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Physical conditioning as part of a return to work strategy to reduce sickness absence for workers with back pain

  1. Frederieke G Schaafsma1,*,
  2. Karyn Whelan2,
  3. Allard J van der Beek3,
  4. Ludeke C van der Es-Lambeek4,
  5. Anneli Ojajärvi5,
  6. Jos H Verbeek6

Editorial Group: Cochrane Back Group

Published Online: 30 AUG 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 26 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001822.pub3


How to Cite

Schaafsma FG, Whelan K, van der Beek AJ, van der Es-Lambeek LC, Ojajärvi A, Verbeek JH. Physical conditioning as part of a return to work strategy to reduce sickness absence for workers with back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD001822. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001822.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    VU University Medical Center, EMGO+ Institute, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam, Netherlands

  2. 2

    Australian Catholic University, School of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, North Sydney, Australia

  3. 3

    VU University Medical Center, Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands

  4. 4

    CBO, Utrecht, Netherlands

  5. 5

    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland

  6. 6

    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group, Kuopio, Finland

*Frederieke G Schaafsma, Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, EMGO+ Institute, Van der Boechorststraat 7 - room A524, Postbus 7057, Amsterdam, 1007 MB, Netherlands. f.schaafsma@vumc.nl.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 30 AUG 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Altmaier 1992 {published data only}
  • Altmaier EM, Lehmann TR, Russell DW, Weinstein JN, Kao CH. The effectiveness of psychological interventions for the rehabilitation of low back pain: a randomised controlled trial evaluation. Pain 1992;49:329-35.
Bendix 1996 {published data only}
  • Bendix AF, Bendix T, Hæstrup C, Busch E. A prospective, randomized 5-year follow-up study of functional restoration in chronic low back pain patients. European Spine Journal 1998;7:111-9.
  • Bendix AF, Bendix T, Labriola M, Bœkgaard. Functional Restoration for Chronic Low Back Pain. Spine 1998;23(6):717-25.
  • Bendix AF, Bendix T, Vaegter K, Busch E, Kirkbak S, Ostenfeld S. Intensive work rehabilitation [Intensiv tvaerfaglig rygbehandling]. Videnskab og Praksis 1994;156(16):2388-95.
  • Bendix AF, Bendix T, Vægter K, Lind C, Frølund L, Holm L. Multidisciplinary intensive treatment for chronic low back pain: a randomized, prospective study. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 1996;63(1):62-9.
Bendix 1997 {published data only}
  • Bendix A, Bendix T, Labriola M, Bœkgaard P. Functional restoration for chronic low back pain/ two-year follow-up of two randomized clinical trials. Spine 1998;23(6):717-25.
  • Bendix AE, Bendix T, Hæstrup C, Busch E. A prospective, randomized 5-year follow-up study of functional restoration in chronic low back pain patients. European Spine Journal 1998;7:111-9.
  • Bendix AF, Bendix T, Lund C, Kirkbak S, Ostenfeld S. Comparison of three intensive programs for chronic low back pain patients: a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded study with one year follow-up. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 1997;29:81-9.
Bendix 2000 {published data only}
Bethge 2011 {published data only}
  • Bethge M, Herbold D, Jacobi C. Work status and health-related quality of life following multimodal work hardening: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation 2011;24:161-72.
Corey 1996 {published data only}
  • Corey DT, Koepfler LE, Etlin D, Day HI. A limited functional restoration program for injured workers: A randomised trial. Journal of Ocupational Rehabilitation 1996;6(4):239-49.
Faas 1995 {published data only}
Gatchel 2003 {published data only}
  • Gatchel RJ, Polatin PB, Noe C, Gardea M, Pulliam C, Thompson J. Treatment- and cost-effectiveness of early intervention for acute low-back pain patients: A one-year prospective study. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 2003;13(1):1-9.
Heymans 2006 {published data only}
  • Heymans MW, de Vet HCW, Bonger PM, Knol DL, Koes BW, van Mechelen W. The effectiveness of high-intensity versus low-intensity back schools in an occupational setting. Spine 2006;31(10):1075-82.
Jensen 2001 {published data only}
