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Physical rehabilitation approaches for the recovery of function and mobility following stroke

  1. Alex Pollock1,*,
  2. Gillian Baer2,
  3. Pauline Campbell1,
  4. Pei Ling Choo3,
  5. Anne Forster4,
  6. Jacqui Morris5,
  7. Valerie M Pomeroy6,
  8. Peter Langhorne7

Editorial Group: Cochrane Stroke Group

Published Online: 22 APR 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 6 FEB 2014

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001920.pub3


How to Cite

Pollock A, Baer G, Campbell P, Choo PL, Forster A, Morris J, Pomeroy VM, Langhorne P. Physical rehabilitation approaches for the recovery of function and mobility following stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD001920. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001920.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Glasgow Caledonian University, Nursing, Midwifery and Allied Health Professions Research Unit, Glasgow, UK

  2. 2

    Queen Margaret University, Department of Physiotherapy, Edinburgh, UK

  3. 3

    Glasgow Caledonian University, School of Health & Life Sciences, Glasgow, UK

  4. 4

    Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust/University of Leeds, Academic Unit of Elderly Care and Rehabilitation, Bradford, UK

  5. 5

    University of Dundee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Dundee, UK

  6. 6

    University of East Anglia, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Norwich, UK

  7. 7

    University of Glasgow, Academic Section of Geriatric Medicine, Glasgow, UK

*Alex Pollock, Nursing, Midwifery and Allied Health Professions Research Unit, Glasgow Caledonian University, Buchanan House, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow, G4 0BA, UK. alex.pollock@gcu.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 22 APR 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Aksu 2001 {published data only}
  • Aksu S, Armutlu K, Cetisli N, Guclu A, Atay S, Guniken Y, et al. Numbers of exercises in acute stroke rehabilitation: is it important?. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2001;15(4):348.
Allison 2007 {published data only}
  • Allison R, Dennett R. Pilot randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of additional supported standing practice on functional ability post stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation 2007;21(7):614-9.
Baer 2007 {published data only}
  • Baer G, Durward B, Weller D. An investigation into a home-based mobility rehabilitation programme for late-stage stroke. A pilot randomised controlled trial. Physiotherapy 2007;93 Suppl 1:S546.
Bai 2008 {published data only}
  • Bai Y, Hu Y, Chen W, Wang X, Cheng A, Jiang C, et al. Study of effects of standardized three stage rehabilitation treatment on motor function in ischemic stroke patients. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2008;Suppl 46:109.
  • Bai Y, Hu Y, Wu Y, Zhu Y, He Q, Jiang C, et al. A prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial on the effect of early rehabilitation on daily activities and motor function of patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2012;19:1376-9.
Bale 2008 {published data only}
  • Bale M, Strand LI. Does functional strength training of the leg in subacute stroke improve physical performance? A pilot randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2008;22:911-21.
Behrman 2011 {published data only}
  • Behrman A, Sullivan KJ, Wu SS, Nadeau SE, Dobkin BH, Azen SP, et al. Functional walking ability 2 to 6 months after stroke: effects of progressive task-specific and impairment-based exercise rehabilitation programs compared to usual care. Stroke 2011;42(11):e610.
Blennerhassett 2004 {published data only}
  • Blennerhassett J, Dite W. Additional task-related practice improves mobility and upper limb function early after stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2004;50(4):219-24.
Brock 2005 {published data only}
  • Brock K. Regaining the ability to walk outdoors following stroke: the efficacy of the Bobath concept compared to structural task practice. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), 2005. http://www.anzctr.org.au/.
  • Brock K, Haase G, Rotacher G, Cotton S. Does physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept achieve greater improvement in walking ability compared to structured task practice? A pilot randomised controlled trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2012;26(6):727-8.
  • Brock K, Haase G, Rothacher G, Cotton S. Does physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept, in conjunction with a task practice, achieve greater improvement in walking ability in people with stroke compared to physiotherapy focused on structured task practice alone? A pilot randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2011;25(10):903-12.
  • Brock K, Haase G. Cotton S, Thompson M. Effects of physiotherapy interventions based on the Bobath concept versus structured task practice for improving the ability to walk outdoors following stroke. International Journal of Stroke 2010;5 Suppl 1:11.
Carlson 2006 {published data only}
  • Carlson TD, Cahn L, Leloup B. The effects of intense massed practice on balance and ambulation post-stroke: a pilot study. Platforms, thematic posters, and posters for CSM 2007. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy 2006;30(4):211.
Chan 2006 {published data only}
Chen 2004 {published data only}
  • Chen Q, Wang H-X, Wang T, Shan C-L. Effects of early rehabilitation on the activities of daily living in hemiplegic patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2004;8(22):4418-9.
