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Group-based parent training programmes for improving parental psychosocial health

  1. Jane Barlow1,*,
  2. Nadja Smailagic2,
  3. Nick Huband3,
  4. Verena Roloff4,
  5. Cathy Bennett5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group

Published Online: 17 MAY 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 14 MAY 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002020.pub4


How to Cite

Barlow J, Smailagic N, Huband N, Roloff V, Bennett C. Group-based parent training programmes for improving parental psychosocial health. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD002020. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002020.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Warwick Medical School, Division of Mental Health and Wellbeing, Coventry, UK

  2. 2

    University of Cambridge, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge, UK

  3. 3

    University of Nottingham, Institute of Mental Health, Nottingham, UK

  4. 4

    MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK

  5. 5

    Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth, UK

*Jane Barlow, Division of Mental Health and Wellbeing, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Gibbett Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7LF, UK. jane.barlow@warwick.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 17 MAY 2014

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Blakemore 1993 {published data only}
  • Blakemore B, Shindler S, Conte R. A problem solving training program for parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Canadian Journal of School Psychology 1993;9(1):66-85.
Bradley 2003 {published data only}
  • Bradley SJ, Jadda DA, Brody J, Landy S, Tallett SE, Watson W, et al. Brief psychoeducational parenting program: an evaluation and 1-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003; Vol. 42, issue 10:1171-8. [MEDLINE: 1530; CN-00450578]
Chronis 2006 {published data only}
  • Chronis A. The addition of the "coping with depression course" to behavioral parent training for mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International 2003; Vol. 63, issue 8-B:3907. [MEDLINE: 1760; CN-00462983]
  • Chronis AM, Gamble SA, Roberts JE, Pelham WE. Cognitive-behavioral depression treatment for mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. BehaviorTherapy 2006; Vol. 37:143-58. [MEDLINE: 24790]
Cunningham 1995 {published data only}
  • Cunningham CE, Bremner R, Boyle M. Large group community-based parenting programs for families of preschoolers at risk for disruptive behaviour disorders: utilization, cost-effectiveness, and outcome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 1995;36(7):1141-59.
DeGarmo 2004 {published data only}
  • DeGarmo DS, Patterson GR, Forgatch MS. How do outcomes in a specified parent training intervention maintain or wane over time?. Prevention Science 2004; Vol. 5, issue 2:73-89. [MEDLINE: 1250; CN-00467503]
Fanning 2007 {published data only}
  • Fanning JL. Parent Training for Caregivers of Typically Developing, Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers: An Initial Study in Enhancing Language Development, Avoiding Behavior Problems, and Regulating Family Stress (PhD thesis). Oregon: University of Oregon, 2007.
Fantuzzo 2007 {published data only}
  • Fantuzzo J, Stevenson H, Abdul Kabir S, Perry MA. An investigation of a community-based Intervention for socially isolated parents with a history of child maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence 2007; Vol. 22:81-9. [MEDLINE: 36550; 0885-7482]
Farrar 2005 {published data only}
  • Farrar RLE. The Effect of a Cognitively Based Parent Training Intervention on Parental Stress. Tulsa, OK: The University of Tulsa, 2005. [MEDLINE: 28450]
Feliciana 2005 {published data only}
  • Feliciana JB. The Impact of Participation in a Parent Training Program on Maternal Sense of Competency and Stress in Urban African-American Mothers. Washington, DC: Howard University, 2005.
Gallart 2005 {published data only}
  • Gallart SC Matthey S. The effectiveness of group Triple P and the impact of the four telephone contacts. Behaviour Change 2005; Vol. 22, issue 2:71-80. [MEDLINE: 940; CN-00569669]
Gammon 1991 {published data only}
  • Gammon EA, Rose SD. The coping skills training program for parents of children with developmental disabilities: an experimental evaluation. Research on Social Work Practice 1991;1(3):244-56.
Gardner 2006 {published data only}
  • Gardner F Burton J, Klimes I. Randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in the voluntary sector for reducing child conduct problems: outcomes and mechanisms of change. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 2006; Vol. 47, issue 11:1123-32. [MEDLINE: 410; CN-00573306]
Greaves 1997 {published data only}
  • Greaves D. The effect of rational-emotive parent education on the stress of mothers of children with Down Syndrome. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 1997;15(4):249-67.
Gross 1995 {published data only}
Gross 2003 {published data only}
  • Gross D, Fogg L, Webster-Stratton C, Garvey C, Julion W, Grady J. Parent training of toddlers in day care in low-income urban communities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2003; Vol. 71, issue 2:261-78. [MEDLINE: 40040; 0022-006X]
Gross 2009 {published data only}
  • Gross D, Garvey C, Julion W, Fogg L, Tucker S, Mokros H. Efficacy of the Chicago parent program with low-income African American and Latino parents of young children. Prevention Science: the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research 2009; Vol. 10, issue 1:54-65.
Gutierrez 2007 {published data only}
  • Gutierrez SR. A Comparison of Two Parent Education Programs on the Reduction of Parent-Child Stress in Mother-Child Relationships of Hispanic Migrant Farmworkers. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona, 2007. [MEDLINE: 22000]
Hanisch 2010 {published data only}
