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Intervention Review

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Antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients

  1. Lise M Bjerre1,*,
  2. Theo JM Verheij2,
  3. Michael M Kochen1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group

Published Online: 19 APR 2004

Assessed as up-to-date: 24 FEB 2004

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002109.pub2


How to Cite

Bjerre LM, Verheij TJM, Kochen MM. Antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD002109. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002109.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Göttingen, Department of General Practice/Family Medicine, Göttingen, Germany

  2. 2

    University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for General Practice and Patient-Oriented Research, Utrecht, Netherlands

*Lise M Bjerre, Department of General Practice/Family Medicine, University of Göttingen, Humboldtallee 38, Göttingen, D-37073 , Germany. lbjerre@hotmail.com. lbjerre@gwdg.de.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Unchanged
  2. Published Online: 19 APR 2004

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (09 OCT 2014)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Anderson 1991 {published data only}
  • Anderson G, Esmonde TS, Coles S, Macklin J, Carnegie C. A comparative safety and efficacy study of clarithromycin and erythromycin stearate in community-acquired pneumonia. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1991;27(Suppl A):117-24.
Chien 1993 {published data only}
  • Chien SM, Pichotta P, Siepman N, Chan CK and the Canada-Sweden Clarithromycin-Pneumonia Group. Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized study comparing clarithromycin with erythromycin. Chest 1993;103:697-701.
Ramirez 1999 {published data only}
  • Ramirez J, Unowsky J, Talbot GH, Zhang H, Townsend L. Sparfloxacin vs clarithromycin in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia. Clinical Therapeutics 1999;21(1):103-17.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Balgos 1999 {published data only}
  • Balgos AA, Rodriguez-Gomez G, Nasnas R, Mahasur AA, Margono BP, Tinoco-Favila JC. Efficacy of twice-daily amoxycillin/clavulanate in lower respiratory tract infections. International Journal of Clinical Practice 1999;53(5):325-30.
Ball 1994 {published data only}
  • Ball P. Efficacy and safety of cefprozil versus other beta-lactam antibiotics in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1994;13(10):851-6.
Balmes 1991 {published data only}
  • Balmes P, Clerc G, Dupont B, Labram C, Pariente P, Poirier R. Comparative study of azithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1991;10:437-9.
Bantz 1987 {published data only}
  • Bantz PM, Grote J, Peters-Haertel W, Stahmann J, Timm J, Kasten R, et al. Low-dose ciprofloxacin in respiratory tract infections: a randomized comparison with doxycycline in general practice. American Journal of Medicine 1987;82(Suppl 4A):208-10.
Biermann 1988 {published data only}
  • Biermann C, Loken A, Riise R. Comparison of spiramycin and doxycycline in the treatment of lower respiratory infections in general practice. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1988;22(Suppl B):155-8.
Chodosh 1991 {published data only}
  • Chodosh S. Temafloxacin compared with ciprofloxacin in mild to moderate lower respiratory tract infections in ambulatory patients. Chest 1991;100:1497-502.
Dark 1991 {published data only}
  • Dark D. Multicenter evaluation of azithromycin and cefaclor in acute lower respiratory tract infections. American Journal of Medicine 1991;91(Suppl 3A):31-5.
Dautzenberg 1992 {published data only}
  • Dautzenberg B, Scheimberg A, Brambilla C, Camus P, Godard P, Guerin JC. Comparison of two oral antibiotics, roxithromycin and amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, in lower respiratory tract infections. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 1992;15(Supplement):85-9.
De Cock 1988 {published data only}
  • De Cock L, Poels R. Comparison of spiramycin with erythromycin for lower respiratory tract infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1988;22(Suppl B):159-63.
Fong 1995 {published data only}
  • Fong IW, Laforge J, Dubois J, Small D, Grossman R, Zakhari R, et al. Clarithromycin versus cefaclor in lower respiratory tract infections. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 1995;18:131-8.
Gris 1996 {published data only}
  • Gris P. Once-daily, 3-day azithromycin versus a three-times-daily, 10-day course of co-amoxiclav in the treatment of adults with lower respriatory tract infections: results of a randomized, double-blind comparative study. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1996;37(Suppl C):93-101.
Higuera 1996 {published data only}
  • Higuera F, Hidalgo H, Feris J, Giguere G, Collins JJ. Comparison of oral cefuroxime axetil and oral amoxycillin/clavulanate in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1996;37:555-64.
Hoepelman 1993 {published data only}
  • Hoepelman AIM, Sips AP, van Helmond JLM, van Barneveld PWC, Neve AJ, et al. A single-blind comparison of three-day azithromycin and ten-day co-amoxiclav treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1993;31(Suppl E):147-52.
Hoepelman 1998 {published data only}
  • Hoepelman IM, Möllers MJ, van Schie MH, Greefhorst APM, Schlösser NJJ, Sinninghe Damsté EJ, et al. A short (3-day) course of azithromycin tablets versus a 10-day course of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) in the treatment of adults with lower respiratory tract infections and effects on long-term outcome. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 1998;9:141-6.
Kammer 1991 {published data only}
  • Kammer RB, Ress R. Randomized comparative study of ceftibuten versus cefaclor in the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 1991;14:101-5.
Kiani 1990 {published data only}
  • Kiani R, Coulson L, Johnson D, Hammershaimb L. Comparison of once-daily and twice-daily cefixime regimens with amoxicillin in the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1990;48(5):841-52.
