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Pimozide for schizophrenia or related psychoses

  1. Meghana Mothi1,*,
  2. Stephanie Sampson2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Schizophrenia Group

Published Online: 5 NOV 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 17 MAY 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001949.pub3


How to Cite

Mothi M, Sampson S. Pimozide for schizophrenia or related psychoses. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD001949. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001949.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Newsam Centre, Seacroft Hospital, General Adult Psychiatry, Leeds, UK

  2. 2

    The University of Nottingham, Cochrane Schizophrenia Group, Nottingham, UK

*Meghana Mothi, General Adult Psychiatry, Newsam Centre, Seacroft Hospital, Leeds and York NHS Foundation Trust, York Road, Leeds, LS14 6WB, UK. m.mothi@nhs.net.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 5 NOV 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Abuzzahab 1980* {published data only}
  • Abuzzahab FS Sr. Evaluations of social functioning in a 3-year double-blind investigation of pimozide versus fluphenazine in chronic schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1977;13:71-3.
  • Abuzzahab FS Sr, Zimmermann RL. A three-year double-blind investigation of pimozide versus fluphenazine in chronic schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1976;12:26-7.
  • Abuzzahab FS, Zimmermann RL. Factors determining patient tenure on a 3-year double-blind investigation of pimozide versus fluphenazine HCl. Advances in Biochemistry and Psychopharmacology 1980;24:547-50.
Amin 1977 {published data only}
  • Amin MM, Ban TA, Lehmann HE. A standard (trifluoperazine) controlled clinical study with pimozide in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1977;13:15-7.
Andersen 1972 {published data only}
  • Andersen K, d'Elia G, Hallberg B, Perris C, Rapp W, Roman G. A controlled trial of pimozide and trifluoperazine in chronic schizophrenic syndromes. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum 1974;249:43-64.
Anumonye 1976 {published data only}
  • Anumonye A, Onibuwe-Johnson T, Marinho AA. Clinical trial of pimozide. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research 1976;3:17-24.
Barnes 1983 {published data only}
  • Barnes TR, Milavic G, Curson DA, Platt SD. Use of the Social Behaviour Assessment Schedule (SBAS) in a trial of maintenance antipsychotic therapy in schizophrenic outpatients: pimozide versus fluphenazine. Social Psychiatry 1983;18:193-9.
  • Barnes TR, Platt SD. E-mail correspondence. E-mail correspondence June 2011.
Chouinard 1970 {published data only}
  • Chouinard G, Lehmann HE, Ban TA. Pimozide in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients. Current Therapeutic Research and Clinical Experience 1970;12:598-603.
Chouinard 1982 {published data only}
Claghorn 1974 {published data only}
Clark 1975* {published data only}
  • Clark ML. Pimozide vs thioridazine vs placebo. Early Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit Reports 1973; Vol. 9.
  • Clark ML, Huber WK, Hill D, Wood F, Costiloe JP. Pimozide in chronic schizophrenic outpatients. Diseases of the Nervous System 1975;36:137-41.
Denijs 1973 {published data only}
  • Denijs EL, Vereecken JL. Pimozide (orap, R 6238) in residual schizophrenia: a clinical evaluation with long-term double-blind follow-up. Psychiatria Neurologia Neurochirurgia 1973;76:47-59.
De Ronchi 1996 {published data only}
  • De Ronchi D. Levosulpiride vs pimozide in negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Proceedings of the Xth World Congress of Psychiatry; August 23-28, 1996; Madrid, Spain. 1996.
  • De Ronchi D, Belelli G, Ruggeri M, Linari F, Tonti L, Volterra V. Levosulpiride vs pimozide in schizophrenic patients: efficacy and adverse events [Levosulpiride vs pimozide in pazienti schizofrenici: efficacia ed eventi avversi]. Neurologia Psichiatria Scienze Umane 1997;17(6):859-73. [EMBASE: 1998134063]
  • De Ronchi D, Ruggeri M, Balelli G, Volterra V. Levosulpiride vs pimozide in negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Proceedings of the 8th ECNP (European College of Neuropsychopharmacology) Congress; September 30-October 4, 1995; Venice, Italy. 1995.
