the treatment of tinea pedis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1990;22:1116-7.
Smith 1992 {published data only}
  • Smith EB, Breneman DL, Griffith RF, Hebet AA, Hickman JG, Maloney JM, Millikan LE, Sulica VI, Dromgoole SH, Sefton J, et al. Double blind comparison of Naftifine cream and Clotrimazole beta methasone depropionate cream in the treatment of tinea pedis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1992;26:125-7.
Spiekermann 1976a {published data only}
Spiekermann 1976b {published data only}
Sushka 2001 {published data only}
Syed 1999 {published data only}
Syed 2000 {published data only}
  • Syed TA, Hadi SM, Qureshi ZA, Ali SM, Ahmad SA. Butenafine 1% versus terbinafine 1% in cream for the treatment of tinea pedis - A placebo-controlled, double-blind, comparative study. Clinical Drug Investigation 2000;19(6):393-7.
Tong 1992 {published data only}
Tschen 1997 {published data only}
  • Tschen E, Elewski B, Gorsulowsky DC, Pariser DM. Treatment of interdigital tinea pedis with a 4 week once-daily regimen of butenafine hydrochloride 1% cream. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1997;36:9-14.
Vermeer 1996 {published data only}
  • Vermeer BJ, Staats CCG, Van Houwelingen JC. Terbinafine versus miconazol bij patienten met tinea pedis. Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 1996;140:1605-8.
Weller 1998 {published data only}
Woscoff 1986 {published data only}
  • Woscoff A, Carabeli S. Treatment of tinea pedis with sulconazole nitrate 1% cream or miconazole nitrate 2% cream. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1986;39:753-7.
Zaug 1992 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Albanese 1992 {published data only}
  • Albanese G, Di Cintio R, Giorgetti P, Galbiati G, Ciampini Ml. Recurrent tinea pedis: a double blind study on the prophylactic use of fenticonazole powder. Mycoses 1992;35:5-6.
Alexander 1972 {published data only}
  • Alexander JOD, Grant PW. The treatment of skin infections: a double blind trial of fentiderm. Clinical Trials Journal 1972;9:9-12.
Aly 1994 {published data only}
  • Aly R, Bayles CI, Oakes RA, Bibel DJ, Maibach HI. Topical griseofulvin in the treatment of dermatophytoses. Clin Exp Dermatol 1994;19:43-6.
  • Li Q, Li M, Jin L, Qin L-M, Gu J, Liu WD, Guo Z-L. Clinical efficacy of compound econazole cream in the treatment of tinea corporis, tinea inguinalis, tinea manus, tinea pedis and its safety. Pharmaceutical care and research (Yaoxue Fuwu Yu Yanjin) 2001;4(1):52-4.
Arenas 1991 {published data only}
  • Arenas R, Fernadez G, Dominguez L. Onychomycosis treated with itraconazole or griseofulvin alone with and without a topical antimycotic or keratolytic agent. International Journal of Dermatology 1991;30(8):586-589.
Athow Frost 1986 {published data only}
  • Athow-Frost TAM, Freeman K, Mann TAN, Marks R, Vollum D, Warin AP. Clinical evaluation of fenticonazole cream in cutaneous fungal infections: a comparison with miconazole cream. Current Medical Research and Opinion 1986;10:107-16.
Avlia 1985 {published data only}
  • Avila JM. Treatment of dermatomycoses with sulconazole 1% nitrate cream or miconazole nitrate 2% cream: a double-blind comparative study. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1985;38:328-33.
Baran 2000 {published data only}
  • Baran R, Feuilhade M, Datry A, Goettmann S, Pierini P, Vigue C, Badillet G, Larner C, Czernielewski J. A randomised trial of amorolfine 5% solution nail lacquer combined with oral terbinafine compared with terbinafine alone in the treatment of dermatophytic nail toenail onychomycosis. British Journal of Dermatology 2000;142:1177-1183.