Chen 2006 {published data only}
  • Chen XF. Effect of community-based-rehabilitation on activities of daily life and cognitive function in stroke patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2006;10(32):4-6.
Chen 2010 {published data only}
  • Chen Q, Li L. Observation on curative effect of rehabilitation exercise therapy to treat patients with post-stroke hemiplegia and muscles spasm. Zhongguo Huli Zazhì 2010;24(1A):14-6.
Chu 2003 {published data only}
  • Chu P. Effect of early facilitation techniques on motor function of stroke patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(7):1189.
Cooke 2006 {published data only}
  • Cooke E, Tallis R, Miller S, Pomeroy V. The effects of type and intensity of physiotherapy on lower limb strength and function after stroke. UK Stroke Forum Conference 2007:25-6.
  • Cooke EV, Tallis RC, Clark A, Pomeroy VM. Efficacy of functional strength training on restoration of lower-limb motor function early after stroke: phase I randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2010;24(1):88-96.
  • Cooke EV, Tallis RC, Miller S, Pomeroy VM. The effects of functional strength training on lower limb strength and function after stroke. UK Stroke Forum Conference. 2006:95.
Dean 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Dean CM. Personal correspondence. May 2000.
  • Dean CM, Shepherd RB. Task-related training improves performance of seated reaching tasks after stroke. A randomized controlled trial. Stroke 1997;28:722-8.
  • Dean CM, Shepherd RB, Adams R. The effect of specific balance training in sitting on support and balance through the lower limbs following stroke. Proceedings of the 1996 National Physiotherapy Congress. 1996:148-9.
Dean 2000 {published data only}
  • Dean CM, Richards CL, Malouin F. Task-related circuit training improves performance of locomotor tasks in chronic stroke: a randomised, controlled pilot trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2000;81:409-17.
Dean 2006 {published data only}
  • Dean C. Exercise intervention to prevent falls, enhance mobility and increase physical activity in community dwellers after stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), 2006. http://www.anzctr.org.au/.
  • Dean C, Rissel C, Sharkey M, Sherrington C, Cumming R, Lord S, et al. Ongoing exercise opportunities to prevent falls and enhance mobility in community dwellers after stroke: the stroke club trial. International Journal of Stroke 2010;5:12.
  • Dean CM, Rissel C, Sharkey M, Sherrington C, Cumming RG, Barker RN, et al. Exercise intervention to prevent falls and enhance mobility in community dwellers after stroke: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMC Neurology 2009;9:38.
  • Dean CM, Rissel C, Sherrington C, Sharkey M, Cumming RG, Lord SR, et al. Exercise to enhance mobility and prevent falls after stroke: the community stroke club randomized trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2012;26(9):1046-57.
Dean 2007 {published data only}
  • Dean CM, Channon EF, Hall JM. Sitting training early after stroke improves sitting ability and quality and carries over to standing up but not to walking: a randomised controlled trial. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2007;53:97-102.
Deng 2011 {published data only}
  • Deng RY, Xing FM, Wang L, Zhao HY. Influence of ADL system intervention on movement function and quality of life of stroke patients. Journal of Jilin University Medicine Edition 2011;37(6):1129-32.
Duncan 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Duncan P, Richards L, Wallace D, Stoker-Yates J, Pohl P, Luchies C, et al. A randomized, controlled pilot study of a home-based exercise program for individuals with mild and moderate stroke. Stroke 1998;29:2055-60.
Duncan 2003 {published data only}
Fan 2006 {published data only}
  • Fan W, Hu Y, Wu Y. Clinical study of standardized three stages' rehabilitation program in promoting motor function in stroke patients with hemiplegia. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2006;21(6):484-7.
Fang 2003 {published data only}
Fang 2004 old {published data only}
  • Fang Y-N, Li H, Zeng J-S, Chen X-H, Ma M-M, Lin J-W, et al. Analysis of the factors affecting the functional rehabilitation of senile stroke patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2004;8(10):1818-20.
Fang 2004 young {published data only}
  • Fang Y-N, Li H, Zeng J-S, Chen X-H, Ma M-M, Lin J-W, et al. Analysis of the factors affecting the functional rehabilitation of senile stroke patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2004;8(10):1818-20.
Ge 2003 {published data only}
  • Ge W, Hu J. Impact of early rehabilitation therapy on ADL in stroke patients with paralysis. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(5):853.
Gelber 1995 {published data only}
  • Gelber DA, Good DC, Herrmann D. Comparison of two physical therapy approaches in the treatment of the pure motor hemiparetic patient. Neurology 1993;43:A234.
  • Gelber DA, Josefczyk PB, Herrman D, Good DC, Verhulst SJ. Comparison of two therapy approaches in the rehabilitation of the pure motor hemiparetic stroke patient. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation 1995;9:191-6.
  • Josefczyk PB, Gelber D. Stroke rehabilitation outcome: a prospective comparison of traditional functional rehabilitation v neurodevelopmental technique in the moderately impaired stroke patient. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation 1995; Vol. 9, issue 2:127-8.
Green 2002 {published data only}
