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Treatment of infantile spasms

  1. Eleanor C Hancock1,*,
  2. John P Osborne2,
  3. Stuart W Edwards3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Epilepsy Group

Published Online: 5 JUN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001770.pub3


How to Cite

Hancock EC, Osborne JP, Edwards SW. Treatment of infantile spasms. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD001770. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001770.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Liverpool, c/o Cochrane Epilepsy Group, Liverpool, UK

  2. 2

    Royal United Hospital, The Children's Centre, Bath, UK

  3. 3

    International Collaborative Infantile Spasms Study (ICISS), The Children's Centre, Bath, UK

*Eleanor C Hancock, c/o Cochrane Epilepsy Group, University of Liverpool, Room 2.28, Clinical Sciences Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Lower Lane, Liverpool, L9 7LJ, UK. ellie.clayden@icloud.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 5 JUN 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Appleton 1999 {published data only}
Askalan 2003 {published data only}
  • Askalan R, Mackay M, Brian J, Otsubo H, McDermott C, Bryson S, et al. Prospective preliminary analysis of the development of autism and epilepsy in children with infantile spasms. Journal of Child Neurology 2003;18(3):165-70.
Baram 1996 {published data only}
  • Baram TZ, Mitchell WG, Tournay A, Carter-Snead O, Hanson RA, Horton EJ. High-dose corticotropin (ACTH) versus prednisone for infantile spasms: a prospective, randomised, blinded study. Pediatrics 1996;97(3):375-9.
Bitton 2012 {published data only}
  • Bitton JY, Sauerwein HC, Weiss SK, Donner EJ, Whiting S, Dooley JM, et al. A randomized controlled trial of flunarizine as add-on therapy and effect on cognitive outcome in children with infantile spasms.. Epilepsia 2012;53(9):1570-6.
  • Sauerwein H, Goodyear E, Carmant L, Lassonde M. Study of the neuroprotective effect of the L-type calcium channel blocker flunarizine on the developmental outcome of infants with West syndrome. Epilepsia 2006;47 Suppl 3:173.
  • Weiss SK, Whiting S, Wirrell, Donner E, Dooley J, Ronen G, et al. Prospective infantile spasm multicenter trial: what clinical risk factors predict a normal EEG at 6 months?. Epilepsia 2007;48 Suppl 6:64.
Chiron 1997 {published data only}
Debus 2004 {published data only}
  • Debus O, Kurlemann G. Sulthiame in the primary therapy of West syndrome: a randomised double blind placebo-controlled add-on trial on baseline pyridoxine medication. Personal Communication.
  • Debus OM, Kurlemann G. Sulthiame in the primary therapy of West syndrome: a randomised double blind placebo-controlled add-on trial on baseline pyridoxine medication. Epilepsia 2004;45(2):103-8.
Dreifuss 1986 {published data only}
Dyken 1985 {published data only}
  • Dyken PR, DuRant RH, Batts Minden D, King DW. Short term effects of valproate on infantile spasms. Pediatric Neurology 1985;1(1):34-7.
Elterman 2010 {published data only}
  • Elterman RD, Collins SD, Shields D, Mansfield KA, Nakagawa J. Efficacy of vigabatrin in subjects with infantile spasms. Epilepsia 2005;46 Suppl 8:167.
  • Elterman RD, Shields D, Bittman RM, Torri SA, Sagar SM, Collins SD. Vigabatrin for the treatment of infantile spasms: final report of a randomized trial. Journal of Child Neurology 2010;25(11):1340-7. [PUBMED: 20404353]
  • Elterman RD, Shields D, Collins S. Vigabatrin effective in multiple etiologies of infantile spasms. Epilepsia 2006;47 Suppl 4:179.
  • Elterman RD, Shields WD, Mansfield KA, Nakagawa J. Randomized trial of vigabatrin in patients with infantile spasms. Neurology 2001;57(8):1416-21. [MEDLINE: 11673582]
  • Shields D, Collins SD, Elterman RD, Nakagawa J, Mansfield KA. AEs and safety of vigabatrin in subjects with infantile spasms. Epilepsia 2005;46 Suppl 8:161.
Hrachovy 1983 {published data only}
Hrachovy 1989 {published data only}
Hrachovy 1994 {published data only}
  • Hrachovy RA, Frost JD, Glaze DG. High-dose, long-duration versus low-dose, short -duration corticotropin therapy for infantile spasms. The Journal of Pediatrics 1994;124(5(1)):803-5.
Lux 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Darke K, Edwards E, Hancock, Johnson AL, Kennedy CR, Lux AL, et al. Developmental and epilepsy outcomes at age 4 years in the UKISS trial comparing hormonal treatments to vigabatrin for infantile spasms: a multi-centre randomised trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2010;95(5):382-6. [PUBMED: 20457702]
  • Lux AL, Edwards SW, Hancock E, Johnson AL, Kennedy CR, Newton RW, et al. The United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study (UKISS) comparing hormone treatment with vigabatrin on developmental and epilepsy outcomes to age 14 months: a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet Neurology 2005;4(11):712-7.