Barnetson 1998 {published data only}
  • Barnetson RS, Marley J, Bullen M, Brookman S, Cowen P, Ellis D, Williams T. Comparison of one week of oral terbinafine (250 mg/day) with four weeks of treatment with clotrimazole 1% cream in interdigital tinea pedis. British Journal of Dermatology 1998;139(4):675-8.
Bjornberg 1986 {published data only}
  • Bjornberg A, Tegner E. Treatment of tinea with miconazole and miconazole-hydrocortisone. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1986;40:471-4.
Clayton 1982 {published data only}
Cuce 1980 {published data only}
  • Cuce LC, Contijo Assuncao BF, Medawar LGA, Salibian A, Groppi W. Tolciclate versus miconazole: a double-blind trial in patients with dermatomycosis. The Journal of international medical research 1980;8:144-7.
Cuce 1989 {published data only}
  • Cuce LC. Sulcanazole nitrate 1% cream versus clotrimazole 1% cream in the treatment of tinea pedis. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1989;45:421-7.
Daily 1985 {published data only}
  • Daily AD, Kramer KJ, Rex IH, Thorne EG. Econazole nitrate (spectazole) cream 1%: a topical agent for the treatment of tinea pedis. Cutis 1985;35:278-80.
Del Palacio 1989 {published data only}
Del Palacio 1991 {published data only}
  • Del Palacio A, Lopez S, Gimeno C, Garcia-Lacalle C, Cuetara S, Garcia-Bravo M, et al. Randomized comparative study: amorolfine cream (0.125%, 0.25% and 0.5%) in dermatomycoses. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 1991;1:299-303.
Del Palacio 1992 {published data only}
  • Del Palacio A, Lopez-Gomez S, Cuetara S, Iglesias-Diez L, Rodriguez-Noriega A. Experience with amorolfine in the treatment of dermatomycoses. Dermatology 1992;184(suppl 1):25-9.
Del Palacio 1999 {published data only}
Del Palacio 2000 {published data only}
Del Palacio A 1992 {published data only}
Duncan 1975 {published data only}
  • Duncan WC. Tinea pedis: treatment with topical miconazole. Cutis 1975;16:647-9.
Effendy 1987 {published data only}
  • Effendy I, Friederich HC. Double-blind randomised comparative trial of naftifine solution (once daily) and clotrimazole solution (twice daily) in the treatment of dermatomycoses. Mykosen 1987;30:104-11.
Evans E 1994 {published data only}
Fredriksson 1972 {published data only}
Fredriksson 1974 {published data only}
Fredriksson 1977 {published data only}
  • Fredriksson T. Treatment of dermatomycosis with topical miconazole (Daktar). Opusc Med 1977;22:80-1.
Fredriksson 1982 {published data only}
  • Fredriksson T. Treatment of dermatomycosis with topical tioconazole and miconazole. Dermatologica 1983;166:14-19.
  • Fredriksson T, Faergemann J. Comparative study of the therapeutic effect of bifonazole and econazole in the treatment of dermatomycoses. Proceedings of the International Antifungal Symposium: Bifonazole 1982. 1983:120-5.
Friedman 1997 {published data only}
  • Friedman-Birnbaum R, Cohen A, Shemer A, Bitterman O, Bergman R, Stettendorf S. Treatment of onychomycosis: a randomised double blind comparison study with topical bifonazole-urea ointment alone and in combination with short duration oral griseofulvin. International Journal of Dermatology 1997;36(1):67-69.
Fulton 1975 {published data only}
Galimberti 1984 {published data only}
Gip 1983 {published data only}
Greer 1986 {published data only}
Greer 1987 {published data only}
Grigoriu 1983 {published data only}
  • Grigoriou D, Grigoriou A. A double-blind comparison of the efficacy, toleration and safety of tioconazole base 1% and econazole nitrate 1% creams in the treatment of patients with fungal infections of the skin or erythasma. Dermatologica 1983;166(suppl 1):8-13.
Grooten 1992 {published data only}
  • Grooten A, Meijman FJ. The treatment of the dermatomycoses of toes, feet and inguinal region: comparative study on the efficacy of miconazole and Whitfield's ointment. Huisarts Wet 1992;35:26-8.