  • De Ronchi D, Ruggeri M, Belelli G, Volterra V. Levosulpiride versus pimozide in negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Current Therapeutic Research - Clinical and Experimental 1996;57:797-810.
Donlon 1977 {published data only}
  • Donlon PT, Swaback DO, Osborne ML. Pimozide versus fluphenazine in ambulatory schizophrenics: a 12-month comparison study. Diseases of the Nervous System 1977;38:119-23.
Falloon 1978 {published data only}
Friedman 2011 {published data only}
  • Friedman JI, Lindenmayer J-P, Alcantara F, Bowler S, Parak M, White L, et al. Pimozide augmentation of clozapine inpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder unresponsive to clozapine monotherapy. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011;36(6):1289-95. [MEDLINE: BIOSIS:PREV201100289820]
Gowardman 1973 {published data only}
Gross 1974* {published data only}
  • Gross-HS. A double-blind comparison of once-a-day pimozide, trifluoperazine, and placebo in the maintenance care of chronic schizophrenic outpatients. Current Therapeutic Research and Clinical Experience 1974;16:696-705.
Gunduz-Bruce 2013 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gunduz-Bruce H. Efficacy of pimozide augmentation for clozapine partial response. Clinicaltrials.gov. [NCT00374244]
  • Gunduz-Bruce H, Oliver S, Gueorguieva R, Forselius-Bielen K, D'Souza DC, Zimolo Z, et al. Efficacy of pimozide augmentation for clozapine partial responders with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2013;143:344-7.
Haas 1982 {published data only}
Huber 1971 {published data only}
  • Huber W, Serafetinides EA, Colmore JP, Clark M. Pimozide in chronic schizophrenic patients. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and New Drugs 1971;11:304-9.
Kline 1977 {published data only}
  • Kline F, Burgoyne RW, Yamamoto J. Comparison of pimozide and trifluoperazine as once-daily therapy in chronic schizophrenic outpatients. Current Therapeutic Research 1977;21:768-78.
Kolivakis 1974 {published data only}
  • Kolivakis T, Azim H, Kingstone E. A double-blind comparison of pimozide and chlorpromazine in the maintenance care of chronic schizophrenic outpatients. Current Therapeutic Research 1974;16:998-1004.
Kudo 1972 {published data only}
  • Kudo Y. A double blind comparison of pimozide with carpipramine in schizophrenic patients. Acta Psychiatrica Belgica 1972;72:685-97.
  • Kudo Y, Fujiki A, Hino S, Kobayashi Y, Nagasaka G, Saitoh Y, et al. The double-blind study of pimozide for schizophrenia. Igaku No Ayumi 1972;82(11):726-37. [MEDLINE: 90144040; PMID 2694767]
McCreadie 1980 {published data only}
  • McCreadie R, Dingwall J, Wiles D, Heykants J. Intermittent pimozide versus fluphenazine decanoate as maintenance therapy in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 1980;137:510-7.
McCreadie 1982* {published data only}
McCreadie 1987 {published data only}
  • Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group. The Scottish First Episode Schizophrenia Study. VIII. Five-year follow-up: clinical and psychosocial findings. British Journal of Psychiatry 1992;161:496-500.
  • Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group: McCreadie RG, Wiles D, Grant S, Crocket GT, Mahmood Z, Livingston MG, et al. The Scottish First Episode Schizophrenia Study. VII. Two-year follow up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1989;80:597-602.
  • The Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group. The Scottish First Episode Schizophrenia Study. II. Treatment: pimozide versus flupenthixol. British Journal of Psychiatry 1987;150:334-8.
  • The Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group. The Scottish First Episode Schizophrenia Study. III. Cognitive performance. British Journal of Psychiatry 1987;150:338-40.
  • The Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group. The Scottish First Episode Schizophrenia Study: one-year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry 1988;152:470-6.
McInnes 1978 {published data only}
  • McInnes EJ, Walker F, Snelling E. The observer interaction variable in evaluation of socialising properties of pimozide (Orap). New Zealand Medicine Journal 1978;87:170-2.