  • Hanisch C, Freund-Braier I, Hautmann C, Janen N, Pluck J, Brix G, et al. Detecting effects of the indicated prevention programme for externalizing problem behaviour (PEP) on child symptoms, parenting, and parental quality of life in a randomized controlled trial. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2010;38(1):95-112. [1469-1833]
Hiscock 2008 {published data only}
  • Hiscock H, Bayer JK, Price A, Ukoumunne OC, Rogers S, Wake M. Universal parenting programme to prevent early childhood behavioural problems: cluster randomised trial. BMJ 2008;336(7639):318-21. [MEDLINE: 450; 0959-535X]
  • Hutchings J. A parenting programme does not affect behavioural problems in toddlers. Evidence-Based Mental Health 2008;11(4):119. [1362-0347]
Hutchings 2007 {published data only}
  • Bywater T, Hutchings J, Daley D, Whitaker C, Yeo ST, Jones K, et al. Long-term effectiveness of a parenting intervention for children at risk of developing conduct disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 2009;195(4):318-24. [0007-1250]
  • Eames C, Daley D, Hutchings J, Whitaker C, Bywater T, Jones K, Hughes J. The impact of group leaders' behaviour on parents acquisition of key parenting skills during parent training. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2010;48(12):1221-6.
  • Hawkins-Walsh E. A cognitive-behavioural parenting intervention reduced problem behaviours in at-risk preschool children and improved parenting skills in socially disadvantaged families. Evidence-Based Nursing 2007;10(4):105. [MEDLINE: 40610; 1367-6539]
  • Hutchings JGF, Bywater T, Daley D, Whitaker C, Jones K, Eames C, et al. Parenting intervention in Sure Start services for children at risk of developing conduct disorder: pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2007; Vol. 334, issue 7595:678. [MEDLINE: 90; CN-00579132]
Irvine 1999 {published data only}
  • Irvine AB, Biglan A, Smolkowski K, Metzler CW, Ary DV. The effectiveness of a parenting skills program for parents of middle school students in small communities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67(6):811-25.
Joachim 2010 {published data only}
  • Joachim S, Sanders MR, Turner KMT. Reducing preschoolers' disruptive behavior in public with a brief parent discussion group. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 2010; Vol. 41, issue 1:47-60. [0009-398X]
Joyce 1995 {published data only}
  • Joyce MR. Emotional relief for parents: is rational-emotive parent education effective?. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 1995;13(1):55-75.
Larsson 2009 {published data only}
  • Larsson B, Fossum S, Clifford G, Drugli MB, Handegård BH, Mørch W. Treatment of oppositional defiant and conduct problems in young Norwegian children: results of a randomized controlled trial. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2009;18(1):42-52. [1018-8827]
Lipman 2005 {published data only}
  • Lipman EL, Boyle MH. Social support and education groups for single mothers: a randomized controlled trial of a community-based program. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2005; Vol. 173, issue 12:1451-6. [MEDLINE: 910; CN-00553003]
Martin 2003 {published data only}
Matsumoto 2007 {published data only}
  • Matsumoto Y, Sofronoff K, Sanders MR. The efficacy and acceptability of the Triple P-positive parenting program with Japanese parents. Behaviour Change 2007;24(4):205-18. [MEDLINE: 49240]
Matsumoto 2010 {published data only}
  • Matsumoto Y, Sofronoff K, Sanders MR. Investigation of the effectiveness and social validity of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program in Japanese society. Journal of Family Psychology 2010;24(1):87-91. [0893-3200]
McGillicuddy 2001 {published data only}
  • McGillicuddy NB, Rychtarik RG, Duquette JA, Morsheimer T. Development of a skill training program for parents of substance-abusing adolescents. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2001;20(1):59-68.
Morawska 2009 {published data only}
  • Morawska A, Sanders M. An evaluation of a behavioural parenting intervention for parents of gifted children. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2009; Vol. 47, issue 6:463-70. [0005-7967]
Niccols 2009 {published data only}
  • Niccols A. Immediate and short-term outcomes of the 'COPEing with toddler behaviour' parent group. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 2009; Vol. 50, issue 5:617-26.
Nicholson 2002 {published data only}
Nixon 1993 {published data only}
  • Nixon CD, Singer GHS. Group cognitive-behavioral treatment for excessive parental self-blame and guilt. American Journal on Mental Retardation 1993;97(6):665-72.
Odom 1996 {published data only}
  • Odom SE. Effects of an educational intervention on mothers of male children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Community Health Nursing 1996;13(4):207-20.
Patterson 2002 {published data only}
  • Patterson J, Barlow J, Mockford C, Klimes I, Pyper C, Stewart-Brown S. Improving mental health through parenting programmes: block randomised controlled trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2002;87:472-77.
  • Reading R. Impact of a general practice based group parenting programme: quantitative and qualitative results from a controlled trial at 12 months. Child: Care, Health and Development 2004;30(5):560-1. [MEDLINE: 32610]
  • Stewart Brown SPJ, Mockford C, Barlow J, Klimes I, Pyper C. Impact of a general practice based group parenting programme: quantitative and qualitative results from a controlled trial at 12 months. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2004;89(6):519-25. [MEDLINE: 1260; CN-00469249]
Pisterman 1992a {published data only}
  • Pisterman S, Firestone P, McGrath P, Goodman JT, Webster I, Mallory R, et al. The effects of parent training on parenting stress and sense of competence. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 1992;24(1):41-58.
Pisterman 1992b {published data only}
Schultz 1993 {published data only}
  • Schultz CL, Schultz NC, Bruce EJ, Smyrnios KX, Carey LB,  Carey CL. Psychoeducational support for parents of children with intellectual disability. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 1993;40(3):205-16.
Sirbu 1978 {published data only}
  • Sirbu W, Cotler S, Jason LA. Primary prevention: teaching parents behavioral child rearing skills. Family Therapy 1978;5(2):163-70.
