Intervention Review

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Antibiotics for trachoma

  1. Jennifer R Evans*,
  2. Anthony W Solomon

Editorial Group: Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group

Published Online: 16 MAR 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 11 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001860.pub3


How to Cite

Evans JR, Solomon AW. Antibiotics for trachoma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD001860. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001860.pub3.

Author Information

  1. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group, ICEH, London, UK

*Jennifer R Evans, Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group, ICEH, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK. jennifer.evans@lshtm.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 16 MAR 2011

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
ACT 1999 Egypt {published and unpublished data}
ACT 1999 Tanzania {published and unpublished data}
ACT 1999 The Gambia {published and unpublished data}
  • Fraser-Hurt N, Bailey RL, Cousens S, Mabey D, Faal H, Mabey DC. Efficacy of oral azithromycin versus topical tetracycline in mass treatment of endemic trachoma. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2001;79(7):632-40.
  • Schachter J, West SK, Mabey DC, Dawson CR, Bobo L, Bailey R, et al. Azithromycin in control of trachoma. Lancet 1999;354(9179):630-5.
Atik 2006 {published data only}
Attiah 1973 {published data only}
  • Attiah MA, el Kohly AM. Clinical assessment of the comparative effect of terramycin and GS 2989 in the mass treatment of trachoma. International Review of Trachoma 1973;50(3):11-20.
Bailey 1993 {published data only}
Bowman 2000 {published data only}
  • Bowman RJC, Sillah A, van Debn C, Goode V, Muquit M, Johnson GJ, et al. Operational comparison of single-dose azithromycin and topical tetracycline for trachoma. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2000;41(13):4074-9.
Chidambaram 2006 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Cochereau 2007 {published data only}
  • Cochereau I, Goldschmidt P, Goepogui A, Afghani T, Delval L, Pouliquen P, et al. Efficacy and safety of short duration azithromycin eye drops versus azithromycin single oral dose for the treatment of trachoma in children: a randomised, controlled, double-masked clinical trial. British Journal of Ophthalmology 2007;91(5):667-72.
Darougar 1980 {published data only}
  • Darougar S, Jones BR, Viswalingam N, Poirier RH, Allami J, Houshmand A, et al. Family-based suppressive intermittent therapy of hyperendemic trachoma with topical oxytetracycline or oral doxycycline. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1980;64(4):291-5.
Dawson 1969 Sherman {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Hanna L, Wood TR, Coleman V, Briones OC, Jawetz E. Controlled trials with trisulfapyrimidines in the treatment of chronic trachoma. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1969;119(6):581-90.
Dawson 1969 Stewart {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Hanna L, Wood TR, Coleman V, Briones OC, Jawetz E. Controlled trials with trisulfapyrimidines in the treatment of chronic trachoma. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1969;119(6):581-90.
Dawson 1997 {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Schachter J, Sallam S, Sheta A, Rubinstein RA, Washton H. A comparison of oral azithromycin with topical oxytetracycline/polymyxin for the treatment of trachoma in children. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1997;24(3):363-8.
Foster 1966 {published data only}
Hoshiwara 1973 {published data only}
Lee 2007 {published data only}
  • Lee S, Alemayehu W, Melese M, Lakew T, Lee D, Yi E, et al. Chlamydia on children and flies after mass antibiotic treatment for trachoma. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2007;76(1):129-31.
Peach 1986 {published and unpublished data}
  • Peach H, Piper S, Devanesen D, Dixon B, Jeffries C, Braun P, et al. Northern Territory trachoma control and eye health committee's randomised controlled trial of the effect of eye drops and eye washing on follicular trachoma among aboriginal children. Annual Report of the Menzies School of Health Research 1986:74-6.
Resnikoff 1995 {published data only}
  • Resnikoff S, Peyramaure F, Bagayogo CO, Huguet P. Health education and antibiotic therapy in trachoma control. Revue Internationale du trachome et de Pathologie Oculaire Tropicale et Subtropicale et de Sante Publique 1995;7289-98:101-10.