  • Green J, Forster A, Bogle S, Young J. Physiotherapy for patients with mobility problems more than 1 year after stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;359:199-203.
  • Green J, Young J, Forster A, Collen F, Wade D. Combined analysis of two randomized trials of community physiotherapy for patients more than one year post stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation 2004;18(3):249-52.
Holmgren 2006 {published data only}
  • Holmgren E. Evaluation of an intervention program targeted at improving balance and functional skills after stroke. ClinicalTrials.gov 2006.
  • Holmgren E, Lindstrom B, Gosman-Hedstrom G, Nyberg L, Wester P. What is the benefit of a high intensive exercise program? A randomized controlled trial. Advances in Physiotherapy 2010;12(3):115-24.
  • Holmgren ES, Wester P. Evaluation of an intervention program targeted at improving balance and functional skills after stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2009;27:238.
Hou 2006 {published data only}
  • Hou H, Wang T, Wang H. Effects of 3-phase rehabilitation on functional outcome in hemiplegia after stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2006;21(1):61-3.
Howe 2005 {published data only}
Hu 2007 haem {published data only}
  • Hu YS. Clinical study of standardized tertiary rehabilitation program in promoting upper and lower limbs motor function in stroke patients. National Medical Journal of China 2007;87(33):2358-60.
Hu 2007 isch {published data only}
  • Hu YS. Clinical study of standardized tertiary rehabilitation program in promoting upper and lower limbs motor function in stroke patients. National Medical Journal of China 2007;87(33):2358-60.
Huang 2003 {published data only}
  • Huang W-M, Gao Z, Ran C-F, Li Q, Li H-M. Evaluation of early movement intervention for functional recovery of patients with stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(25):3484-5.
Hui-Chan 2009 {published data only}
  • Hui-Chan CW, Ng SS, Mak MK. Effectiveness of a home-based rehabilitation programme on lower limb functions after stroke. Xianggang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2009;15(3 Suppl 4):42-6.
Jiang 2006 {published data only}
  • Jiang C, Hu Y, Wu Y. Cost-effectiveness evaluation in stroke patients received standard tertiary rehabilitation for 6 months. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2006;21(2):114-7.
  • Jiang C, Hu Y, Wu Y. The cost-effectiveness analysis of early rehabilitation of cerebral vascular accident patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2006;21(11):973-6.
Jing 2006 {published data only}
  • Jing ZW, Han QY, Wang Z, Zhang, JW, Zhang ZQ, Han CH, et al. Effect of early occupational therapy on the activities of daily life in stroke patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2006;10(4):54-6.
Kim 2011 {published data only}
  • Kim Y, Kim E, Gong W. The effects of trunk stability exercise using PNF on the functional reach test and muscle activities of stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science 2011;23(5):699-702.
Kim 2012 {published data only}
  • Kim B, Lee S, Bae Y, Yu J, Kim T. The effect of a task-oriented training on trunk control ability, balance and gait of stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science 2012;24(6):519-22.
Kwakkel 2002 {published data only}
  • Kwakkel G, Wagenaar RC. Effect of duration of upper- and lower-extremity rehabilitation sessions and walking speed on recovery of interlimb coordination in hemiplegic gait. Physical Therapy 2002;82(5):432-48.
Kwakkel 2008 {published data only}
  • Kwakkel G. Effects of a task-oriented circuit training to enhance walking competency after stroke. Nederlands Trial Register, 2008. http://www.trialregister.nl.
  • van de Port I, Wevers LE, Lindeman E, Kwakkel G. Effects of circuit training as alternative to usual physiotherapy after stroke: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2012;344:e2672.
Langhammer 2000 {published data only}
  • Langhammer B. Motor learning theories in the acute stroke rehabilitation. Practical consequences of a randomised controlled study. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 2004;27(Suppl 1):116.
  • Langhammer B, Stanghelle J. Can physiotherapy after stroke based on the Bobath Concept result in improved quality of movement compared to the Motor Relearning Programme. Physiotherapy Research International 2011;16(2):69-80.
  • Langhammer B, Stanghelle JK. Bobath or motor relearning programme? A follow-up one and four years post stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation 2003;17(7):731-4.
  • Langhammer B, Stanghelle JK, Sykehus S. Motor learning in the rehabilitation of stroke patients: short term or for life? A follow-up 1 and 4 years poststroke. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 2004;12(3):412.
  • Langhammer B, Stranghelle JK. Bobath or motor relearning programme? A comparison of two different approaches of physiotherapy in stroke rehabilitation: a randomized controlled study. Clinical Rehabilitation 2000;14:361-9.
Langhammer 2007 {published data only}
  • Langhammer B, Lindmark B, Stanghelle JK. Stroke patients and long-term training: is it worthwhile? A randomized comparison of two different training strategies after rehabilitation. Clinical Rehabilitation 2007;21(6):495-510.
Lennon 2006 {published data only}
  • Lennon S, Harpur W, Fullerton K, Power M, Wiggam I, MacSherry A. The effects of gait-specific training within Bobath therapy in people after acute stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2006;20(1):166.
  • Lennon SM, Wheatley-Smith L. The content of gait re-education for acute stroke within a randomised controlled trial of Bobath therapy. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2009;27:241.