Spaccerelli 1992 {published data only}
  • Spaccarelli S, Cotler S, Penman D. Problem-solving skills training as a supplement to behavioral parent training. Cognitive Therapy and Research 1992;16(1):1-18.
Taylor 1998 {published data only}
  • Taylor TK, Schmidt F, Pepler D, Hodgins C. A comparison of eclectic treatment with Webster-Stratton's parents and children series in a children's mental health center: a randomised controlled trial. Behavior Therapy 1998;29(2):221-40.
Treacy 2005 {published data only}
  • Treacy L, Tripp G, Baird A. Parent stress management training for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behavior Therapy 2005; Vol. 36, issue 3:223-33. [MEDLINE: 19230]
Turner 2007 {published data only}
  • Turner KM, Richards M, Sanders MR. Randomised clinical trial of a group parent education programme for Australian Indigenous families. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 2007; Vol. 43, issue 6:429-37. [MEDLINE: 130; CN-00615331]
  • Turner KMT, Sanders MR, Richards M, Arthur N. Tailoring and evaluating an evidence-based group family intervention program for parents in indigenous communities. Australian Journal of Psychology; Proceedings The Abstracts of the Joint Conference of the Australian Psychological Society and the New Zealand Psychological Society. London: Taylor and Francis, 2006; Vol. 58:201. [MEDLINE: 55260]
van den Hoofdakker 2007 {published data only}
  • van Den Hoofdakker BJ, van der Veen-Mulders LL, Sytema S, Emmelkamp PMG, Minderaa RB, Nauta MH. Effectiveness of behavioral parent training for children with ADHD in routine clinical practice: a randomized controlled study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2007; Vol. 46, issue 10:1263-71. [MEDLINE: 14460]
Wang 2005 {published data only}
  • Wang P. Effects of a Parent Training Program for Teaching Children with Autism in the People's Republic of China (PhD thesis). New York, NY: Columbia University, 2005.
Webster Stratton 1988 {published data only}
  • Webster-Stratton C, Kolpacoff M, Hollinsworth T. Self-administered videotape therapy for families with conduct-problem children: comparison with two cost-effective treatments and a control group. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1988;56(4):558-66.
Wolfe 2003 {published data only}
  • Wolfe RB, Hirsch BJ. Outcomes of parent education programs based on reevaluation counseling. Journal of Child and Family Studies 2003; Vol. 12, issue 1:61-76. [MEDLINE: 40070; 1062-1024]
Wolfson 1992 {published data only}
  • Wolfson A, Lacks P, Futterman A. Effects of parent training on infant sleeping patterns, parents stress, and perceived parental competence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1992;60(1):41-8.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Al-Hassan 2011 {published data only}
  • Al-Hassan SM, Lansford JE. Evaluation of the better parenting programme in Jordan. Early Child Development and Care 2011;181(5):587-98.
Anastopoulos 1993 {published data only}
  • Anastopoulos AD, Shelton TL, DuPaul GJ, Guevremont DC. Parent training for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: its impact on parent functioning. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 1993;21(5):581-96.
Atherton 2007 {published data only}
  • Atherton C. The Incredibles. Community Care 2007; Vol. 1673:32-33. [MEDLINE: 38100; 0307-5508]
Azrin 2001 {published data only}
  • Azrin NH, Donohue B, Teichner GA, Crum T, Howell J, Decato LA. A controlled evaluation and description of individual-cognitive problem solving and family-behavior therapies in dually-diagnosed conduct-disordered and substance-dependent youth. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 2001;11(1):1-43.
Barkby 2011 {published data only}
  • Barkby H, Butterworth R, Davies J, Marsland L, O'Shaughnessy R. Bonding with baby: A pilot parent-infant intervention programme in Liverpool. Clinical Psychology Forum 2011;224:17-21.
Barkley 2001 {published data only}
  • Barkley RA, Edwards G, Laneri M, Fletcher K, Metevia L. The efficacy of problem-solving communication training alone, behavior management training alone, and their combination for parent-adolescent conflict in teenagers with ADHD and ODD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2001;69(6):926-41.
Barlow 2007 {published data only}
  • Barlow J. The Webster-Stratton "Incredible Years" parent training programme reduces conduct problems in children. Evidence-Based Mental Health 2007; Vol. 10, issue 3:86. [MEDLINE: 41050; 1362-0347]
Barlow 2008 {published data only}
  • Barlow JH, Powell LA, Gilchrist M, Fotiadou M. The effectiveness of the training and support program for parents of children with disabilities: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2008;64(1):55-62. [MEDLINE: 21050]
Baydar 2003 {published data only}
Berry 2007 {published data only}
Bodenmann 2008 {published data only}
  • Bodenmann G, Cina A, Ledermann T, Sanders MR. The efficacy of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in improving parenting and child behavior: a comparison with two other treatment conditions. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2008; Vol. 46, issue 4:411-27. [MEDLINE: 400; 0005-7967]
Bogle 2007 {published data only}
  • Bogle KE. Evaluation of a Brief Group Parent Training Intervention in the Context of an After-School Program for Middle-School Students. South Carolina: University of South Carolina, 2007.
Bradley 2010 {published data only}
  • Bradley R, Whiteside-Mansell L, Casey P, Barrett K. Impact of a two-generation early education program on parenting processes at age 18. Journal of Family Psychology 2010;24(4):478-84.
Brunk 1987 {published data only}
  • Brunk M, Henggeler SW, Whelan JP. Comparison of multisystemic therapy and parent training in the brief treatment of child abuse and neglect. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1987;55(2):171-8.
Camp 1997 {published data only}
Chacko 2006 {published data only}
  • Chacko A. Treatment for Single-Mothers of Children Diagnosed with ADHD: A Comparison between a Traditional and an Enhanced Behavioral Parenting Program. New York: State University of New York at Buffalo, 2006. [MEDLINE: 22200]