  • Jensen IB, Bergström G, Ljungquist T, Bodin L. A 3-year follow-up of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for back and neck pain. Pain 2005;115:273-83.
  • Jensen IB, Bergström G, Ljungquist T, Bodin L, Nygren ÅL. A randomized controlled component analysis of a behavioral medicine rehabilitation program for chronic spinal pain: are the effects dependent on gender. Pain 2001;91:65-78.
Jensen 2011 {published data only}
Karjalainen 2003 {published data only}
  • Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, Mutanen P, Roine R, Hurri H, Pohjolainen T. Mini-intervention for subacute low back pain. Spine 2004;29(10):1069-76.
  • Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, Pohjolainen T, Hurri H, Mutanen P, Rissanen P, et al. Mini-intervention for subacute low back pain. Spine 2003;28(6):533-41.
Kool 2005 {published data only}
  • Kool J, Bachmann S, Oesch P, Knuesel O, Ambergen T, de Bie R, van den Brandt P. Function-centered rehabilitation increases work days in patients with nonacute nonspecific low back pain: 1-Year results from a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2007;88(9):1089-94.
  • Kool JP, Oesch PR, Backmann S, Knuesel O, Dierkes JG, Russo M, de Bie RA, van den Brandt PA. Increasing days at work using function-centered rehabilitation in nonacute nonspecific low back pain: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2005;86(5):857-64.
Lambeek 2010 {published data only}
  • Lambeek LC, van Mechelen W, Knol DL, Louisel P, Anema JR. Randomised controlled trial of integrated care to reduce disability from chronic low back pain in working and private life. BMJ 2010;340:c1035.
Lindstrom 1992 {published data only}
  • Lindstrom I, Ohlund C, Eek C, Wallin L, Peterson L-E, Nachemson A. Mobility, strength, and fitness after a graded activity program for patients with subacute low back pain. A randomised prospective clinical study with a behavioural approach. Spine 1992;17(6):641-52.
  • Lindstrom I, Ohlund C, Eek C, Wallin L, Peterson LE, Fordyce WE, Nachemson AL. The effect of graded activity on patients with subacute low back pain: a randomized prospective clinical study with an operant-conditioning behavioral approach. Physical Therapy 1992;72(4):279-90.
  • Lindstrom I, Ohlund C, Nachemson A. Physical performance, pain, pain behavior and subjective disability in patients with subacute low back pain. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 1995;27(3):153-60.
Loisel 1997 {published data only}
  • Loisel P, Abenhaim L, Durand P, Esdaile JM, Suissa S, Gosselin L, et al. A population based, randomised clinical trial on back pain management. Spine 1997;22(24):2911-8.
  • Loisel P, Lemaire J, Poitras S, Durand M-J, Champagne F, Stock S, et al. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of a disability prevention model for back pain management: a six year follow up study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2002;59(12):807-15.
Meyer 2005 {published data only}
  • Meyer K, Fransen J, Huwiler H, Uebelhart D, Klipstein A. Feasibility and results of a randomised pilot-study of a work rehabilitation programme. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation 2005;18:67-78.
Mitchell 1994 {published data only}
Roche 2007 {published data only}
  • Jousset N, Fanello S, Bontoux L, Dubus V, Billabert C, Vielle B, et al. Effects of functional restoration versus 3 hours per week physical therapy: a randomized controlled study. Spine 2004;29(5):487-94.
  • Roche G, Ponthieux A, Parot-Shinkel E, Jousset N, Bontoux L, Dubus V, et al. Comparison of a functional restoration program with active individual physical therapy for patients with chronic low back pain: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2007;88:1229-35.
  • Roche-Leboucher G, Petit-Lemanac'h A, Bontoux L, Dubus-Bausière V, Parot-Shinkel E, Fanello S, et al. Multidisciplinary intensive functional restoration versus outpatient active physicotherapy in chronic low back pain. Spine 2011;36(26):2235-42.
Skouen 2002 {published data only}
  • Skouen JS, Grasdal AL, Haldorsen EMH, Ursin H. Relative cost-effectiveness of extensive and light multidisciplinary treatment programs versus treatment as usual for patients with chronic low back pain on long-term sick leave. Spine 2002;27(9):901-10.
Staal 2004 {published data only}
  • Hlobil H, Staal JB, Twisk J, Köke A, Ariëns G, Smid T, et al. The effects of a graded activity intervention for low back pain in occupational health on sick leave, functional status and pain: 12-month results of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 2005;15(4):569-80.