  • Lux AL, Edwards SW, Hancock E, Johnson AL, Kennedy CR, Newton RW, et al. The United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study comparing vigabatrin with prednisolone or tetracosactide at 14 days: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364(9447):1173-8.
Shu 2009 {published data only}
  • Shu XM, Li J, Zhang GP, Mao Q. A comparative study of conventional dose and low dose adrenocorticotrophic hormone therapy for West syndrome. Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics 2009;11(6):445-8.
Tsai 2009 {published data only}
  • Tsai J, Pellock JM, von Hehn J, Pieribone V, Shaw K, Garofalo E. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging clinical study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and antiepileptic activity of ganaxolone in treatment of patients with infantile spasms. Neurology 2009;72(11 Suppl 3):A119.
Vigevano 1997 {published data only}
  • Vigevano F, Cilio MR. Vigabatrin versus ACTH as first line treatment for infantile spasms: a randomised prospective study. Epilepsia 1997;38(12):1270-4.
  • Vigevano F, Cilio MR, Claps D, Faberi A, Gisondi A. Vigabatrin versus ACTH as first line therapy in West syndrome [Vigabatrin versus ACTH come terapia di prima scelta nella sindrome di West]. Bollettino lega Italiana contro l'epilessia 1994;86/87:115-6.
Yanagaki 1999 {published data only}
Zou 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Zou LP, Wang X, Dong CH, Chen CH, Zhao W, Zhao RY. Three-week combination treatment with ACTH + magnesium sulfate versus ACTH monotherapy for infantile spasms: a 24 week, randomised, open-label, follow up study in China. Clinical Therapeutics 2010;32(4):692-700.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Al Ajlouni 2005 {published data only}
  • Al Ajlouni S, Shorman A, Daoud AS. The efficacy and side effects of topiramate on refractory epilepsy in infants and young children: a multicenter clinical trial. Seizure 2005;14(7):459-63.
Albsoul-Younes 2004 {published data only}
Appleton 1993 {published data only}
  • Appleton RE. The role of vigabatrin in the management of infantile epileptic syndromes. Neurology 1993;43 Suppl 5:21-3.
Arvio 2005 {published data only}
Azam 2005 {published data only}
Bachman 1982 {published data only}
Bensch 1977 {published data only}
Besag 2004 {published data only}
  • Besag F. Behvioural effects of the newer antiepileptic drugs: an update. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 2004;3(1):1-8.
Bingel 2003 {published data only}
Blennow 1986 {published data only}
Bobele 1994 {published data only}
Boel 2004 {published data only}
Brodie 1996 {published data only}
  • Brodie MJ. Lamotrigine - an update. The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 1996;23 Suppl 2:6-9.
Browne 1978 {published data only}
Buoni 2004 {published data only}
Chamberlain 1996 {published data only}
Chevrie 1984 {published data only}
Connelly 1993 {published data only}
Debus 2002 {published data only}
Duncan 2002 {published data only}
Duse 1996 {published data only}
  • Duse M, Notarangelo LD, Tiberti S, Menegati E, Plebani A, Ugazio AG. Intravenous immune globulin in the treatment of intractable childhood epilepsy. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 1996;104 Suppl 1:71-6.
Francois 2003 {published data only}
  • Francois II, Manel V, Rouselle C, David M. Ketogenic regime as anti-epileptic treatment: its use in 29 epileptic children. Achives De Pediatrie 2003;10(4):300-6.
Gibbs 1965 {published data only}
Glauser 2002 {published data only}
Glaze 1985 {published data only}
  • Glaze D, Zion T. Infantile spasms. In: Lockhart JD editor(s). Current Problems in Pediatrics. 11. Vol. 15, Chicago: Year Book Medical Publisher, 1985:1-39.
Glaze 1986 {published data only}
  • Glaze DG, Hrachovy RA, Frost JD, Zion TE, Bryan RN. Computed tomography in infantile spasms: effects of hormonal therapy. Pediatric Neurology 1986;2(1):23-7.
Grosso 2005 {published data only}
Haines 1994 {published data only}
Hosain 2006 {published data only}
Hrachovy 1979 {published data only}
Inanaga 1989 {published data only}
Ishii 2002 {published data only}
Klein 1970 {published data only}
  • Klein R. The effects of ACTH and corticosteroids on eplieptiform disorders. Progress in Brain Research 1970;32:263-9.
Li 2004 {published data only}
Lombroso 1983 {published data only}
Lortie 1997 {published data only}
Lotze 2004 {published data only}
Luna 1989 {published data only}
Mackay 2004 {published data only}
  • Mackay MT, Weiss SK, Adams-Webber T, Ashwal S, Stephens D, Ballaban-Gill K, et al. Practice parameter: medical treatment of infantile spasms: report of the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society. Neurology 2004;62(10):1668-81.
Matsumoto 1987 {published data only}
Mikaeloff 2003 {published data only}
  • Mikaeloff Y, de Saint-Martin A, Mancini J, Peudenier S, Pedespan JM, Vallée L, et al. Topiramate: efficacy and tolerability in children according to epilepsy syndromes. Epilepsy Reseach 2003;53(3):225-32.