Chacko 2009 {published data only}
  • Chacko A, Wymbs BT, Wymbs FA, Pelham WE, Swanger-Gagne MS, Girio E, et al. Enhancing traditional behavioral parent training for single mothers of children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2009; Vol. 38, issue 2:206-18.
Chazan-Cohen 2007 {published data only}
  • Chazan-Cohen R, Ayoub C, Pan BA, Roggman L, Raikes H, Mckelvey L, et al. It takes time: impacts of early Head Start that lead to reductions in maternal depression two years later. Infant Mental Health Journal 2007; Vol. 28, issue 2:151-70. [MEDLINE: 54660]
Coard 2007 {published data only}
  • Coard SI, Foy-Watson S, Zimmer C, Wallace A. Considering culturally relevant parenting practices in intervention development and adaptation: a randomized controlled trial of the black parenting strengths and strategies (BPSS) program. The Counseling Psychologist 2007;35(6):797-820. [MEDLINE: 50310]
Connell 1997 {published data only}
Cooper 2009 {published data only}
  • Cooper PJ, Tomlinson M, Swartz L, Landman M, Molteno C, Stein A, et al. Improving quality of mother-infant relationship and infant attachment in socioeconomically deprived community in South Africa: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2009; Vol. 338, issue 7701:997. [0959-8146]
Cummings 2000 {published data only}
  • Cummings LL. Parent training: A Program for Parents of Two- and Three-year-olds (PhD thesis). Mount Pleasant, MI: Cental Michigan University, 2000.
Dadds 1992 {published data only}
Davidson 2011 {published data only}
  • Davidson VL. A Parent Training Program for Caucasian and Latino Parents of Children with Developmental Delays or Behavioral Difficulties (Psy D dissertation). Chicago, Illinois: Chicago School of Professional Psychology, 2011.
Dekovic 2010 {published data only}
  • Dekovic M, Asscher JJ, Hermanns J, Reitz E, Prinzie P, van den Akker AL. Tracing changes in families who participated in the home-start parenting program: parental sense of competence as mechanism of change. Prevention Science 2010;11(3):263-74.
DeRosier 2007 {published data only}
  • DeRosier ME, Gilliom M. Effectiveness of a parent training program for improving children's social behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies 2007;16(5):660-70. [1062-1024]
Dionne 2009 {published data only}
Doherty 2006 {published data only}
  • Doherty WJ, Erickson MF, LaRossa R. An intervention to increase father involvement and skills with infants during the transition to parenthood. Journal of Family Psychology 2006; Vol. 20, issue 3:438-47. [MEDLINE: 230; CN-00567663]
Drew 2002 {published data only}
  • Drew A, Baird G, Baron-Cohen S, Cox A, Slonims V, Wheelwright S, et al. A pilot randomised control trial of a parent training intervention for pre-school children with autism: preliminary findings and methodological challenges. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2002;11(6):266-72.
Duch 2011 {published data only}
  • Duch H, Rodriguez C. Strengthening families in Head Start: The impact of a parent education programme on the emotional well-being of Latino families. Early Child Development and Care 2011;181(6):733-48.
Dumas 2010 {published data only}
  • Dumas J, Begle A, French B, Pearl A. Effects of monetary incentives on engagement in the PACE parenting program. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2010;39(3):302-313.
Faircloth 2008 {published data only}
  • Faircloth WB, Cummings EM. Evaluating a parent education program for preventing the negative effects of marital conflict. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 2008;29(2):141-56. [MEDLINE: 430; 0193-3973]
Feinberg 2008 {published data only}
  • Feinberg ME, Kan ML. Establishing family foundations: intervention effects on coparenting, parent/infant wellbeing, and parent-child relations. Journal of Family Psychology 2008;22(2):253-63.
Feinfield 2004 {published data only}
  • Feinfield KA BB. Empirical support for a treatment program for families of young children with externalizing problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2004;33(1):182-95. [MEDLINE: 1160; CN-00468832]
Florsheim 2007 {published data only}
  • Florsheim P, Hall S, Gaskill M, McArthur L, McElligott K. The Young Parenthood Program: a preventive intervention to support positive coparenting among pregnant adolescents and their partners. Journal of Adolescent Health 2007;40 Suppl 1(2):14. [MEDLINE: 42590; 1054-139x]
Forehand 2011 {published data only}
  • Forehand RL, Merchant MJ, Parent J, Long N, Linnea K, Baer J. An examination of a group curriculum for parents of young children with disruptive behavior. Behavior Modification 2011;3:235-51.
Forgatch 1999 {published data only}
Fossum 2009 {published data only}
Hahlweg 2010 {published data only}
  • Hahlweg K, Heinrichs N, Kuschel A, Bertram H, Naumann S. Long-term outcome of a randomized controlled universal prevention trial through a positive parenting program: is it worth the effort?. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2010;4:1-14.
Harrison 1997 {published data only}
Havighurst 2009 {published data only}
Hawkins 2006 {published data only}
  • Hawkins AJ, Fawcett EB, Carroll JS, Gilliland TT. The marriage moments program for couples transitioning to parenthood: divergent conclusions from formative and outcome evaluation data. Journal of Family Psychology 2006;20(4):561-70. [MEDLINE: 38420; 0272-4944]
Hayes 2008 {published data only}
  • Hayes L, Matthews J, Copley A, Welsh D. A randomized controlled trial of a mother-infant or toddler parenting program: demonstrating effectiveness in practice. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2008; Vol. 33, issue 5:473-86.
Heinrichs 2010 {published data only}
  • Heinrichs N, Jensen-Doss A. The effects of incentives on families' long-term outcome in a parenting program. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2010;39(5):705-12.
Helfenbaum 2007 {published data only}
  • Helfenbaum KED, Ortiz C. Parent-training groups for fathers of Head Start Children: a pilot study of their feasibility and impact on child behavior and intra-familial relationships. Child and Family Behavior Therapy 2007; Vol. 29, issue 2:47-64. [0731-7107]