Shukla 1966 {published data only}
Tabbara 1996 {published data only}
TANA 2009 {published data only}
  • House JI, Ayele B, Porco TC, Zhou Z, Hong KC, Gebre T, et al. Assessment of herd protection against trachoma due to repeated mass antibiotic distributions: a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet 2009;373(9669):1111-8.
  • Porco TC, Gebre T, Ayele B, House J, Keenan J, Zhou Z, et al. Effect of mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control on overall mortality in Ethiopian children: A randomized trial. JAMA 2009;302(9):962-8.
Woolridge 1967 {published data only}
  • Woolridge RL, Cheng KH, Chang IH, Yang CY, Hsu TC, Grayston JT. Failure of trachoma treatment with ophthalmic antibiotics and systemic sulfonamides used alone or in combination with trachoma vaccine. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1967;63 Suppl(5):1577-86.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Abdou 2007 {published data only}
  • Abdou A, Nassirou B, Kadri B, Moussa F, Munoz BE, Opong E, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Niger. British Journal of Ophthalmology 2007;91(1):13-7.
Assaad 1968 {published data only}
  • Assaad FA, Maxwell Lyons F, Sundaresan T. Report of 4 years' follow-up of a trachoma clinical trial in Taiwan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1968;38(4):565-76.
Astle 2006 {published data only}
  • Astle W, Wiafe B, Ingram A, Mwanga M, Glassco C. Trachoma control in Southern Zambia - An international team project employing the SAFE strategy. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 2006;13(4):227-36.
Babbar 1982 {published data only}
  • Babbar OP, Chhatwal VK, Ray IB, Mehra MK. Effect of berberine chloride eye drops on clinically positive trachoma patients. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1982;76 Suppl:83-8.
Biebesheimer 2009 {published data only}
  • Biebesheimer JB, House J, Hong KC, Lakew T, Alemayehu W, Zhou Z, et al. Complete local elimination of infectious trachoma from severely affected communities after six biannual mass azithromycin distributions. Ophthalmology 2009;116(11):2047-50.
Bietti 1967 {published data only}
  • Bietti GB. Further contributions on the value of osmotic substances as means to reduce intra-ocular pressure. Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of Australia 1967;26:61-71.
Broman 2006 {published data only}
  • Broman AT, Shum K, Munoz B, Duncan DD, West SK. Spatial clustering of ocular chlamydial infection over time following treatment, among households in a village in Tanzania. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2006;47(1):99-104.
Cerulli 1983 {published data only}
  • Cerulli L, Cedrone C, Assefa C, Scuderi GL. Evaluation of treatment against trachoma in two regions of Ethiopia. Revue Internationale du Trachome et de Pathologie Oculaire Tropicale et Subtropicale et de Sante Publique 1983:67-83.
Chumbley 1988 {published data only}
Daghfous 1974 {published data only}
  • Daghfous T, Dawson CR, Messadi M, Hoshiwara I, Vastine D. Comparative study of the effect of rifampicin and tetracycline versus placebo in the treatment of trachoma [Etude comparative de l'action de la rifampicine et de tetracycline et d'un placebo dans le traitement du trachome]. International Review of Trachoma 1974;51:71-80.
Daghfous 1985 {published data only}
  • Daghfous MT, Dawson CR, Kammoun M, Romdhane K, Djerad A. Effect of oral doxycycline and 1% tetracycline ointment in the treatment of severe trachoma [Action de la doxycycline par voie orale et de la tetracycline pommade 1% dans le traitement du trachome severe]. Revue Internationale du Trachome et de Pathologie Oculaire Tropicale et Subtropicale et de Sante Publique 1985;62(1-2):47-51.
Darougar 1980a {published data only}
  • Darougar S, Jones BR, Viswalingam N, Allami J, Minassian D, Farahmandian MA, et al. Topical therapy of hyperendemic trachoma with rifampicin, oxytetracycline, or spiramycin eye ointments. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1980;64(1):37-42.
Darougar 1981 {published data only}
  • Darougar S, Viswalingam N, El Sheikh H, Hunter PA, Yearsley P. A double-blind comparison of topical therapy of chlamydial ocular infection (TRIC infection) with rifampicin or chlortetracycline. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1981;65(8):549-52.
Dawson 1967a {published data only}