Mikati 2002 {published data only}
Mimaki 1998 {published data only}
Mumford 1989 {published data only}
  • Mumford JP, Dam M. Meta-analysis of European placebo controlled studies of vigabatrin in drug resistant epilepsy. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1989;27 Suppl:101-7.
Mumford 1994 {published data only}
Nabbout 2003 {published data only}
Nolte 1988 {published data only}
O'Donohoe 1977 {published data only}
  • O'Donohoe NV, Paes BA. A trial of clonazepam in the treatment of severe epilepsy in infancy and childhood. Epilepsy: The Eighth International Symposium. New York: Raven Press, 1977:159-62.
Oguni 2006 {published data only}
  • Oguni H, Yanagaki S, Hayashi K, et al. Extremely low-dose ACTH step up protocol for West syndrome: maximum therapeutic effect with minimal side effects. Brain and Development 2006;28 (1):8-13.
Ohtahara 2006 {published data only}
Oka 2004 {published data only}
Pietz 1993 {published data only}
Ramsay 1984 {published data only}
Scher 2003 {published data only}
Schlanger 2002 {published data only}
Schlumberger 1994 {published data only}
Suzuki 1996 {published data only}
  • Suzuki Y, Kita T, Mano T, Arai H, Matsuoka T, Kodaka R, et al. Outcome of initial treatment with high-dose vitamin B6, valproate sodium or clonazepam in West Syndrome. No To Hattatsu (Brain and Development) 1996;28(5):398-402.
Suzuki 2002 {published data only}
Tada 1991 {published data only}
Trevanthan 2003 {published data only}
  • Trevathan E. Infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology 2003;17(Suppl 2):2S9-2S22.
Trompetter 1977 {published data only}
  • Trompetter-van Woerden ML, van der Zwan A. Experiences with sodium 2-propyl valproate in the treatment of epilepsy [Ervaringen met valproinezuur (Depakine) bij de behandeling van epilepsie]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 1977;121(14):578-90.
Vassella 1973 {published data only}
Veggiotti 1994 {published data only}
Wallace 1995 {published data only}
Weinmann 1967 {published data only}
Willig 1980 {published data only}
  • Willig RP, Lagenstein I. Therapeutic trial with a fragment of ACTH (ACTH 4-10) in early childhood epilepsy [Therapieversuch mit einem ACTH-Fragment (ACTH 4-10) bei Fruhkindlichen Anfallen]. Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 1980;128(2):100-3.
Wohlrab 1998 {published data only}
Yagi 2004 {published data only}
Yamamoto 1998 {published data only}
  • Yamamoto H, Asoh M, Murakami H, Kamiyama N, Ohta C. Liposteroid (dexamethasone palmitate) therapy for West Syndrome: a comparative study wWith ACTH therapy. Pediatric Neurology 1998;18(5):415-9.
Yamauchi 2004 {published data only}
Zafeiriou 1996 {published data only}
  • Zafeiriou DI, Kontopoulos EE, Tsikoulas IG. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and vigabatrin treatment of children with infantile spasms underlying cerebral palsy. Brain and Development 1996;18:450-2.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
ICISS {unpublished data only}
  • International Collaboration Infantile Spasms Study. Ongoing study May 2007.
ISRCTN 36757519 {unpublished data only}
  • Ongoing study Starting date of trial not provided. Contact author for more information.
ISRCTN Surgery/AEDs {published data only}
  • Ongoing study Starting date of trial not provided. Contact author for more information.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Aicardi 1994
  • Aicardi J. Epilepsy in children: infantile spasms and related syndromes. In: Procopis P, Rapin I editor(s). The International Review of Child Neurology. 2nd Edition. New York: Raven Press, 1994.
Beaumanoir 1992
  • Beaumanoir A, Dravet C. The Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. In: Roger J, Bureau M, Dravet C, Dreifuss F, Pervet H, Wolf P editor(s). Epileptic syndromes in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Second Edition. London: John Libbey, 1992:115-32.
Cowan 1991
Go 2012
  • Go CY, Mackay MT, Weiss SK, Stephens D, Adams-Webber T, Ashwal S, et al. Evidence-based guideline update: medical treatment of infantile spasms. Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology 2012;78(24):1974-80.
Hancock 1998
Hancock 1999
Higgins 2005
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 4.2.4 [updated March 2005]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2005. www.cochrane-handbook.org.
ILAE 1989
Lux 2004b
Mackay 2004
  • Mackay MT, Weiss SK, Adams-Webber T, Ashwal S, Stephens D, Ballaban-Gill K, et al. Practice parameter: medical treatment of infantile spasms: report of the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society. Neurology 2004;62(10):1668-81.
O'Callaghan 2011
Riikonen 1996
Roger 1985
  • Roger J, Durvet C, Bureau M, Dreifuss FE, Wolf P. West syndrome: infantile spasms. Epileptic syndromes in infancy, childhood and adolescence. John Libbey Eurotext Ltd. 1985.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Hancock 2008