Lacny 1972 {published data only}
  • Lacny J. A comparison of oral therapy with clindamycin and penicillin G in common gram-positive infections. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1972;14(1):26-30.
Laurent 1996 {published data only}
  • Laurent K. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of azithromycin versus roxithromycin in the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1996;37(Suppl C):115-24.
Liipo 1994 {published data only}
  • Liippo K, Tala E, Puolijoki H, Brückner OJ, Rodrig J, Smits JPH. A comparative study of dirithromycin and erythromycin in bacterial pneumonia. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;28:131-9.
Lode 1995 {published data only}
  • Lode H, Garau J, Grassi C, Hosie J, Huchon G, Legakis N, et al. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized comparison of sparfloxacin, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and erythromycin. European Respiratory Journal 1995;8:1999-2007.
Lode 1998 {published data only}
  • Lode H, Aubier M, Portier H, Ortqvist A and the Sparfloxacin Study Group. Sparfloxacin as alternative treatment to standard therapy for community-acquired bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 1998;4(3):135-43.
Müller 1992 {published data only}
  • Müller O, Wettich K. Comparison of loracarbef (LY 163892) versus amoxicillin in the treatment of bronchopneumonia and lobar pneumonia. Infection 1992;20(3):176-82.
NAPSG 1997 {published data only}
  • The Nordic Atypical Pneumona Study Group. Atypical pneumona in the Nordic countires: aetiology and clincal results of a trial comparing fleroxacin and doxycyclin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1997;39:499-508.
Neu 1993 {published data only}
  • Neu HC, Chick TW. Efficacy and safety of clarithromycin compared to cefixime as outpatient treatment of lower respiratory tract infections. Chest 1993;104:1393-9.
O'Doherty 1998 {published data only}
  • O'Doherty B, Muller O and the Azithromycin Study Group. Randomized, multicentre study of the efficacy and tolerance of Azithromycin versus clarithromycin in the treatment of adults with mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1998;17:828-33.
Peugeot 1991 {published data only}
  • Peugeot RL, Lipsky BA, Hooton TM, Pecoraro RE. Treatment of lower respiratory infections in outpatients with ofloxacin compred with erythromycin. Drugs in Experimental and Clinical Research 1991;17(5):253-7.
Rayman 1996 {published data only}
  • Rayman J, Krchnavý M, Balciar P, Duchon J, Fortuník J, Faith L, et al. Ofloxacin once daily versus twice daily in community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Chemotherapy 1996;42:227-30.
Salvarezza 1998 {published data only}
  • Salvarezza CR, Mingrone H, Fachinelli H, Kijanczuk S. Comparison of roxithromycin with cefixime in the treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1998;41(Suppl B):75-80.
Schleupner 1988 {published data only}
  • Schleupner CJ, Anthony WC, Tan J, File TM, Lifland P, Craig W, Vogelman B. Blinded comparison of cefuroxime to cefaclor for lower respiratory tract infections. Archives of Internal Medicine 1988;148:343-8.
Tilyard 1992 {published data only}
  • Tilyard MW, Dovey SM. A randomized double-blind controlled trial of roxithromycin and cefaclor in the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections in general practice. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 1992;15:97-101.
Örtqvist 1996 {published data only}
  • Örtqvist A, Valtonen M, Cars O, Wahl M, Saikku P, Jean C, et al. Oral empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study comparing sparfloxacin with roxithromycin. Chest 1996;110:1499-506.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Armitage 1994
  • Armitage P, Berry G. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994.
ATS 2001
  • American Thoracic Society. Guidelines for the management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. American Journal of Critical Care 2001;163:1730-54.
BTS 1992
  • British Thoracic Society Research Committee and Public Health Laboratory Service. The aetiology, management and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia on the intensive care unit. Respir Med 1992;86:7-13.
BTS 2001
  • British Thoracic Society. British Thoracic Society Guidelines for the management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Thorax 2001;56(Suppl IV):1-64.
CCAPWG 2000
  • Canadian Community-Acquired Pneumonia Working Group. Canadian guidelines for the initial management of community-acquired pneumonia: an evidence-based update by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2000;31:383-421.
Foy 1979
  • Foy HM, Cooney MK, Allan I, et al. Rates of pneumonia during influenza epidemics in Seattle, 1964 to 1975. JAMA 1979;241:253-8.
Guest 1997
  • Guest JF, Morris A. Community-acquired pneumonia: the annual cost to the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. Eur Respir J 1997;10:1530-4.
IDSA 2000
  • Infectious Dieseases Society of America. Practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2000;31:347-82.
IDSA 2003
  • Infectious Dieseases Society of America. Update of practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2003;37:1405-33.
Jokinen 1993
  • Jokinen C, Heiskanen L, Juvonen H, et al. Incidence off community-acquired pneumonia in the population of four municipalities in eastern Finland. Am J Epidemiol 1993;137:977-88.
Loeb 2002
  • Loeb M. Community-acquired pneumonia. Clinical Evidence. Vol. 8, London: BMJ Publishing Group, 2002.
Macfarlane 1984
  • Macfarlane JT, Miller AC, Smith WHR, et al. Comparative radiographic features of community-acquired legionnaires' disease, pneumococcal pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia and psittacosis. Thorax 1984;39:28-33.
Torres 1991
  • Torres A, Serra-Batlles J, Ferrer A, et al. Severe community-acquired pneumonia. Epidemiology and prognostic factors. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;144:312-8.
Woodhead 1987
  • Woodhead MA, Macfarlane JT, McCracken JS, et al. Prospective study of the aetiology and outcome of pneumonia in the community. Lancet 1987;i:671-4.