Dawson 1967b {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Hanna L, Wood TR, Jawetz E. Double-blind treatment trials in chronic trachoma of American Indian children. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1967;7:137-42.
Dawson 1968 {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Elashoff R, Hanna L, Wood R. The evaluation of controlled trachoma chemotherapy trials. International Review of Trachoma 1968;45(1):77-85.
Dawson 1971 {published data only}
Dawson 1972a {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Elashoff R, Hanna L, Wood R. The evaluation of controlled trachoma chimiotherapy trial. International Review of Trachoma 1972;49(1):67-84.
Dawson 1972b {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Hanna L. Controlled treatment trials in trachoma: a resume of experience with topical and systemic tetracycline and systemic sulfonamide. International Review of Trachoma 1972;49(1):53-66.
Dawson 1974a {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Daghfous T, Messadi M, Hoshiwara I, Vastine DW, Yoneda C, et al. Microbiologic findings in a controlled trial of rifampicin and tetracycline for the treatment of severe endemic trachoma in Tunisia. International Review of Trachoma 1974;51(4):59-69.
Dawson 1974b {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Daghfous T, Messadi M, Hoshiwara I, Vastine DW, Yoneda C, et al. Severe endemic trachoma in Tunisia. II. A controlled therapy trial of topically applied chlortetracycline and erythromycin. Archives of Ophthalmology 1974;92(3):198-203.
Dawson 1975a {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Hoshiwara I, Daghfous T, Messadi M, Vastine DW, Schachter J. Topical tetracycline and rifampicin therapy of endemic trachoma in Tunisia. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1975;79(5):803-11.
Dawson 1981a {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Daghfous T, Whitcher J, Messadi M, Hoshiwara T, Triki F, et al. Intermittent trachoma chemotherapy: a controlled trial of topical tetracycline or erythromycin. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1981;59(1):91-7.
Dawson 1982 {published data only}
  • Dawson CR, Daghfous T, Hoshiwara I, Ramdhane K, Kamoun M, Yoneda C, et al. Trachoma therapy with topical tetracycline and oral erythromycin: a comparative trial. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1982;60(3):347-55.
Edwards 2006 {published data only}
Gower 2006 {published data only}
  • Gower EW, Solomon AW, Burton MJ, Aguirre A, Munoz B, Bailey R, et al. Chlamydial positivity of nasal discharge at baseline is associated with ocular chlamydial positivity 2 months following azithromycin treatment. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2006;47(11):4767-71.
Gupta 1966 {published data only}
Gupta 1968 {published data only}
Guzey 2000 {published data only}
  • Guzey M, Aslan G, Ozardali I, Basar E, Satici A, Karadede S. Three-day course of oral azithromycin vs topical oxytetracycline/polymyxin in treatment of active endemic trachoma. Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 2000;44(4):381-6.
Hasan 1976 {published data only}
  • Hasan MM. New drug for the treatment of trachoma (clinical trial report). Revue Internationale du Trachome et de Pathologie Oculaire Tropicale et Subtropicale et de Sante Publique 1976;53(3-4):105-17.
Humet 1989 {published data only}
  • Humet RM, Fresnadillo A, Fresnadillo E, Piqueras M, Alegre D. Comparative efficacy of two anti-biotics: doxycycline and ioamicine for the treatment of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. The importance of screening in the diagnosis. AnaLisis Clinicos 1989;14:140-4.
Isenberg 2002 {published data only}
  • Isenberg SJ, Apt L, Valenton M, Del Signore M, Cubillan L, Labrador MA, et al. A controlled trial of povodine-Iodine to treat infectious conjunctivitis in children. American Journal of Ophthalmology 2002;134(5):681-8.
Ji 1986 {published data only}
  • Ji MS. Evaluation of trachoma treatment by the cytological examination of scrapings. Chung Hua Yen Ko Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology] 1986;22(5):294-6.
Kamiya 1956 {published data only}
Khandekar 2006 {published data only}
  • Khandekar R, Mohammed AJ, Al Raisi A, Kurup P, Shah S, Dirir MH, et al. Prevalence and distribution of active trachoma in children of less than five years of age in trachoma endemic regions of Oman in 2005. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 2006;13(3):167-72.
