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Prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour to prevent postpartum haemorrhage

  1. Gina Westhoff1,*,
  2. Amanda M Cotter2,3,
  3. Jorge E Tolosa3,4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 30 OCT 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 24 JUN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001808.pub2


How to Cite

Westhoff G, Cotter AM, Tolosa JE. Prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour to prevent postpartum haemorrhage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD001808. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001808.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Stanford University and University of California-San Francisco, Stanford, CA, USA

  2. 2

    University of Limerick, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Limerick, Ireland

  3. 3

    Global Network for Perinatal and Reproductive Health, Portland, OR, USA

  4. 4

    Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Portland, Oregon, USA

*Gina Westhoff, Stanford University and University of California-San Francisco, 300 Pasteur Dr. HH333, Stanford, CA, 94305-5317, USA. ginaw@stanford.edu. ginawesthoff@gmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 30 OCT 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Abdel-Aleem 2010 {published data only}
  • Abdel-Aleem H, Singata M, Abdel-Aleem M, Mshweshwe N, Williams X, Hofmeyr GJ. Uterine massage to reduce postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2010;111(1):32-6.
Bader 2000 {published data only}
  • Bader W, Ast S, Hatzmann W. The significance of acupuncture in the third stage of labour. Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Akupunktur 2000;43:264-8.
  • Bader W, Ast S, Reinehr J, Hackmann J, Hatzmann W. Oxytocin versus Akupunktur in der Plazentarperiode - eine prospektiv randomisierte Studie [abstract]. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2000;60 Suppl 1:S73.
Barbaro 1961 {published data only}
  • Barbaro CA, Smith GO. Clinical trial of SE505 - a new oxytocic mixture. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1961;1:147-50.
Bonham 1963 {published data only}
  • Bonham DG. Intramuscular oxytocics and cord traction in third stage of labour. Brtish Medical Journal 1963;2:1620-3.
De Groot 1996 {published data only}
Francis 1965 {published data only}
  • Francis HH, Miller JM, Porteous CR. Clinical trial of an oxytocin-ergometrine mixture. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1965;5:47-51.
Fugo 1958 {published data only}
  • Fugo NW, Dieckmann WJ. A comparison of oxytocic drugs in the management of the placental stage. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1958;76:141-6.
Ilancheran 1990 {published data only}
Jago 2007 {published data only}
  • Jago AA, Ezechi OC, Achinge GI, Okunlola MA. Effect of oxytocics on the blood pressure of normotensive Nigerian parturients. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2007;20(9):703-5.
Jerbi 2007 {published data only}
McGinty 1956 {published data only}
  • McGinty LB. A study of the vasopressor effects of oxytocics when used intravenously in the third stage of labour. Western Journal of Surgery 1956;64:22-8.
Moodie 1976 {published data only}
Nordstrom 1997 {published data only}
Orji 2008 {published data only}
  • Orji E, Agwu F, Loto O, Olaleye O. A randomized comparative study of prophylactic oxytocin versus ergometrine in the third stage of labor. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2008;101(2):129-32.
Pierre 1992 {published data only}
  • Pierre F, Mesnard L, Body G. For a systematic policy of iv oxytocin inducted placenta deliveries in a unit where a fairly active management of third stage of labour is yet applied: results of a controlled trial. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1992;43:131-5.
Poeschmann 1991 {published data only}
Saito 2007 {published data only}
Soiva 1964 {published data only}
  • Soiva K, Koistinen O. Clinical experience with simultaneous intramuscular injection of oxytocin and methylergometrine. Annales Chirurgiae et Gynaecologiae 1964;53:173-86.
Sorbe 1978 {published data only}
Vaughan Williams1974 {published data only}
  • Vaughan Williams CA, Johnson A, Ledward R. A comparison of central venous pressure changes in the third stage of labour following oxytocic drugs and diazepam. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1974;81:596-9.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Boucher 2004 {published data only}
  • Boucher M, Nimrod C, Tawagi G. Carbetocin IM injection vs oxytocin IV infusion for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in women at risk following vaginal delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001;185(6 Pt 2):A494.
  • Boucher M, Nimrod CA, Tawagi GF, Meeker TA, Rennicks, White RE, et al. Comparison of carbetocin and oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage following vaginal delivery:a double-blind randomized trial. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Canada: JOGC 2004;26(5):481-8.
Dickinson 2009 {published data only}
  • Dickinson JE, Doherty DA. Optimization of third-stage management after second-trimester medical pregnancy termination. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2009;201(3):303.e1-7.
Docherty 1982 {published data only}
  • Docherty PW, Hooper M. Choice of an oxytocic agent for routine use at delivery. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1981;2:60.
Dommisse 1980 {published data only}
  • Dommisse J. The routine use of oxytocic drugs in the third stage of labour [letter]. South African Medical Journal 1980;46:549.
Dumoulin 1981 {published data only}
  • Dumoulin JG. A reappraisal of the use of ergometrine. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1981;1:178-81.
Friedman 1957 {published data only}
Gerstenfeld 2001 {published data only}
  • Gerstenfeld T, Wing D. Rectal misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001;185:878-82.
Hacker 1979 {published data only}
Hoffman 2006b {published data only}