Kashin 1985 {published data only}
  • Kashin P, Ohyfferoen MC, Gibbs DL. A comparative study of once- versus twice-daily treatment of superficial dermatophyte and yeast infections with tioconazole 1% cream. The Journal of international medical research 1985;13:85-95.
Katayama 1987 {published data only}
Kates 1990 {published data only}
  • Kates SG, Myung KB, McGinley KJ, Leyden JJ. The antibacterial efficacy of econazole nitrate in interdigital toe web infections. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1990;22:583-6.
Katz 1972 {published data only}
Koca 2001 {published data only}
  • Koca R, Canturk T, Senturk N, Turanli AY. Comparison of combined clotrimazole and aluminium hydroxychloride with clotrimazole therapy in interdigital type tinea pedis. Ondokutz Mayis Universitesi Tip Dergisi 2001;18:192-197.
Lassus 1983 {published data only}
Lassus 1988 {published data only}
  • Lassus A, Nolting KS, Savopoulos C. Comparison of ciclopiroxolamine 1% cream with ciclopirox 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 1% cream in the treatment of inflamed superficial mycoses. Clinical Therapeutics 1988;10:594-9.
Lauharanta 1992 {published data only}
Lebwohl 2001 {published data only}
  • Lebwohl M, Elewski B, Eisen D, Savin RC. Efficacy and safety of terbinafine 1% solution in the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis and tinea corporis or tinea cruris. Cutis 2001;67(3):261-6.
Lestienne 1982 {published data only}
Li 2001 {published data only}
  • Li Q, Li M, Qin L-M, Gu J, Liu WD, Guo ZL. Clinical efficacy of compound econazole cream in the treatment of tinea corporis, tinea inguinalis, and tinea manus, tinea pedis and its safety. Parmaceutical care and research (Yaoxue fuwu yu yanjiu) 2001;4(1):52-4.
Lison 1985 {published data only}
  • Lison EM, Pearson BG, Goodfellow RC. Athlete's foot: a step forward. Occupational Health 1985;37:66-70.
Lynfield 1974 {published data only}
  • Lynfield YL, Littman ML, Feingold LE. Treatment of tinea pedis with micronized griseofulvin and tolnaftate. Cutis 1974;13:460-2.
Maibach 1978 {published data only}
  • Maibach HI. Iodochlorhydroxyquin-hydrocortisone treatment of fungal infections. Archives of Dermatology 1978;114:1773-5.
McVie 1986 {published data only}
Meinicke 1985 {published data only}
  • Meinicke K, Streigel C, Weidinger G. Treatment of dermatomycoses with naftifine: therapeutic efficacy on application once daily and twice daily. Mykosen 1987;30:98-103.
Mertens 1976 {published data only}
Nolting 1992 {published data only}
Nolting 1993 {published data only}
Ortiz 1978 {published data only}
  • Ortiz LG, PapaPR. Topical miconazole nitrate therapy in tinea pedis and tinea versicolor. Clinical Therapeutics 1978;1:444-50.
Oyeka 1991 {published data only}
Pariser 1994 {published data only}
Patel 1999 {published data only}
  • Patel A, Brookman SD, Bullen MU, Marley J, Ellis DH, Williams T, Barnetson RS. Topical treatment of interdigital tinea pedis: terbinafine compared with clotrimazole. Australasian Journal of Dermatology 1999;40(4):197-200.
Privat 1982 {published data only}
  • Privat Y, Konopka CA. A comparative controlled clinical trial of bifonazole vs econazole in superficial mycoses. In: Urabe H, editor. Proceedings of the International Antifungal Symposium: Bifonazole 1982. 1982:136-40.
Qadripur 1984 {published data only}
  • Qadripur SA. Double-blind parallel comparison of sulconazole nitrate 1% cream and powder with econazole 1% cream and powder in the treatment of cutaneous dermophytoses. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1984;35:753-8.
Reinel 1992 {published data only}
Reinel 1992a {published data only}
Ruping 1993 {published data only}
  • Ruping KH, Haas PJ. Treatment of onychomycosis - bifonazole nail set in comparison with urea. Zeitschritfur Artzliche Fortbildung 1993;87 (5):425-429.