Lakew 2009 {published data only}
  • Lakew T, House J, Hong KC, Yi E, Alemayehu W, Melese M, et al. Reduction and return of infectious trachoma in severely affected communities in Ethiopia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2009;3(2):e376.
Litricin 1968 {published data only}
  • Litricin O, Talanyi Feifer L. Mass trachoma treatment in areas with low endemicity. International Review of Trachoma 1968;45(2):143-53.
Mesfin 2006 {published data only}
  • Mesfin MM, De La Camera J, Tareke IG, Amanual G, Araya T, Kedir AM. A community-based trachoma survey: Prevalence and risk factors in the Tigray region of northern Ethiopia. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 2006;13(3):173-81.
Mohan 1982 {published data only}
  • Mohan M, Pant CR, Angra SK, Mahajan VM. Berberine in trachoma (A clinical trial). Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 1982;30(2):69-75.
Nabli 1988 {published data only}
  • Nabli B, Daghfous MT. A preliminary study of norfloxacin in the treatment of trachoma [Etude preliminaire de la Norfloxacine dans le traitement du trachome]. Revue Internationale du Trachome et de Pathologie Oculaire Tropicale et Subtropicale et de Sante Publique 1988;65(1-2):123-7.
Ngondi 2006a {published data only}
  • Ngondi J, Ole-Sempele F, Onsarigo A, Matende I, Baba S, Reacher M, et al. Blinding trachoma in postconflict southern Sudan. PLoS Medicine 2006;3(12):2424-30.
Ngondi 2006b {published data only}
  • Ngondi J, Onsarigo A, Matthews F, Reacher M, Brayne C, Baba S, et al. Effect of 3 years of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental change) strategy for trachoma control in southern Sudan: a cross-sectional study. Lancet 2006;368(9535):589-95.
Nisbet 1979 {published data only}
  • Nisbet IT, Graham DM, Spicer PE, Tibbs GJ. Chlorhexidine as an effective agent against Chlamydia trachomatis in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1979;16(6):855-7.
Obikili 1988 {published data only}
  • Obikili AG, Oji EO, Shonekan RO, Otti P. A double-blind comparison of picloxydine dihydrochloride (Vitabact eye drops) and sulfacetamide eye drops in the topical therapy of trachoma. Revue Internationale du Trachome et de Pathologie Oculaire Tropicale et Subtropicale et de Sante Publique 1988;65(3-4):119-32.
Putschky 2006 {published data only}
  • Putschky N, Pott HG, Kuipers JG, Zeidler H, Hammer M, Wollenhaupt J. Comparing 10-day and 4-month doxycycline courses for treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis-reactive arthritis: a prospective, double-blind trial. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2006;65(11):1521-4.
Reinhards 1959 {published data only}
  • Reinhards J. Collective antibiotic treatment of Trachoma. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1959;21:665-702.
Resnikoff 1994 {published data only}
  • Resnikoff S, Castan R, Peyramaure F, Bagayogo C, Huguet P. Course of trachoma under treatment with 1% oxytetracycline ophthalmic solution [Evolution du trachome sous traitement par collyre a l'oxytetracycline 1%]. Journal of French Ophthalmology 1994;17(10):591-5.
Schemann 2007 {published data only}
  • Schemann JF, Guinot C, Traore L, Zefack G, Dembele M, Diallo I, et al. Longitudinal evaluation of three azithromycin distribution strategies for treatment of trachoma in a sub-Saharan African country, Mali. Acta Tropica 2007;101(1):40-53.
Tabbara 1988 {published data only}
Toufic 1968 {published data only}
  • Toufic N. Antitrachoma campaigns of the O.C.C.G.E [Campagnes antitrachomateuses de l'O.C.C.G.E]. International Review of Trachoma 1968;45(3):219-27.
Wadia 1980 {published data only}
  • Wadia I, Bell WJ, Gaber A. Topical meclocycline in the treatment of trachoma in lower Egypt. Revue Internationale du Trachome et de Pathologie Oculaire Tropicale et Subtropicale et de Sante Publique 1980;57(4):77-86.
Werner 1977 {published data only}
West 2006 {published data only}
  • West SK, Emerson PM, Mkocha H, McHiwa W, Munoz B, Bailey R, et al. Intensive insecticide spraying for fly control after mass antibiotic treatment for trachoma in a hyperendemic setting: a randomised trial. Lancet 2006;368(9535):596-600.
Whitcher 1974 {published data only}
  • Whitcher JP, Dawson CR, Messadi M, Daghfous T, Abdullah NB, Triki F, et al. Severe endemic trachoma in Tunisia: changes in ocular bacterial pathogens in children treated by the intermittent antibiotic regimen. International Review of Trachoma 1974;51(4):49-58.
Zhang 2006 {published data only}