Hoff 2005 {published data only}
  • Hoff AL, Mullins LL, Gillaspy SR, Page MC, Van Pelt JC, Chaney JM. An intervention to decrease uncertainty and distress among parents of children newly diagnosed with diabetes: a pilot study. Families, Systems, & Health 2005; Vol. 23, issue 3:329-42. [MEDLINE: 29400]
Hughes 2004 {published data only}
  • Hughes JR, Gottlieb LN. The effects of the Webster-Stratton Parenting Program on maltreating families: fostering strengths. Child Abuse and Neglect 2004; Vol. 28, issue 10:1081-97. [0145-2134]
Hutchings 2002 {published data only}
  • Hutchings J, Appleton P, Smith M, Lane E, Nash S. Evaluation of two treatments for children with severe behaviour problems: child behaviour and maternal mental health outcomes. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy 2002;30(3):279-95.
Kaaresen 2008 {published data only}
  • Kaaresen PI, Ronning JA, Tunby J, Nordhov SM, Ulvund SE, Dahl LB. A randomized controlled trial of an early intervention program in low birth weight children: outcome at 2 years. Early Human Development 2008; Vol. 84, issue 3:201-9. [0378-3782]
Kacir 1999 {published data only}
  • Kacir CD, Gordon DA. Parenting adolescents wisely: the effectiveness of an interactive videodisk parent training program in Appalachia. Child & Family Behavior Therapy 1999;21(4):1-22.
Kalinauskiene 2009 {published data only}
  • Kalinauskiene L, Cekuoliene D, Van Ijzendoorn MH, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Juffer F, Kusakovskaja I. Supporting insensitive mothers: the Vilnius randomized control trial of video-feedback intervention to promote maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security. Child: Care, Health & Development 2009; Vol. 35, issue 5:613-23. [0305-1862]
Kazdin 1992 {published data only}
  • Kazdin AE, Siegel TC, Bass D. Cognitive problem-solving skills training and parent management training in the treatment of antisocial behavior in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1992;60(5):733-47.
Kazdin 2003 {published data only}
  • Kazdin AE, Whitley MK. Treatment of parental stress to enhance therapeutic change among children referred for aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2003; Vol. 71, issue 3:504-15. [MEDLINE: 36310]
Kiebert 2005 {published data only}
  • Kiebert BW. The Effect of Parenthood Education on Self-efficacy, Parent Effectiveness, and the Parent-Child Relationship in an Alternative High School Student Population. Hagerman, ID: University of Idaho, 2005. [MEDLINE: 25180]
Kim 2008 {published data only}
  • Kim E, Cain KC, Webster-Stratton C. The preliminary effect of a parenting program for Korean American mothers: a randomized controlled experimental study. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2008; Vol. 45, issue 9:1261-73.
Lagges 1999 {published data only}
Lamb 2007 {published data only}
  • Lamb K. Addressing the challenges of parenting: parent training with parents of children with ADHD. Dissertation Abstracts International 2007; Vol. 67, issue 11. [MEDLINE: 36450; 0419-4209]
Landy 2006 {published data only}
  • Landy S, Menna R. An evaluation of a group intervention for parents with aggressive young children: improvements in child functioning, maternal confidence, parenting knowledge and attitudes. Early Child Development and Care 2006; Vol. 176, issue 6:605-20. [MEDLINE: 26180]
Lavigne 2008 {published data only}
  • Lavigne JV, LeBailly SA, Gouze KR, Cicchetti C, Pochyly J, Arend R, et al. Treating oppositional defiant disorder in primary care: a comparison of three models. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2008; Vol. 33, issue 5:449-61.
Leung 2003 {published data only}
  • Leung C Saunders MR, Leung S, Mak R, Lau J. An outcome evaluation of the implementation of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in Hong Kong. Family Process 2003; Vol. 42, issue 4:531-44. [MEDLINE: 1510; CN-00469519]
Lim 2005 {published data only}
  • Lim M, Stormshak EA, Dishion TJ. A one-session intervention for parents of young adolescents: videotape modeling and motivational group discussion. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 2005; Vol. 13, issue 4:194-9. [MEDLINE: 39300; 1063-4266]
Linares 2006 {published data only}
  • Linares LO, Montalto D, Li M, Oza VS. A Promising Parenting Intervention in Foster Care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006; Vol. 74, issue 1:32-41. [0022-006X]
Martinez 2001 {published data only}
  • Martinez CR, Forgatch MS. Preventing problems with boys' noncompliance: effects of a parent training intervention for divorcing mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2001;69(3):416-28.
Martinez 2005 {published data only}
  • Martinez CR Jr, Eddy JM. Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2005; Vol. 73, issue 5:841-51. [MEDLINE: 670; CN-00552962]
Matos 2009 {published data only}
  • Matos M, Bauermeister JJ, Bernal G. Parent-child interaction therapy for Puerto Rican preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems: a pilot efficacy study. Family Process 2009; Vol. 48, issue 2:232-52. [0014-7370]
Matthey 2004 {published data only}
  • Matthey S, Kavanagh DJ, Howie P, Barnett B, Charles M. Prevention of postnatal distress or depression: an evaluation of an intervention at preparation for parenthood classes. Journal of Affective Disorders 2004; Vol. 79, issue 1-3:113-26. [MEDLINE: 33080]
McCabe 2009 {published data only}
  • McCabe K, Yeh M. Parent-child interaction therapy for Mexican Americans: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2009; Vol. 38, issue 5:753-9. [1537-4416]
McIntyre 2008 {published data only}
  • McIntyre LL. Parent training for young children with developmental disabilities: randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Mental Retardation 2008;113(5):356-68. [PUBMED: 18702556]
Melnyk 2007 {published data only}
  • Melnyk BM, Crean HF, Feinstein NF, Fairbanks E, Alpert Gillis LJ. Testing the theoretical framework of the COPE program for mothers of critically ill children: an integrative model of young children's post-hospital adjustment behaviors. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2007; Vol. 32, issue 4:463-74. [MEDLINE: 23460]