  • Lennon SM, Wheatley-Smith L, Harpur WM, Fullerton K, Power M, Wiggam I. Gait-specific training within Bobath therapy in acute stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2009;27:240-1.
Li 1999 {published data only}
  • Li M, Chen Y, Jiang J. Early rehabilitation of acute hemiplegic stroke: experience of 30 cases. Zhongguo Shi Yong Nei Ke Za Zhi 1999;19(6):352-3.
Li 2003 {published data only}
  • Li F. Impact of early rehabilitation nursing on paralyzed limbs in patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(5):841.
Li 2005 {published data only}
  • Li HF, Wang JH, Feng JC, Gao F. Application of motor relearning therapy in the early rehabilitation of stroke: a randomized controlled comparison. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2005;9(29):1-3.
Liao 2006 {published data only}
  • Liao L, Luo W, Chen S. The effect of trunk control training on balance and lower limb function in patients with hemiplegia. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2006;21(7):608.
Lincoln 2003 {unpublished data only}
  • Lincoln N, Van Vliet P. A comparison of a UK approach to stroke rehabilitation with a movement science based approach. Personal communication 2000.
  • van Vliet PM, Lincoln NB, Foxall A. Comparison of Bobath based and movement science based treatment for stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2005;76:503-8.
Liu 2003 {published data only}
  • Liu G, Zhang H. Early rehabilitation and prognosis of post-stroke hemiplegic patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(3):506.
McClellan 2004 {published data only}
  • McClellan R, Ada L. A six-week, resource-efficient mobility program after discharge from rehabilitation improves standing in people affected by stroke: placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2004;50:163-7.
Mudge 2009 {published data only}
  • Mudge S, Barber PA, Stott NS. Circuit-based rehabilitation improves gait endurance but not usual walking activity in chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2009;90(12):1989-96.
Mudie 2002 {published data only}
  • Mudie MH, Winzeler-Mercay U, Radwan S, Lee L. Training symmetry of weight distribution after stroke: a randomised controlled pilot study comparing task-related reach, Bobath and feedback training approaches. Clinical Rehabilitation 2002;16:582-92.
Ni 1997 {published data only}
  • Ni CM, Fu J, Liu CY. Influence of early rehabilitation on walking function of the patients with acute stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 1997;12(4):164-5.
Pan 2004 {published data only}
  • Pan C-H, He J-Q, Pu S-X, Wan X-L, Gao C. Effects of early rehabilitation therapy on the motor function of limbs and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia after stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2004;8(13):2404-5.
Pang 2003 {published data only}
  • Pang G. Early rehabilitation care effect on activities of daily life of stroke patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(7):1230-1.
Pang 2006 {published data only}
  • Pang AL, Ren H, Chang LH, Gong SX, Ma SP. Effects of cocktail treatment on motor function of patients with ischemic stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2006;10(32):6-8.
Pollock 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Pollock AS. An Investigation into Independent Practice as an Addition to Physiotherapy Intervention for Patients with Recently Acquired Stroke [Dissertation]. Edinburgh: Queen Margaret College, 1998.
  • Pollock AS, Durward BR, Rowe PJ, Paul JP. The effect of independent practice of motor tasks by stroke patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2002;16:473-80.
Qian 2004 {published data only}
  • Qian K-L, Wang T. Effect of early rehabilitation therapy on short and long term functional assessment in hemiplegic patients after stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2004;8(25):5210-1.
Qian 2005 {published data only}
  • Qian KL, Wang T. Application of flexor reflex therapy in rehabilitation of lower extremity of hemiplegic patients after brain injury. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2005;9(5):24-5.
Richards 1993 {published and unpublished data}
  • Malouin F, Potvin M, Prevost J, Richards CL, Wood-Dauphinee S. Use of intensive task-oriented gait training program in a series of patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents. Physical Therapy 1992;72(11):781-93.
  • Malouin F, Richards CL, Wood-Dauphinee S, Williams JI. A randomized controlled trial comparing early and intensive task-specific physical therapy to conventional therapy in acute stroke patients. Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation 1993;7:27-8.
  • Richards CL, Malouin F, Wood-Dauphinee S, Williams JI, Bouchard JP, Brunet D. Task-specific physical therapy for optimization of gait recovery in acute stroke patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1993;74:612-20.
Salbach 2004 {published data only}
  • Salbach NM, Mayo NE, Wood-Dauphinee S, Hanley JA, Richards CL, Cote R. A task-orientated intervention enhances walking distance and speed in the first year post stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2004;18:509-19.
Shin 2011 {published data only}
  • Shin WS, Lee SW, Lee YW, Choi SB, Song CH. Effects of combined exercise training on balance of hemiplegic stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science 2011;23(4):639-43.
Stephenson 2004 {published data only}
  • Stephenson J, Maitland M, Beckstead J. Body weight support treadmill training compared with PNF training in persons with chronic stroke. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy 2004;28(4):186.