Nishikawa 1985 {published data only}
  • Nishikawa T, Tsuda A, Tanaka M, Koga I, Uchida Y. Prophylactic effects of neuroleptics in symptom-free schizophrenics: roles of dopaminergic and noradrenergic blockers. Biological Psychiatry 1985;20:1161-6.
Pecknold 1980 {published data only}
  • Pecknold JC, McClure DJ, Allan T, Wrzesinski L. Comparison of pimozide and chlorpromazine in acute schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 1982;27:208-12.
Pinard 1972 {published data only}
  • Pinard G, Prenoveau Y, Fielsen W, Elie R, Bielman P, Lamontagne Y, et al. [Le pimozide et la reintegration sociale des schizophrenes chroniques]. Proceedings of the World Congress of Psychiatry, 28 November-4 December 1971; Ciudad de Mexico. 1971; Vol. 952.
  • Pinard G, Prenoveau Y, Fliesen W, Elie R, Bielmann P, Lamontagne Y, et al. Pimozide: a comparative study in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1972;6:22-7.
Silverstone 1984 {published data only}
  • Silverstone T, Cookson J, Ball R, et al. The relationship of dopamine receptor blockade to clinical response in schizophrenic patients treated with pimozide or haloperidol. Journal of Psychiatric Research 1984;18:255-68.
Vergara 1977 {published data only}
  • Vergara L, Amin MM, Ban TA. A standard (trifluoperazine) controlled clinical study with pimozide in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1977;13:17-9.
Wilson 1982* {published data only}
  • Wilson LG, Roberts RW, Gerber CJ, Johnson MH. Pimozide versus chlorpromazine in chronic schizophrenia, a 52-week double-blind study of maintenance therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1982;43:62-5.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Baggio 1970 {published data only}
  • Baggio MA, Dias VS. Pimozide (R6238): clinical tests with a new incisive neuroleptic of long lasting action. Revista Brasileira Psiquiatrica 1970;4(4):189-93.
Baro 1972 {published data only}
  • Baro F, Van Lommel R, Dom R, De Mesmaecker L. Pimozide treatment of chronic schizophrenics as compared with haloperidol and penfluridol maintenance treatment-a multidisciplinary approach. Acta Psychiatrica Belgica 1972;72:199-214.
Bobon 1968 {published data only}
  • Bobon J, Collard J, Pinchard A, Goffioul L, Bobon DP, Devroye A. No English title available [Neuroleptiques a longue duree d'action II Etude de pilote du pimozide (R6238)]. Acta Neurologica Belgiana 1968;68:137-53.
  • DP Bobon, Devroye A, Goffioul L, Pinchard A. No English title available [Le pimozide: seize mois de follow up]. Acta Neurologica Belgiana 1968;68:888-94.
Brugmans 1968 {published data only}
Cetin 2000 {published data only}
  • Cetin M, Ebrinc S. Risperidone versus pimozide for the treatment of monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis. Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2000;10(3):s325.
Cheadle 1979 {published data only}
Chouinard 1979 {published data only}
  • Chouinard G, Annabel L, Lafontaine HL. Pimozide in the treatment of acute schizophrenia. Proceedings of the 132nd Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 1979 May 12-18; Chicago, Illinois, USA. 1979.
Clark 1971 {published data only}
  • Clark M. Pimozide versus placebo. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1971;7(1):35-7.
Crow 1986 {published data only}
  • Crow TJ, MacMillan JF, Johnson AL, Johnstone EC. II. A randomised controlled trial of prophylactic neuroleptic treatment. British Journal of Psychiatry 1986;148:120-7.
  • Johnstone EC, Owens DGC. Does early treatment have an effect on outcome?. Proceedings of the 10th European College of Neuropharmacology Congress; September 13-17, 1997; Vienna, Austria. 1997.
  • MacMillan JF, Crow TJ, Johnson AL, Johnstone EC. III. Short-term outcome in trial entrants and trial eligible patients. British Journal of Psychiatry 1986;148:128-33.
d'Elia 1974 {published data only}
  • d'Elia G, Perris C, Rapp W. Objective evaluation of EEG amplitude in chronic schizophrenic patients during a controlled trial of pimozide and trifluoperazine. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum 1974;249:78-86.