Mendelsohn 2007 {published data only}
  • Mendelsohn AL, Valdez PT, Flynn V, Foley GM, Berkule SB, Tomopoulos S, et al. Use of videotaped interactions during pediatric well-child care: Impact at 33 months on parenting and on child development. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 2007; Vol. 28, issue 3:206-12. [MEDLINE: 22770]
Miller-Heyl 1998 {published data only}
  • Miller-Heyl J, MacPhee D, Fritz JJ. DARE to be You: A family-support, early prevention program. The Journal of Primary Prevention 1998;18(3):257-85.
Mullin 1994 {published data only}
  • Mullin E, Quigley K, Glanville B. A controlled evaluation of the impact of a parent training programme on child behaviour and mothers' general wellbeing. Counselling Psychology Quarterly 1994;7(2):167-79.
NCT00183365 {published data only}
  • NCT00183365. Effect of family-based prevention on children of depressed parents. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00183365. Accessed 21 April 2011.
Nixon 2004 {published data only}
  • Nixon RDV, Sweeney L, Erickson DB, Touyz SW. Parent-child interaction therapy: one- and two-year follow-up of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2004; Vol. 32, issue 3:263. [0091-0627]
Ogden 2008 {published data only}
  • Ogden T, Hagen KA. Treatment effectiveness of parent management training in Norway: a randomized controlled trial of children with conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2008; Vol. 76, issue 4:607-21. [0022-006X]
Olivares 1997 {published data only}
  • Olivares J, Rosa AI, Garcia-Lopez LJ. Video paper on the training of mothers: a comparative study [El papel del video en el entrenamiento a Madres: un estudio comparativo]. Psicologia Conductual 1997;5(2):237-54.
Openden 2005 {published data only}
  • Openden DA. Pivotal Response Treatment for Multiple Families of Children with Autism: Probable Efficacy and Effectiveness of a Group Parent Education Workshop. Santa Barbara, CA: University of California, 2005.
Orrell-Valente 1999 {published data only}
  • Orrell-Valente JK, Pinderhughes EE, Valente E, Laird RD. If it's offered, will they come? Influences on parents' participation in a community-based conduct problems prevention program. American Journal of Community Psychology 1999;27(6):753-83.
Ostergren 2003 {published data only}
  • Ostergren CS. Evaluation of a temperament-based parenting program: factors affecting program usefulness, ease of understanding, preferred amount of materials and parental attitudes. Dissertation Abstracts International 2003; Vol. 64, issue 5:Nov 2003. [MEDLINE: 37690; 0419-4209]
Plant 2007 {published data only}
  • Plant KM, Saunders MR. Reducing problem behavior during care-giving in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2007; Vol. 28, issue 4:362-85. [MEDLINE: 160; CN-00608760]
Rahman 2009 {published data only}
  • Rahman A, Iqbal Z, Roberts C, Husain N. Cluster randomized trial of a parent-based intervention to support early development of children in a low-income country. Child: Care, Health & Development 2009; Vol. 35, issue 1:56-62. [0305-1862]
Rapee 2005 {published data only}
  • Rapee RM, Kennedy S, Ingram M, Edwards S, Sweeney L. Prevention and early intervention of anxiety disorders in inhibited preschool children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2005; Vol. 73, issue 3:488-97. [MEDLINE: 10530]
Reid 2001 {published data only}
  • Reid MJ, Webster-Stratton C, Beauchaine TP. Parent training in head start: a comparison of program response among African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic mothers. Prevention Science 2001;2(4):209-27.
Reid 2004 {published data only}
  • Reid MJ, Webster SC, Baydar N. Halting the development of conduct problems in head start children: the effects of parent training. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2004; Vol. 33, issue 2:279-91. [1537-4416]
Ruffolo 2005 {published data only}
  • Ruffolo MC, Kuhn MT, Evans ME. Support, empowerment, and education: a study of multiple family group psychoeducation. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 2005; Vol. 13, issue 4:200-12. [MEDLINE: 27990]
Sanders 2000 {published data only}
  • Sanders MR, Markie-Dadds C, Tully LA, Bor W. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: a comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2000;68(4):624-40.
Sanford 2003 {published data only}
  • Sanford M, Byrne C, Williams S, Atley S, Miller J, Allin H. A pilot study of a parent-education group for families affected by depression. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2003; Vol. 48, issue 2:78-86. [MEDLINE: 1440; CN-00431459]
Sawasdipanich 2010 {published data only}
Scott 1987 {published data only}
Scott 2002 {unpublished data only}
  • Scott S, Sylva K. The Spokes Project: supporting parents on kids' education. Department of Health Project Funded by the Parenting Initiative (UK) 2002.
Scott 2005 {published data only}
  • Scott S. Do parenting programmes for severe child antisocial behaviour work over the longer term, and for whom? One year follow-up of a multi-centre controlled trial. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2005; Vol. 33, issue 4:403-21. [MEDLINE: 610; CN-00605903]
Scott 2009 {published data only}
  • Scott S, Sylva K, Doolan M, Price J, Jacobs B, Crook C, et al. Randomised controlled trial of parent groups for child antisocial behaviour targeting multiple risk factors: the SPOKES project. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2010; Vol. 51, issue 1:48-57. [0021-9630]
Sheeber 1994 {published data only}
Shifflett 1999 {published data only}
  • Shifflett K, Cummings EM. A program for educating parents about the effects of divorce and conflict on children: an initial evaluation. Family Relations 1999;48(1):79-89.
Singer 1999 {published data only}
  • Singer GHS, Marquis J, Powers LK, Blanchard L, Divenere N, Santelli B, et al. A multi-site evaluation of parent to parent programs for parents of children with disabilities. Journal of Early Intervention 1999;22(3):217-29.