Tang 2009 {published data only}
  • Tang W, Yang B. Influence of sensory function training on motor function of cerebral apoplexy patients complicated with hemiplegia. Zhongguo Huli Zazhì 2009;23(7C):1905-6.
Thaut 2007 {published data only}
  • Thaut MH, Leins AK, Rice RR, Argstatter H, Kenyon GP, McIntosh GC, et al. Rhythmic auditory stimulation improves gait more than NDT/Bobath training in near-ambulatory patients early poststroke: a single-blind, randomized trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2007;21(5):455-9.
Torres-Arreola 2009 {published data only}
Verheyden 2006 {published data only}
  • Verheyden G, Vereeck L, Truijen S, De Weerdt W. Additional exercises improve trunk performance after stroke: an assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial. UK Stroke Forum Conference. 2007:31.
  • Verheyden G, Vereeck L, Truijen S, Nieuwboer A, De Weerdt W. Trunk rehabilitation after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2006;20(1):118-9.
  • Verheyden G, Vereeck L, Truijen S, Troch M, Lafosse C, Saeys W, et al. Additional exercises improve trunk performance after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2009;23(3):281-6.
Verma 2011 {published data only}
  • Verma R, Arya K, Garg RK, Singh T. Task-oriented circuit class training program with motor imagery for gait rehabilitation in poststroke patients: a randomized controlled trial. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation 2011;18(1):620-32.
Wade 1992 {published data only}
  • Wade DT, Collen FM, Robb GF, Warlow CP. Physiotherapy intervention late after stroke and mobility. BMJ 1992;304:609-13.
Wang 2004a {published data only}
  • Wang Q-R, Gan Z-R, Lu H, Hu X, Liu H-L, Cai C-Q, et al. Effect of early exercise therapy on the recovery of motor function in patients with cerebral infarction and the changes of somatosensory evoked potentials. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2004;8(28):6023-5.
Wang 2004b {published data only}
  • Wang WM. Treatment of limb spasticity in hemiplegic patients within 4 months after stroke: curative effect of neural facilitation combined with low frequency pulse current. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2004;8(25):5224-5.
Wang 2005 {published data only}
  • Wang RY, Chen HI, Chen CY, Yang YR. Efficacy of Bobath versus orthopaedic approach on impairment and function at different motor recovery stages after stroke: a randomized controlled study. Clinical Rehabilitation 2005;19:155-64.
Wang 2006 {published data only}
  • Wang H, Wang T, Chen Q. The dynamic analysis of effects of 3-phase rehabilitation intervention on muscle tone and function in hemiplegia after stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2006;21(9):807-10.
Wei 1998 {published data only}
  • Wei G, Song L, Huang M. Effects of selective trunk activities training on the recovery of hemiplegic patients (Abstract PO-RR-392-27). Proceedings of the World Confederation of Physical Therapy. Yokohama, Japan: Science Council of Japan and the Japanese Physical Therapy Association, May 23-28, 1999.
  • Wei G, Song L, Huang M, et al. Effects of selective trunk activities training on the recovery of hemiplegic patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 1998;13(3):108-10.
Wellmon 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Wellmon R, Newton RA. An examination of changes in gait and standing symmetry associated with the practice of a weight shifting task. Neurology Report 1997;21(2):52-3.
Wu 2006 {published data only}
  • Wu X, Ni C, Han R. Effect of early rehabilitation on spasticity, activities of daily living and motor function in patients with hemiplegia after stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2006;21(6):494-6.
Xiao 2003 {published data only}
  • Xiao W, Wang J, Luo Z, Xie R. The economic health evaluation to the early intensive rehabilitation on patients with stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(3):372-3.
Xie 2003 {published data only}
  • Xie S, Zhu M, Zhang X. Effect of early rehabilitation nursing on activities of daily living in patients with stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(1):143.
Xie 2005 {published data only}
  • Xie XH, Chen WH, Yang R, Wu WQ, Zhang W, Qi Q, et al. Effects of rehabilitation training on quality of life in stroke patients at different stages after the episode. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2005;9(32):47-9.
Xu 1999 {published data only}
  • Xu L, Shong Q, Zuo H. Effects of rehabilitation treatment on the hemiplegic patients following stroke. Jiangxi Medical Journal 1999;34(3):149-50.
Xu 2003a {published data only}
  • Xu Y, Liu S. Effects of early rehabilitation on patients with paralysis after cerebral infarction. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(1):127.
Xu 2003b {published data only}
  • Xu H, Sun S, Wang M. The effect of early rehabilitation on hemiplegic limbs of patients with stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(3):503.
Xu 2004 {published data only}
  • Xu BH, Yu RQ, Yu W, Xie B, Huang YX. Effects of early rehabilitation on activities of daily living and complications in acute stroke patients. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao 2004;36(1):75-8.
Xue 2006 {published data only}
  • Xue J, Bai L, Guo QR, Yang CR, Lu J. Efficacy of early intervention of motor relearning program on post-stroke hemiplegia: a randomized controlled observation. Neural Regeneration Research 2006;1(3):277-9.
Yan 2002 {published data only}