Feinberg 1988 {published data only}
  • Feinberg SS, Stanley RK, Eliijovich LR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA. Pimozide treatment of the negative schizophrenic syndrome: an open trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1988;49(6):235-8.
Friedman 1997 {published data only}
Frussa Filho 1988 {published data only}
  • Frussa Filho R, Palermo Neto J. No English title available [Sobre os efeitos colaterais extrapyramidais dos neurolepticos]. Farmacologia Clinica 1988;96(6):389-92.
Garton 1979 {published data only}
Gomez Perez 1994 {published data only}
  • Gomez Perez JC. No English title available [Dismorfofobia: Pasado y presente de un trastorno centenario]. Actas Luso-Espanol Neurologia Psiquiatria 1994;22(2):83-8.
Hass 1982 {published data only}
  • Haas S, Beckmann H. Pimozide and haloperidol in a double-blind study in acutely schizophrenic patients. Arzneimittel Forschung 1982;32(8):888.
Holl 1992 {published data only}
Huber 1983 {published data only}
Ibarra 1996 {published data only}
  • Ibarra HS, Concha SJ, Coronel AR, Cruz PR, Alarcon NA. Pimozide in the treatment of delusional disorder. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress of Psychiatry; 1996 Aug 23-28; Madrid, Spain. 1996.
Johnstone 1997 {published data only}
Kenway 1971 {published data only}
  • Kenway AK, Masheter HC. Pimozide compared with fluphenazine in schizophrenia. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1971;25:69-72.
Kenway 1973 {published data only}
  • Kenway AK. A double-blind comparison of pimozide and haloperidol in the treatment of recurrent anxiety states. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1973;27:67-8.
Konig 1971 {published data only}
  • Konig L, Lange E, Mucha H, Winkler J, Kunath B. No English title available [Klinische Moglichkeiten der Therapiebeurteilung in der Pharmakotherapie am Beissspel der Wirksamkeitsprufung eines neuen Langzeit Neuroleptikums pimozide]. Psychiatry Neurology Medicine and Psychology 1971;23:359-67.
Koo 1996 {published data only}
Krumholz 1970 {published data only}
  • Krumholz. Pimozide versus standards versus placebo. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1970;7(2):68-70.
Lapierre 1976 {published data only}
  • Lapierre YD, Lavallee J. A controlled pimozide, fluphenazine and group psychotherapy study of chronic schizophrenics. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa 1976;1:8-13.
  • Lapierre YD, Lavallee J. Pimozide and the social behavior of schizophrenics. Current Therapeutic Research 1975;18(1):181-8.
Lehmann 1970 {published data only}
  • Lehmann B. Pimozide versus fluphenazine. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1970;7(2):61-3.
Mahal 1975 {published data only}
  • Mahal AS, Janakiramaiah N. A double blind placebo controlled trial of pimozide (R6238) on 49 hospitalized chronic schizophrenics. Indian Journal of Psychiatry 1975;17(1):45-55.
Marshall 1971 {published data only}
  • Marshall WK. Pimozide (Orap): a multicentre study. Clinical Trials Journal 1971;7(Suppl 2):49-54.
Masiak 1976 {published data only}
  • Masiak M, Majczak A, Hascewicz-Rzecka M. Pimozide and piportil in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia (preliminary communication) [Badania nad zastosowaniem pimozidu i piportilu w leczeniu chorych na przewlekla schizofrenie]. Psychiatrica Poland 1976;10(6):655-60.
McCoy 1992 {published data only}
  • McCoy LM, Schwazkopf SB, Martin D. Rapid response to pimozide in treatment resistant delusional disorder. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 1992;4(2):95-8.
McCreadie 1978 {published data only}
McCreadie 1983 {published data only}
  • McCreadie RG, McKane JP, Mackie M. Weekly pimozide versus fluphenazine decanoate in schizophrenic out- and day-patients. British Journal of Psychiatry 1983;143:97-8.