Sonuga-Barke 2001 {published data only}
  • Sonuga-Barke EJS, Daley D, Thompson M, Laver-Bradbury C, Weeks A. Parent-based therapies for preschool attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, controlled trial with a community sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2001;40(4):402-8.
Sonuga-Barke 2002 {published data only}
  • Sonuga-Barke EJ, Daley D, Thompson M. Does maternal ADHD reduce the effectiveness of parent training for preschool children's ADHD?. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2002;41(6):696-702.
Steiman 2005 {published data only}
  • Steiman M. Parent training with children with conduct problems: the role of the marital relationship and parental adjustment. Washington, DC: University of Washington, 2005. [MEDLINE: 28770]
St James Roberts 2001 {published data only}
Suchman 2004 {published data only}
  • Suchman NE, McMahon TJ, Luthar SS. Interpersonal maladjustment as predictor of mothers' response to a relational parenting intervention. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2004; Vol. 27, issue 2:135-43. [MEDLINE: 32320]
Suess 2005 {published data only}
  • Suess GJ, Kissgen R. STEEP-an attachment- and research-based early intervention program [STEEP-ein bindungstheoretisch und empirisch fundiertes Fruhinterventionsprogramm]. Psychologie-in-Erziehung-und-Unterricht 2005. [MEDLINE: 28810]
Sutton 1992 {published data only}
Sutton 1995 {published data only}
  • Sutton C. Parent training by telephone: a partial replication. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 1995;23(1):1-24.
Thompson 2009 {published data only}
  • Thompson MJ, Laver-Bradbury C, Ayres M, Le Poidevin E, Mead S, Dodds C, et al. A small-scale randomized controlled trial of the revised new forest parenting programme for preschoolers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2009; Vol. 18, issue 10:605-16. [1018-8827]
Thompson 2010 {published data only}
  • Thompson MJJ, Ayres M, Le Poidevin E, Mead S, Dodds C. A small-scale randomized controlled trial of the selfhelp version of the new forest parent training programme for children with ADHD. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2010;18:605-6.
Thorell 2009 {published data only}
  • Thorell LB. The Community Parent Education Program (COPE): treatment effects in a clinical and a community-based sample. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2009; Vol. 14, issue 3:373-87.
Tonge 2006 {published data only}
  • Tonge B, Brereton A, Kiomall M, MacKinnon A, King N, Rinehart N. Effects on parental mental health of an education and skills training program for parents of young children with autism: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2006; Vol. 45, issue 5:561-9. [MEDLINE: 290; CN-00564984]
Trost 2007 {published data only}
  • Trost AS. The Healthy Image Partnership (HIP) parents program: the role of parental involvement in eating disorder prevention (PhD Thesis). Austin, Texas: The University of Texas, 2007. [MEDLINE: 20970]
Turner 2006a {published data only}
  • Turner KMT, Sanders MR. Help when it's needed first: a controlled evaluation of brief, preventive behavioral family intervention in a primary care setting. Behavior Therapy 2006;37(2):131-42.
Uslu 2006 {published data only}
  • Uslu R, Kapci EG, Erden G. Psychoeducation and expressed emotion by parents of children with learning disorders. Psychological Reports 2006; Vol. 98, issue 2:291-306. [MEDLINE: 400; CN-00566051]
Van Wyk 1983 {published data only}
  • Van Wyk JD, Eloff ME, Heyns PM. The evaluation of an integrated parent training program. The Journal of Social Psychology 1983;121(2):273-81.
Webster-Stratton 2001 {published data only}
  • Webster-Stratton C, Reid MJ, Hammond M. Preventing conduct problems, promoting social competence: a parent and teacher training partnership in Head Start. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 2001;30(3):283-302.
Webster-Stratton 2004 {published data only}
  • Webster Stratton C, Reid MJ, Hammond M. Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2004; Vol. 33, issue 1:105-24. [MEDLINE: 1430; CN-00468833]
Wheatley 2003 {published data only}
  • Wheatley SL, Brugha TS, Shapiro DA. Exploring and enhancing engagement to the psychosocial intervention 'Preparing for Parenthood'. Archives of Women's Mental Health 2003; Vol. 6, issue 4:275-85. [MEDLINE: 33930]
Whitehurst 2008 {published data only}
  • Whitehurst DH, O'Keefe SL, Wilson RA. Divorced and separated parents in conflict: results from a true experiment effect of a court mandated parenting education program. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 2008; Vol. 48, issue 3-4:127-44. [MEDLINE: 170; 1050-2556]
Whittingham 2009a {published data only}
  • Whittingham K, Sofronoff K, Sheffield J, Sanders MR. Stepping Stones Triple-P: an RCT of a parenting program with parents of a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2009; Vol. 37, issue 4:469-80. [MEDLINE: 310; 0091-0627]
Whittingham 2009b {published data only}
  • Whittingham K, Sofronoff K, Sheffield J, Sanders MR. Do parental attributions affect treatment outcome in a parenting program? An exploration of the effects of parental attributions in an RCT of Stepping Stones Triple-P for the ASD population. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 2009; Vol. 3, issue 1:129-44. [1750-9467]
Wiggins 2009 {published data only}
  • Wiggins TL, Sofronoff K, Sanders MR. Pathways Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: effects on parent-child relationships and child behavior problems. Family Process 2009; Vol. 48, issue 4:517-30. [0014-7370]
Wissow 2008 {published data only}
  • Wissow LS, Gadomski A, Roter D, Larson S, Brown J, Zachary C, et al. Improving child and parent mental health in primary care: A cluster-randomized trial of communication skills training. Pediatrics 2008; Vol. 121, issue 2:266-75. [0031-4005(print); 1098-4275(electronic)]
Wolkchik 1993 {published data only}
  • Wolkchik SA, West SG, Westover S, Sandler IN, Martin A, Lustig J, et al. The children of divorce parenting intervention: outcome evaluation of an empirically based program. American Journal of Community Psychology 1993;21(3):293-331.