  • Hoffman M, Castagnola D, Naqvi F. A randomized trial of active versus expectant management of the third stage of labor [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2006;195(6 Suppl 1):S107.
  • Hoffman M, Naqvi F, Sciscione A. A randomized trial of active versus expectant management of the third stage of labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004;191(6 Suppl 1):S82..
Howard 1964 {published data only}
Huh 2000 {published data only}
  • Huh W, Chelmow D, Malone FD. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial of oxytocin at the beginning versus the end of the third stage of labor for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000;182(1 Pt 2):S130.
Irons 1994 {published data only}
Jackson 2001 {published data only}
  • Jackson KJ, Allbert J, Schemmer G, Elliot M, Humphrey A, Taylor J. A randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin administration before and after placental delivery in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001;185:873-7.
Khan 1997 {published data only}
  • Khan GQ, John IS, Chan T, Wani S, Doherty T. Controlled cord traction versus minimal intervention techniques in delivery of the placenta: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;177(4):770-4.
Kundodyiwa 2001 {published data only}
Lokugamage 2001 {published data only}
  • Lokugamage A, Paine M, Bassaw-Balroop K, Sullivan K, El-Refaey H, Rodeck C. Active management of the third stage at caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial of misoprostol versus syntocinon. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2001;41(4):411-4.
  • Lokugamage AU, Paine M, Bassau-Balroop H, El-Refaey K, Sullivan K, Rodek C. Active management of the third stage at caesarean section: misoprostol vs syntocinon. XVI FIGO World Congress of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2000 Sept 3-8; Washington DC, USA 2000; Book 2:54.
Muller 1996 {published data only}
  • Muller R, Beck G. Active management of the third stage of labour. 19th Swiss Congress of the Swiss Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 1996 June; Interlaken, Switzerland. 1996.
Newton 1961 {published data only}
Nieminen 1963 {published data only}
  • Nieminen U, Jarvinen PA. A comparative study of different medical treatments of the third stage of labour. Annales Chirurgiae et Gynaecologiae Fenniae 1963;53:424-9.
Parsons 2004 {published data only}
  • Parsons S, Ntumy YM, Walley RL, Wilson JB, Crane JMG, Matthews K, et al. Rectal misoprostol vs intramuscular oxytocin in the routine management of the third stage of labour. 30th British Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 2004 July 7-9; Glasgow, UK 2004;18. 2004.
Porter 1991 {published data only}
  • Porter KB, O'Brien WF, Collins MK, Givens P, Knuppel R, Bruskivage L. A randomized comparison of umbilical vein and intravenous oxytocin during the puerperium. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1991;78:254-6.
Ramirez 2001 {published data only}
  • Ramirez O, Benito V, Jimenez R, Valido C, Hernandez C, Garcia J. Third stage of labour: active or expectant management? preliminary results. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 2001;Suppl 1(Pt 2):364.
Rouse 2011 {published data only}
  • Rouse D, Abramovici A, Szychowski J, Seals S, Andrews W, Hauth J, et al. Oxytocin dose-regimens to prevent uterine atony after vaginal delivery: does treatment efficacy vary by risk status?. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2011;204(1 Suppl):S50-S51.
Sariganont 1999 {published data only}
  • Sariganont J. Comparative study between syntocinon and methergin in prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Thai Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1999;11(4):248.
Schaefer 2004 {published data only}
  • Schaefer A, Klein L, Wolfe P, Heindricks G, Downs L, Guinn D. Double blind rct of early versus traditional oxytocin management in the third stage to prevent blood loss. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004;191(6 Suppl 1):S69.
Schemmer 2001 {published data only}
  • Schemmer G. A randomized controlled trial comparing prophylactic administration of oxytocin before and after placental delivery in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001;184(1):S20.
Soriano 1995 {published data only}
  • Soriano D, Dulitzki M, Schiff E, Barkai G, Seldman DS. A randomized prospective trial of oxytocin plus ergometrin vs oxytocin alone for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995;172:361.
Stanton 2012 {published data only}
  • Stanton CK, Newton S, Mullany LC, Cofie P, Agyemang CT, Adiibokah E, et al. Impact on postpartum hemorrhage of prophylactic administration of oxytocin 10 IU via Uniject by peripheral health care providers at home births: Design of a community-based cluster-randomized trial. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2012;12:42.
Stearn 1963 {published data only}
Symes 1984 {published data only}
  • Symes JB. A study on the effect of ergometrine on serum prolactin levels following delivery. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1984;5:36-8. [Record 2022]
Tessier 2000 {published data only}
  • Tessier JL, Davies GAL, Woodman MC, Lipson A. Maternal hemodynamics after oxytocin bolus versus infusion in the third stage of labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000;182(1 Pt 2):S128.
Thornton 1988 {published data only}
Tita 2012 {published data only}
  • Tita ATN, Szychowski JM, Rouse DJ, Bean CM, Chapman V, Nothern A, et al. Higher-dose oxytocin and hemorrhage after vaginal delivery: A randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012;119(2 Pt 1):293-300.
Vasegh 2005 {published data only}
  • Vasegh FR, Bahiraie A, Mahmoudi M, Salehi L. Comparison of active and physiologic management of third stage of labor. HAYAT: The Journal of Tehran Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery 2005;10(23):102.
Wetta 2011 {published data only}
  • Wetta L, Szychowski J, Seals S, Mancuso M, Hauth J, Tita A. Risk factors for uterine atony at vaginal delivery: a comprehensive evaluation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2011;204(1 Suppl):S71-2.
Yuen 1995 {published data only}