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Burton 2009
Dawson 1975b
  • Dawson CR, Jones BR, Darougar S. Blinding and non-blinding trachoma: assessment of intensity of upper tarsal inflammatory disease and disabling lesions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1975;52(3):279-82.
Dawson 1981b
  • Dawson CR, Jones BR, Tarizzo ML. A guide to trachoma control. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1981:1-56.
Donner 1982
Ejere 2004
  • Ejere H, Alhassan MB, Rabiu M. Face washing promotion for preventing active trachoma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003659.pub2]
Glanville 2006
  • Glanville JM, Lefebvre C, Miles JN, Camosso-Stefinovic J. How to identify randomized controlled trials in MEDLINE: ten years on. Journal of the Medical Library Association 2006;94(2):130-6.
Higgins 2008a
  • HIggins JPT, Altman DG. Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.1 [updated September 2008]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Higgins 2008b
  • HIggins JPT, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Section 16.3: Cluster-randomised trials. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.1 [updated September 2008]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Katz 1988
Kirkham 2010
  • Kirkham JJ, Dwan KM, Altman DG, Gamble C, Dodd S, Smyth R, et al. The impact of outcome reporting bias in randomised controlled trials on a cohort of systematic reviews. BMJ 2010;340:c365.
MacCallan 1936
  • MacCallan AF. Trachoma. London: Butterworth, 1936:8-26.
Mariotti 2009
Rabiu 2007
  • M Rabiu, M Alhassan, F Kyari, H Ejere. Environmental sanitary interventions for preventing active trachoma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004003.pub3]
Resnikoff 2004
  • Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Etya'ale D, Kocur I, Pararajasegaram R, Pokharel GP, et al. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2004;82(11):844-51.
RevMan 2008 [Computer program]
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.0. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008.
Solomon 2006
  • Solomon AW, Zondervan M, Kuper H, Buchan JC, Mabey DCW, Foster A. Trachoma control: a guide for programme managers. WHO, 2006.
Sutter 1983
Thylefors 1987
  • Thylefors B, Dawson CR, Jones BR, West SK, Taylor HR. A simple system for the assessment of trachoma and its complications. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1987;65(4):477-83.
West 1991
WHO 1962
  • World Health Organization. Criteria of clinical diagnosis. Expert Committee in Trachoma. 1962; Vol. Third report:8.
Yorston 2006

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Mabey 2002
Mabey 2005
  • D Mabey, N Fraser-Hurt, C Powell. Antibiotics for trachoma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001860.pub2]