Zimmerman 1996 {published data only}
  • Zimmerman TS, Jacobsen RB, MacIntyre M, Watson C. Solution-focused parenting groups: an empirical study. Journal of Systemic Therapies 1996;15(4):12-25.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Bayer 2010 {published data only}
  • Bayer JK, Hiscock H, Ukoumunne OC, Scalzo K, Wake M. Three-year-old outcomes of a brief universal parenting intervention to prevent behaviour problems: randomised controlled trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2010;95:187-92.
Bywater 2011 {published data only}
  • Bywater T, Hutchings J, Linck P, Whitaker C, Daley D, Yeo S, Edwards R. Incredible Years parent training support for foster carers in Wales: a multi-centre feasibility study. Child: Care, Health and Development 2011;37(2):233-43.
Cefai 2010 {published data only}
Eichelberger 2010 {published data only}
  • Eichelberger I, Pluck J, Hanisch C, Hautmann C, Janen N, Dopfner M. Effects of the universal parent training program Triple P on child behavior problems, parenting strategies, and psychological distress. Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie 2010;39(1):24-32.
Franz 2007 {published data only}
  • Franz M, Gertheinrichs T, Guttgemanns J, Haubold S, Rentsch D, Schafer R. Palme - a structured attachment oriented parental training for depressive single mothers. First results of a controlled randomized intervention study in an urban community. Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie 2007; Vol. 57, issue 2:84-5. [MEDLINE: 54510]
Hampel 2010 {published data only}
  • Hampel OA, Schaadt AK, Hasmann SE, Petermann F, Holl R, Hasmann R. Evaluation of Stepping Stones Triple P: Interims analysis of the Stepping-Stones-SPC-Multicentric Study. Klinische Paediatrie 2010;222:18-25.
Heinrichs 2006 {published data only}
  • Heinrichs N Hahlweg K, Bertram H, Kuschel A, Naumann S, Harstick S. The 1-year efficacy of a parent training in the universal prevention of child-behavior problems: results from mothers and fathers. Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie 2006; Vol. 35, issue 2:82-96. [MEDLINE: 480; CN-00615242]
  • Heinrichs N, Bertram H, Kuschel A, Hahlweh K. Parent recruitment and retention in a universal prevention program for child behaviour and emotional problems: barriers to research and program participation. Prevention Science 2005;6(4):275-86.
  • Heinrichs N, Hahlweg K, Naumann S, Kuschel A, Bertram H, Ständer D. Universal prevention of child behaviour problems with parent training programme: outcomes after three years. [Universelle Prävention kindlicherVerhaltensstörungen mithilfeeiner elternzentrierten MaßnahmeErgebnisse drei Jahre nach Teilnahme]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie 2009;38(2):79-88.
Morawska 2011 {published data only}
  • Morawska A, Haslam D, Milne D, Sanders MR. Evaluation of a brief parenting discussion group for parents of young children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 2011;2:136-145.
Naumann 2007 {published data only}
  • Naumann S, Kuschel A, Bertram H, Heinrichs N, Hahlweg K. Promotion of Parental Competence With Triple P. Praxis Der Kinderpsychologie Und Kinderpsychiatrie 2007; Vol. 56, issue 8:676-90. [MEDLINE: 49620]
Reedtz 2011 {published data only}
Sanders 2011 {published data only}
  • Sanders MR, Stallman HM, McHale M. Workplace Triple P: a controlled evaluation of a parenting intervention for working parents. Journal of Family Psychology 2011;25(4):581-90.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
NTR1338 {published data only}
  • Spijkers W, Jansen D, de Meer G, Reijneveld SA. Effectiveness of a parenting programme in a public health setting: a randomised controlled trial of the positive parenting programme (Triple P) level 3 versus care as usual provided by the preventive child healthcare (PCH). BMC Public Health 2010;10:131-7.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Abidin 1983
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Barlow 2010
Barlow 2011
Beardslee 1998
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Beck 1961
Beck 1988
Beebe 2011
Cornish 2008
Dawson 1997
Department of Health 2009
  • Shribman S, Billingham K. Healthy Child Programme: Pregnancy and the First Five Years of Life. London: Department of Health, 2009.
Dretze 2005
  • Dretzke J, Frew E, Davenport C, Barlow J, Stewart-Brown S, Sandercock J, et al. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parent training/education programmes for the treatment of conduct disorder, including oppositional defiant disorder, in children. Health Technology Assessment 2005;9(50):1-233.
Fonagy 1997
Grienenberger 2005
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Gunnar 1994
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Jaffe 2001
Johnston 1989
Kane 2003
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Kane 2004
Klass 1987
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Maiuro 1987
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Martin 2000
McGuinn 2004
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McMahon 2006
Murray 1992
Murray 1996
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Parry-Langdon 2008
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Patterson 1992
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Pawlby 2008
Ramchandani 2008
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RevMan 2011 [Computer program]
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Rosenberg 1965
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Schore 2005
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Sharp 1995
Shelton 2008
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Spanier 1976
Todres 1993
  • Todres R, Bunston T. Parent-education programme evaluation: a review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 1993;12(1):225-57.
Van IJzendoorn 1995
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Waylen 2010
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Wilson 2010

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Barlow 2001
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Barlow 2003
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