  • Yan YL. Effects of early rehabilitation on lower extremity motor function in stroke hemiplegia. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2002;6(3):331-2.
Yelnik 2008 {published data only}
  • Yelnik AP, Le Breton F, Colle FM, Bonan IV, Hugeron C, Egal V, et al. Rehabilitation of balance after stroke with multisensorial training: a single-blind randomized controlled study. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2008;22(5):468-76.
Yin 2003a {published data only}
  • Yin H, Tian Y. Early rehabilitation of hemiplegic extremities after stroke and effect observation of therapy with intermediate frequency. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(7):1198.
Zhang 1998 {published data only}
  • Zhang X. Observation of the effects of early rehabilitation intervention for cerebral apoplexy and hemiplegia. Heilongjiang Nursing Journal 1998;4(11):1-2.
Zhang 2004 {published data only}
  • Zhang T, Li LL, Bi S, Mei YW, Xie RM, Luo ZM, et al. Effects of three-stage rehabilitation treatment on acute cerebrovascular diseases: a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter study. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2004;84(23):1948-54.
Zhao 2002 {published data only}
  • Zhao F, Ji X. Early stage rehabilitation and nursing care in cerebral apoplexy patients with hemiparalysis. Zhongguo Huli Zazhì 2002;16(4):194-6.
Zhao 2003 {published data only}
  • Zhao F, Wang L, Tian G, Zhou J, Han J. Early rehabilitation intervention promoting ability of daily living in acute stroke patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(5):851.
Zhu 2001 {published data only}
  • Zhu Y-L, Hu Y-S, Yang P-J. Effects of three months' rehabilitation on motor function in hemiplegics after stroke. Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice 2001;7(4):155-6.
Zhu 2004b {published data only}
  • Zhu GX, Hu YS, Wu Y, Zhu YL, Han X, Sun LM, et al. Effects of standardized three-stage rehabilitation on recovery of neurological function in stroke patients with hemiplegia. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2004;84(23):1955-8.
Zhu 2006 {published data only}
  • Zhu J, Liao L, Chen S. Influence of rehabilitative nursing intervention on activities of daily living of senile cerebral apoplexy patients. Zhongguo Huli Zazhì 2006;20(4A):890-2.
Zhu 2007 haem {published data only}
  • Zhu XJ, Wang T, Chen Q, Wang X, Hou H, Wang HX. The effects of standardised rehabilitation treatment on the outcome of activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia after stroke. Chinese Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases 2007;4(6):254-9.
Zhu 2007 isch {published data only}
  • Zhu X, Wang T, Chen Q, Wang X, Hou H, Wang H. The effects of early rehabilitation on quality of life for elderly patients with stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2008;Suppl 46:118.
  • Zhu XJ, Wang T, Chen Q, Wang X, Hou H, Wang HX. The effects of standardized rehabilitation treatment on the outcome of activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia after stroke. Chinese Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases 2007;4(6):254-9.
Zhuang 2012 {published data only}
  • Zhuang LX, Xu SF, D'Amado CR, Jia C, He J, Han DX, et al. An effectiveness study comparing acupuncture, physiotherapy, and their combination in poststroke rehabilitation: a multicentered, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2012;18(3):8-14.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Acalha 2010 {published data only}
  • Acalha T, MG, Suzuki SO, Berg TL. Effects of the task oriented and auditory cues for chronic stroke patients. Revista Terapia Manual 2010;8(39):441-7.
Dean 2000a {unpublished data only}
  • Dean CM, Malouin F, Richards CL. Locomotor task-related training for chronic stroke: multiple single case design. [Unpublished].
de Paula Oliveira 2007 {published data only}
  • de Paula Oliveira T, Voos M, Korim W, Piemonte M. Home-exercise program for stroke patients: improvement in functional performance. Physiotherapy 2007;93 Suppl 1:S563-4.
Dickstein 1986 {published data only}
Eng 2003 {published data only}
  • Eng JJ, Chu KS, Kim CM, Dawson AS, Carswell A, Hepburn K. A community-based group exercise program for persons with chronic stroke. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2003;35:1271-8.
English 2003 {published data only}
  • English C, Warden-Flood A, Stiller K, Hillier S. Is task-related circuit training an effective means of providing rehabilitation to acute stroke patients?. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2003;49 Suppl 4:s9-s10.
Gong 2003 {published data only}
  • Gong S, Zhang J, Yu K. Effect of early rehabilitation training on daily life activity of patients with hemiplegia after stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(5):848-9.
Gregson 2003 {published data only}
  • Gregson J. Exercise training early after stroke: a feasibility study. Current Controlled Trials, 2003. http://www.controlled-trials.com/.
Hesse 1998 {published data only}
  • Hesse S, Jahnke MT, Schaffrin A, Lucke D, Reiter F, Konrad M. Immediate effects of therapeutic facilitation on the gait of hemiparetic patients as compared with walking with and without a cane. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1998;109:515-22.
Inaba 1973 {published data only}
  • Inaba M, Edberg E, Montgomery J, Gillis MK. Effectiveness of functional training, active exercise, and resistive exercise for patients with hemiplegia. Physical Therapy 1973;53(1):28-35.
Karaduman 2001 {published data only}