Meltzer 1986 {published data only}
Moller 1994 {published data only}
  • Moller HJ, Van Praag HM, Aufdembrinke B, Bailey P, Barnes TRE, Beck J, et al. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: considerations for clinical trials: working group on negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 1994;115:221-8.
Morris 1970 {published data only}
Neziroglu 1997 {published data only}
Opler 1994 {published data only}
Opler 1995 {published data only}
Phillips 1996 {published data only}
Pinals 1996 {published data only}
Poldinger 1976 {published data only}
  • Poldinger W. Application of the neuroleptic pimozide (ORAP-R6238) for tranquillizer indications in a controlled study. International Pharmacopsychiatry 1976;11:16-24.
Reyntjens 1972 {published data only}
  • Reyntjens AM, Van Mierlo FP. A comative double-blind trial of pimozide in stress-induced psychic and functional disorders. Current Medical Research Opinion 1972;1:116-22.
Ruiz 1975 {published data only}
  • Ruiz Ruiz M, Miro Quintana L, Sentis Vilalta J. A clinical study with pimozide in chronic schizophrenics [Estudio clinico con pimocide en las esquizophrenias de evolucion cronica]. Revista de Psiquiatria y Psicologia Medica de Europa y America Latinas 1975;12(4):247-56. [PsycINFO 65-08563]
Sims 1975 {published data only}
Singh 1971 {published data only}
  • Singh AN. Evaluation of clinical efficacy of pimozide as maintenance therapy in chronic schizophrenic patients. Current Therapeutic Research 1971;13(11):695-705.
Smythies 1974 {published data only}
Srinivasan 1994 {published data only}
  • Srinivasan TN, Sureshi TR, Jayaram V, Fernandez MP. Nature and treatment of delusional parasitosis: a different experience in India. International Journal of Dermatology 1994;33(12):851-5.
Sterkmans 1968 {published data only}
  • Sterkmans P, Brugmans J, Gevers F. The clinical efficacy of pimozide in chronic psychotic patients. Clinical Trials Journal 1968;5(4):1107-12.
Sugerman 1971 {published data only}
Svestka 1972 {published data only}
Tegeler 1983 {published data only}
Tueth 1983 {published data only}
Ungvari 1986 {published data only}
Vanelle 1996 {published data only}
  • Vanelle JM. Profile of the action of neuroleptics in deficit schizophrenia [Profil d'action des neuroleptiques dans les schizophrenies defictaires]. L'Encephale 1996;22(Suppl 2):33-9.
van Kammen 1982 {published data only}
  • van Kammen DP, Docherty JP, Marder SR, Schulz SC, Dalton L, Bunney WE Jr. Antipsychotic effects of pimozide in schizophrenia: treatment response prediction with acute dextroamphetamine response. Archives of General Psychiatry 1982;39:261-6.
van Kammen 1987 {published data only}
  • Van Kammen DP, Hommer DW, Malas KL. Effect of pimozide on positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: are negative symptoms state dependent?. Neuropsychobiology 1987;18:113-7.
Van Wyck 1972 {published data only}
  • Van Wyk AJ, Grove JJ. Pimozide: an effective, once daily oral therapy for schizophrenia. South African Medical Journal 1972;46:515-7.
Watt 1983 {published data only}
  • Watt DC, Katz K, Shepherd M. The natural history of schizophrenia: a 5-year prospective follow-up of a representative sample of schizophrenics by means of a standardized clinical and social assessment. Psychological Medicine 1983;13:663-70.
Welbel 1979 {published data only}
  • Welbel L. Differences in the clinical effects of various neuroleptics. Psychiatrica Poland 1980;XIV(2):113-8.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Umene 1972 {published data only}
  • Umene Z, Uriu K, Kurata M, Minagawa M, Nakazato T, Tachibana K, Nishimura M, Suzuki T. A double-blind comparison of pimozide (r-6238) with chlorpromazine in chronic schizophrenia. Rinsho Yakuri 1972;3(2):91-102. [MEDLINE: 90144040; PMID 2694767]

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Adams 2007
Altman 1996
Andreasen 1982
Begg 1996
Bland 1997
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Rathbone 2007