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
AbouZahr 2003
Alderson 2004
  • Alderson P, Green S, Higgins JPT, editors. Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook 4.2.2 [updated March 2004]. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Begley 2011
Beischer 1986
  • Beischer NA, Mackay EV. Obstetrics and the Newborn. Eastbourne: Bailliere Tindall, 1986.
Burchell 1980
  • Burchell RC. Postpartum haemorrhage. In: Quilligan ES editor(s). Current Therapy in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1980.
Carroli 2001
  • Carroli G, Bergel E. Umbilical vein injection for management of retained placenta. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001337]
DoH 2004
  • Department of Health. Report on Confidential Enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom 2000-2. London: HMSO, 2004.
Du Vigneaud 1953
  • Du Vigneaud V, Ressler C, Tippet S. The sequence of amino acids in oxytocin with a proposal for the structure of oxytocin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1953;205:949.
Egger 1997
Embrey 1963
  • Embrey MP, Barber DTC, Scudamore JH. Use of syntometrine in prevention of post partum haemorrhage. British Medical Journal 1963;1:1387-9.
Gilbert 1987
Hall 1985
Harbord 2006
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Hoffman 2006a
  • Hoffman M, Castagnola D, Naqvi F. A randomized trial of active versus expectant management of the third stage of labor [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2006;195(6 Suppl 1):S107.
Kwast 1991
  • Kwast B. Postpartum haemorrhage: its contribution to maternal mortality. Midwifery 1991;7:64-7.
Liabsuetrakul 2007
Lozano 2011
  • Lozano R, Wang H, Foreman K, Rajaratnam J, Naghavi M, Marcus J, et al. Progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 on maternal and child mortality: an updated systemic analysis. Lancet 2011;378(9797):1139-65.
McDonald 2004
  • McDonald S, Abbott JM, Higgins SP. Prophylactic ergometrine-oxytocin versus oxytocin for the third stage of labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000201]
Moir 1932
  • Moir JC. The action of ergot preparation on the puerperal uterus. British Medical Journal 1932;1:1119-22.
Moir 1955
  • Moir JC. The history of present day use of ergot. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1955;72:727-34.
Mori 2012
Prendiville 1988a
Prendiville 2000
  • Prendiville WJ, Elbourne D, McDonald S. Active versus expectant management of the third stage of labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000007]
RevMan 2003 [Computer program]
  • The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 4.2 for Windows. Oxford, England: The Cochrane Collaboration, 2003.
RevMan 2012 [Computer program]
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.2. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2012.
Soltani 2010
Tunçalp 2012

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Cotter 2001
  • Cotter AM, Ness A, Tolosa JE. Prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001808]
Elbourne 1988
Prendiville 1988b
Prendiville 1989
  • Prendiville WJ, Elbourne DR. Care during the third stage of labour. In: Chalmers I, Enkin M, Keirse MJNC editor(s). Effective Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth. Vol. 2, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989:1145-69.