  • Karaduman A, Armutlu K, Aksu A, Aras O, Arikan H. The comparison of different exercise-treatment methods in the rehabilitation of early stage hemiplegic patients. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2001;15(4):348.
Khanna 2003 {published data only}
  • Khanna PB. A randomised controlled study of the immediate and long term benefits of conventional stroke rehabilitation with task related group therapy in chronic stroke patients. www.controlled-trials.com (accessed July 2005).
Kim 2001 {published data only}
  • Kim CM, Eng JJ, MacIntyre DL, Dawson AS. Effects of isokinetic strength training on walking in persons with stroke: a double-blind controlled pilot study. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2001;10:265-73.
Krutulyte 2003 {published data only}
  • Krutulyte G, Kimtys A, Krisciunas A. The effectiveness of physical therapy methods (Bobath and motor relearning program) in rehabilitation of stroke patients. Medicina 2003;39(9):889-95.
Li 2004 {published data only}
  • Li K, Dou Z-L, Zhu H-X, Zheng J-L, Lan Y. Effect of supported balance training on balance and activities of daily living in convalescent stroke patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2004;8(34):7620-1.
Lin 2004 {published data only}
  • Lin JH, Hsieh CL, Lo SK, Chai HM, Liao LR. Preliminary study of the effect of low-intensity home-based physical therapy in chronic stroke patients. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Science 2004;20(1):18-23.
Liu 2008 {published data only}
  • Liu L, Zhu L. Efficacy observation of modified comprehensive rehabilitation therapy in patients with moderate to severe hemiplegia in acute stage of stroke. Chinese Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases 2008;5(3):117-20.
Meng 2005 {published data only}
  • Meng ZX, Ni CM, Li JB, Han R. Effects of early rehabilitation on the functional outcomes of stroke patients estimated with functional comprehensive assessment. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2005;9(5):1-3.
Ng 2005 {published data only}
  • Ng SS. Effectiveness of an Innovative Home-Based Rehabilitation Program on Lower Limb Functions in Subjects with Chronic Stroke: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Hong Kong Polytechnic University (People's Republic of China), 2005.
Nissan-Lavi 2009 {published data only}
  • Nissan-Lavi L, Carmeli E. Stroke patients in the community: comparison of the effect of physical therapy group training and walking training. Journal of the Israeli Physical Therapy Society (JIPTS) 2009;11(1):28.
Ozdemir 2001 {published data only}
  • Ozdemir F, Birtane M, Tabatabaei R, Kokino S, Ekuklu G. Comparing stroke rehabilitation outcomes between acute inpatient and nonintense home settings. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001;82:1375-9.
Pomeroy 2001a {published data only}
  • Pomeroy VM. The immediate effects of neurofacilitatory physiotherapy on gait parameters early post-stroke. The National Research Register 2001; Vol. 1:Publication ID: NO217063260.
Pyoria 2007 {published data only}
  • Pyoria O, Talvitie U, Nyrkko H, Kautiainen H, Pohjolainen T, Kasper V. The effect of two physiotherapy approaches on physical and cognitive functions and independent coping at home in stroke rehabilitation. A preliminary follow-up study. Disability and Rehabilitation 2007;29(6):503-11.
Qiu 2004 {published data only}
  • Qui W-H, Hu X-Q, Zheng J-L, Li K, Lan Y, Chen X-M. Effect of balance function on limb function and activities of daily living in hemiplegic patients. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2004;8(31):6872-3.
Richards 2004 {published data only}
  • Richards CL, Malouin F, Bravo G, Dumas F, Wood-Dauphinee S. The role of technology in task-oriented training in persons with subacute stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2004;18:199-211.
Salter 1991 {published data only}
  • Salter J, Camp Y, Pierce LL, Mion LC. Rehabilitation nursing approaches to cerebrovascular accident: a comparison of two approaches. Rehabilitation Nursing 1991;16(2):62-6.
Stern 1970 {published data only}
  • Stern PH, McDowell F, Miller JM, Robinson M. Effects of facilitation exercise techniques in stroke rehabilitation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1970;51:526-31.
Stuart 2008 {published data only}
  • Macko RF, Benvenuti F, Stanhope S, Macellari V, Taviani, A, Nesi B, et al. Adaptive physical activity improves mobility function and quality of life in chronic hemiparesis. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 2008;45(2):323-8.
  • Stuart M. Adaptive physical activity for chronic stroke (APA-Stroke). ClinicalTrials.gov 2008.
  • Stuart M, Benvenuti F, Macko R, Taviani A, Segenni L, Mayer F, et al. Community-based adaptive physical activity program for chronic stroke: feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the Empoli model. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2009;23(7):726-34.
  • Stuart M, Chard S, Benvenuti F, Steinwachs S. Community exercise: a vital component to healthy aging. Healthcare Papers 2009;10(1):23-8.
  • Stuart M, Chard S, Roettger S. Exercise for chronic stroke survivors: a policy perspective. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 2008;45(2):329-35.
Thielman 2004 {published data only}
  • Thielman GT, Dean CD, Gentile AM. Rehabilitation of reaching after stroke: task-relating training versus progressive resistive exercise. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2004;85:1613-8.
Wagenaar 1990 {published data only}
  • Wagenaar RC, Meijer OG, van Wieringen PCW, Kuik DJ, Hazenberg GJ, Lindeboom J, et al. The functional recovery of stroke: a comparison between neuro-developmental treatment and the Brunnström method. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 1990;22:1-8.