  • Hlobil H, Uegaki K, Staal JB, de Bruyne MC, Smid T, van Mechelen W. Substantial sick-leave costs savings due to a graded activity intervention for workers with non-specific sub-acute low back pain. European Spine Journal 2007;16:919-24.
  • Staal JB, Hlobil H, Twisk JWR, Smid T, Köke AJA, van Mechelen W. Graded activity for low back pain in occupational health care. Annals of Internal Medicine 2004;140:142-3.
Steenstra 2006 {published data only}
  • Anema JR, Steenstra IA, Bongers PM, de Vet HCW, Knol DL, Loisel P, et al. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for subacute low back pain: Graded activity or workplace intervention or both?. Spine 2007;32(3):291-8.
  • Steenstra IA, Anema JR, Bongers PM, de Vet HCW, Knol DL, van Mechelen W. The effectiveness of graded activity for low back pain in occupational health care. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006;63:718-25.
Storheim 2003 {published data only}
  • Storheim K, Brox JI, Holm I, Koller AK, Bø K. Intensive group training versus cognitive intervention in sub-acute low back pain: short-term results of a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2003;35:132-40.
van den Hout 2003 {published data only}
  • van den Hout JHC, Vlaeyen JWS, Heuts PHTG, Zijlema JHL, WIjnen JAG. Secondary prevention of work-related disability in nonspecific low back pain: Does problem-solving therapy help? A randomized clinical trial. The Clinical Journal of Pain 2003;19(2):87-96.
Wright 2005 {published data only}
  • Wright A, Lloyd-Davies A, Williams S, Ellis R, Strike P. Individual active treatment combined with group exercise for acute and subacute low back pain. Spine 2005;30(11):1235-41.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Alaranta 1994 {published data only}
  • Alaranta H, Rytokoski U, Rissanen A, Talo S, Ronnemaa T, Puukka P, et al. Intensive physical and psychosocial training program for patients with chronic low back pain. A controlled trial. Spine 1994;19(12):1339-49.
Aure 2003 {published data only}
  • Aure OF, Hilsen JH, Vasseljen O. Manual therapy and exercise therapy in patients with chronic low back pain. Spine 2003;28(6):525-32.
Bentsen 1997 {published data only}
  • Bentsen H, Lindgarde F, Manthorpe R. The effect of dynamic strength back exercise and/or a home training program in 57-old women with chronic back pain. Results of a prospective randomized study with a 3 year follow-up period. Spine 1997;22(13):1494-500.
Bültmann 2009 {published data only}
  • Bültmann U, Sherson D, Olsen J, Hansen CL, Lund T, Kilsgaard J. Coordinated and tailored work rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial with economic evaluation undertaken with workers on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 2009;19:81-93.
Dahl 2001 {published data only}
Dettori 1995 {published data only}
  • Dettori JR, Bullock SH, Sutlive TG, Franklin RJ, Patience T. The effects of spinal flexion and extension exercises and their associated postures in patients with acute low back pain. Spine 1995;20(21):2303-12.
Friedrich 1998 {published data only}
  • Friedrich M, Gittler G, Halberstadt Y, Cermak T, Heiller I. Combined exercise and motivation program: effect on the compliance and level of disablity of patients with chronic low back pain: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1998;79:475-87.
Hagen 2000 {published data only}
Hansen 1993 {published data only}
  • Hansen FR, Bendix T, Skov P, Jensen CV, Kristensen JH, Krohn L, et al. Intensive, dynamic back muscle exercises, conventional physiotherapy, or placebo-control treatment of low back pain. Spine 1993;18(1):98-108.
Kellett 1991 {published data only}
Linton 2005 {published data only}
  • Linton S, Boersma K, Jansson M, Svärd L, Botvalde M. The effects of cognitive-behavioural and physical therapy preventive interventions on pain-related sick leave: A randomized controlled trial. The Clinical Journal of Pain 2005;21(2):109-19.
Malmivaara 1995 {published data only}
  • Malmivaraa A, Hakkinen UTA, Heinrichs M-L, Koskenniemi L, Kuosma E, Lappi S, et al. The treatment of acute low back pain- bed rest, exercises or ordinary activity?. The New England Journal of Medicine 1995;332(6):351-5.
Moffett 1999 {published data only}
  • Moffett JK, Torgerson D, Bell-Syer S, Jackson D, Llewlyn-Philips H, Farrin A, et al. Randomised controlled trial of exercise for low back pain: clinical outcomes, costs and preferences. BMJ 1999;319:279-83.
Niemisto 2003 {published data only}
  • Niemistö L, Lahtinen-Suopanki T, Rissanen P, Lindgren K, Sarna S, Hurri H. A randomized trial of combined manipulation, stabilizing exercises, and physician consultation compared to physician consultation alone for chronic low back pain. Spine 2003;28(19):2185-91.