Saple 2001 {published data only}
  • Saple DG, Amar AKJ, Ravichandran G, Korde KM, Desai A. Efficacy and safety of butenafine in superficial dermatophytosis. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 2001;99(5):274-5.
Shellow 1982 {published data only}
  • Shellow WVR. 2% miconazole nitrate powder in aerosol spray form: its efficacy in treating tinea pedis. The Journal of international medical research 1982;10:28-31.
Smith 1974 {published data only}
  • Smith E, David LM, Knox JM. Topical clotrimazole in dermatophytosis in a prison environment. Post Graduate Medical Journal 1974;50(suppl 1):64-6.
Smith 1977b {published data only}
Stettendorf 1983 {published data only}
Suschka 2001 {published data only}
Tanenbaum 1982 {published data only}
  • Tanenbaum L, Anderson C, Rosenberg MJ, Howard W, McDaniel W, Neimanis A, Ryan ME, Perez R. Sulconazole nitrate 1% cream. A comparison with miconazole in the treatemnt of tinea pedis and tinea cruris corporis. Therapeutics for the Clinician 1982;30:105-7.
Tanenbaum 1983 {published data only}
Tanuma 2001 {published data only}
  • Tanuma H, Tanuma M, Abe M, Kume H. Usefulness of lanoconazole (Astat) cream in the treatment of hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis. Comparative study of monotherapy and combination therapy with 10% urea ointment (Pastaron) [Stellenwert von Lanoconazol (Astat®) - Creme bei der Behandlung der hyperkeratotischen Form der Tinea pedis: Vergleichende Studie über Monotherapie und Kombinationstherapie mit 10% Harnstoffsalbe (Pastaron®)]. Mycoses 2001;44(5):181-190.
Terragni 1993 {published data only}
  • Terragni l, Caputo R. Efficacy and tolerability of of kevis nails associated with antimycotic product in the treatment of onychomycosis. G-Ital - Dermatol-Venereologica 1993;128(4):XLI-XLIII.
Thomas 1976 {published data only}
  • Thomas DJ. A study in industry of clotrimazole cream in tinea pedis and tinea cruris. Curr Med Res 1976;3:630-3.
Thomas 1986 {published data only}
  • Thomas DJ, Evans A. A study in Industry of Bifonazole (1%gel) and sulconazole cream in tinea pedis and tinea cruris. In: Hay R editor(s). Advances in Topical Antifungal Therapy. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1986:68-75.
Tschen 1979 {published data only}
Tsuboi 1996 {published data only}
Weil 1996 {published data only}
  • Weil M, Elewski B. Topical econazole versus terbinafine in the treatment of toe web space infections: a comparison. Advances in Therapy 1996;13:355-64.
Zaug 1995 {published data only}
  • Zaug M. Amorolfine nail lacquer: clinical experiance in onychomycosis. Journal of European Academy of Dermatology and venereology 1995;4(1):S23-30.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Herrera-Arellano {published data only}
  • Herrera-Arellano A, Rodriguez-Soberanes A, de los Angeles Martinez Riviera M, Martinez Cruz E, Zamilpa A, Alvarez L, Tortoriello J. Effectiveness and tolerability of a standard phytodrugderived from solanum chrysitrichum on tinea pedis: a randomised clinical trial. Planta medica 2003;69(5):390-5.
Sugiura {published data only}
  • Sugiura M, Hata Y, Fukuda T, Ishizaki S, Hanyaku H, Naka W, Harada T, Nishikawa T. One-week application of terbinafine cream compared with four-week application in treatment of tinea pedis. Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology 2001;42(4):223-228.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Beaven & Brooks 1994
  • Beaven DW, Brooks SE. The nail in clinical diagnosis. Mosby-Wolfe, 1994.
Brautigam et al 1995
Juni 2001
L'Abbe 1985
Petit 1983
  • Pettit J. Manual of practical dermatology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1983.
Roberts 1992