Wang 2005b {published data only}
  • Wang A, Wang Y, Hu P. Influence of comprehensive nursing intervention on extremities function in patients with cerebrovascular accidents. Chinese Nursing Research 2005;19(1A):37-39.
Wolny 2003 {published data only}
  • Wolny T, Saulicz E, Gnat R, Bacik B. The effectiveness of PNF method in gait reeducation in hemiplegic patients - a preliminary study. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Barcelona, Spain, 2003:Abst. RR-PO-0326.
Wood 1994 {published data only}
  • Wood-Dauphinee S. The impact of task-oriented physical therapy on locomotion recovery of stroke patients. [Unpublished].
Xu 2008 {published data only}
  • Xu Y. The effect of early intensive exercise on patients with hemiplegia. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2008;Suppl 46:75.
Yin 2003b {published data only}
  • Yin S. The recovery comparison of comprehensive rehabilitation and simple pharmacotherapy on the patients after stroke during the period of sequela. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2003;7(1):140.
Yu 2008 {published data only}
  • Yu J, Hu Y, Wu Y, Chen W, Cui X, Lu W, et al. An analysis about the effects of standardized community-based rehabilitation (CBR) therapy on ADL for patients after stroke in China. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2008;Suppl 46:110.
Zhong 2006 {published data only}
  • Zhong M, Mo H, Liu H. Evidence-based nursing on early rehabilitation of cerebral infarction patients with hemiplegia. Chinese Nursing Research 2006;20(2B):393-5.
Zhou 2003 {published data only}
  • Zhou J, Wang J. The effect of earlier functional training improving ability of living self care of patients with stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2003;7(3):508.
Zhu 2004a {published data only}
  • Zhu Y-L, Hu Y-S, Wu Y, Xu Y-M. Possibility of functional recovery with early rehabilitation training during the first 3 months in hemiplegic patients with stroke. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2004;8(1):18-9.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Giraux 2008 {published data only}
  • Giraux P. Impact of prolonged physical therapy on gait performance of chronic phase stroke patients (HEMIMARCHE). ClinicalTrials.gov 2008.
Li 2000 {published data only}
  • Li H. Long term effect of early rehabilitation on stroke hemiplegic patients. Chinese Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2000;22(1):15-7.
  • Li H, Jia Z, Song L. Early rehabilitation effect on stroke hemiplegia. Chinese Journal of Physical Medicine 1998;20:1-2.
Matsumoto 2010 {published data only}
  • Matsumoto S. The effect of trunk facilitation in post-stroke patients. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR), 2010. http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/.
Richardson 2011 {published data only}
  • Richardson J, Fleck R, Hladysh G, McBay C, MacKay E, Thorlakson R, et al. Fit for function: a community wellness program for persons with stroke. Stroke 2011;42(11):e596.
Sanchez-Sanchez 2011 {published data only}
  • Sanchez-Sanchez ML, Igual-Camacho C, Villaplana-Alcazar M, Rubio-Moreno MC, Viosca-Herrero E. Gait recovery after stroke: a physiotherapy protocol based on clinical and functional criteria. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2011;31 Suppl 2:202.
Wang 2005a {published data only}
  • Wang W. Effect of systematic rehabilitative training on motor function and activity of daily life in post stroke hemiplegic patients. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2005;9(21):14-5.
Wang 2012 {published data only}
  • Wang W, Ru X, Dai H, Wu S, Jiang B. A new model of rehabilitation study at community level for stroke survivors in five urban populations in China. Neuroepidemiology 2012;39(3-4):191.
Yau 2010 {published data only}
  • Yau WWM, Wong WL. The feasibility and efficacy of an augmented exercise program for acute stroke patients. International Journal of Stroke 2010;5:346-7.
Zhang 2008 {published data only}
  • Zhang J, Wu S, Huang Y, Long Y, Chen T, Feng L, et al. The effects of standardized three stages rehabilitation program in promoting active function in stroke patients with hemiplegia. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2008;Suppl 46:111 (Abst PP002-060).

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Cross 2009 {published data only}
  • Cross J. FeST1vAIS. Functional strength training to improve walking and upper limb function in people at least 1 year after stroke. UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio Database, 2009. http://public.ukcrn.org.uk/search/ last accessed 27th June 2013.
  • Cross J. Functional strength training to improve walking and upper limb function in people at least one year after stroke: a phase II trial. Current Controlled Trials, 2009. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ last accessed 27th June 2013.
  • Mares K, Cross J, Clark A, Barton GR, Poland F, O'Driscoll ML, et al. The FeSTivaLS trial protocol: a randomized evaluation of the efficacy of functional strength training on enhancing walking and upper limb function later post stroke. International Journal of Stroke 2013;5:374-82.
Kumaran 2010 {published data only}
  • Kumaran S. Effectiveness and feasibility of a task and context based exercise program in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Trials Registry - India (CTRI), 2010. http://www.ctri.in last accessed 19th June 2013.

Additional references

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  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Pollock 2007