Rantonen 2012 {published data only}
  • Rantonen J, Luoto S, Vehtari A, Hupli M, Karppinen J, Malmivaara A, Taimela S. The effectiveness of two active interventions compared to self-care advice in employees with non-acute low back symptoms: a randomised controlled trial with a 4-year follow-up in the occupational health setting. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012;69:12-20.
Schiltenwolf 2006 {published data only}
  • Schiltenwolf M, Buchner M. Comparison of a biopsychosocial therapy (BT) with a conventional biomedical therapy (MT) of subacute low back pain in the first episode of sick leave: a randomized controlled trial. European Spine Journal 2006;15(7):1083-92.
Seferlis 1998 {published data only}
  • Seferlis T, Nemeth G, Carlsson AM, Girllstrom P. Conservative treatment in patients sick listed for acute low back pain: a prospective randomised study with 12 months' follow up. European Spine Journal 1998;7:461-70.
Torstensen 1998 {published data only}
  • Torstensen TA, Ljunggren AE, Meen HD, Odland E, Mowinckel P, Geijerstam S. Efficiency and costs of medical exercise therapy, conventional physiotherapy, and self-exercise in patients with chronic low back pain: A pragmatic, randomised, single-blinded, controlled trial with 1 year follow-up. Spine 1998;23(23):2616-24.
Whitfill 2010 {published data only}
  • Whitfill T, Haggard R, Bierner SM, Pransky G, Hassett RG, Gatchel RJ. Early intervention options for acute low back pain patients: a randomized clinical trial with one-year follow-up outcomes. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 2010;20:256-63.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Henchoz 2010 {published data only}
  • Henchoz Y, de Goumoënsa P, So AKL, Paillex R. Functional multidisciplinary rehabilitation versusoutpatient physiotherapy for non-specific lowback pain: randomised controlled trial. Swiss Medical Weekly 2010;140:w13133.
Jensen 2012 {published data only}
  • Jensen C, Jensen OK, Nielsen CV. Sustainability of return to work in sick-listed employees with low-back pain. Two-year follow-up in a randomized clinical trial comparing multidisciplinary and brief intervention. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2012;13:156.
Vora 2012 {published data only}
  • Vora RN, Barron BA, Almudevar A, Utell MJ. Work-related chronic low back pain-return-to-work outcomes after referral to interventional pain and spine clinics. Spine 2012;37(20):1282-9.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Anema 2007
  • Anema JR, Steenstra IA, Bongers PM, de Vet HCW, Knol DL, Loisel P, et al. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for subacute low back pain: Graded activity or workplace intervention or both?. Spine 2007;32(3):291-8.
Anema 2009
  • Anema JR, Schellart AJ, Cassidy JD, Loisel P, Veerman TJ, van der Beek AJ. Can cross country differences in return-to-work after chronic occupational back pain be explained? An exploratory analysis on disability policies in a six country cohort study. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 2009;19:419-23.
Atkins 2004
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Carroll 2010
  • Carroll C, Rick J, Cameron J, Hillage J. Workplace involvement improves return to work rates among employees with back pain on long-term sick leave: a systematic review of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Disability and Rehabilitation 2010;32(8):607-21.
Chinn 2000
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Karjalainen 2000
  • Karjalainen KA, Malmivaara A, van Tulder MW, Roine R, Jauhiainen M, Hurri H, et al. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low-back pain among working age adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002193; : Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, Van Tulder M, Roine R, Juahiainen M, Koes B. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low back pain in working-age adults. Spine 2001;26(3):262-9.]
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Schaafsma 2010
Schaafsma 2011
  • Schaafsma FG, Schonstein E, Ojajärvi A, Verbeek JH. Physical conditioning programs for improving work outcomes among workers with back pain. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 2011;37(1):1-5.
Schonstein 2003
  • Schonstein E, Kenny DT, Keating JL, Koes BW. Work conditioning, work hardening and functional restoration for workers with back and neck pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001822]
Schonstein 2003a