Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients

  1. Lise M Bjerre1,*,
  2. Theo JM Verheij2,
  3. Michael M Kochen1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group

Published Online: 7 OCT 2009

Assessed as up-to-date: 6 JUL 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002109.pub3

How to Cite

Bjerre LM, Verheij TJM, Kochen MM. Antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD002109. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002109.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Göttingen, Department of General Practice/Family Medicine, Göttingen, Germany

  2. 2

    University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for General Practice and Patient-Oriented Research, Utrecht, Netherlands

*Lise M Bjerre, Department of General Practice/Family Medicine, University of Göttingen, Humboldtallee 38, Göttingen, D-37073, Germany. lbjerre@hotmail.com. lbjerre@gwdg.de.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 7 OCT 2009

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Anderson 1991 {published data only}
  • Anderson G, Esmonde TS, Coles S, Macklin J, Carnegie C. A comparative safety and efficacy study of clarithromycin and erythromycin stearate in community-acquired pneumonia. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1991;27(Suppl A):117-24.
Chien 1993 {published data only}
  • Chien SM, Pichotta P, Siepman N, Chan CK and the Canada-Sweden Clarithromycin-Pneumonia Group. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study comparing clarithromycin with erythromycin. Chest 1993;103:697-701.
D'Ignazio 2005 {published data only}
  • D'Ignazio J, Camere MA, Lewis DE, Jorgensen D, Breen JD. Novel, single-dose microsphere formulation of azithromycin versus 7-day levofloxacin therapy for treatment of mild to moderate community-acquired Pneumonia in adults. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2005;49(10):4035-41.
Drehobl 2005 {published data only}
  • Drehobl MA, De Salvo MC, Lewis DE, Breen JD. Single-dose azithromycin microspheres vs clarithromycin extended release for the treatment of mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Chest 2005;128(4):2230-7.
Kohno 2003 {published data only}
  • Kohno S, Watanabe A, Aoki N, Niki Y. Clinical evaluation of telithromycin for community-acquired pneumonia - Phase III double-blind comparative study of telithromycin versus levofloxacin [Japanese]. Japanese Journal of Chemotherapy 2003;51(Suppl 1):255-78.
Mathers Dunbar 2004 {published data only}
  • Mathers Dunbar L, Hassman J, Tellier G. Efficacy and tolerability of once-daily oral telithromycin compared with clarithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Therapeutics 2004;26(1):48-62.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Balgos 1999 {published data only}
  • Balgos AA, Rodriguez-Gomez G, Nasnas R, Mahasur AA, Margono BP, Tinoco-Favila JC. Efficacy of twice-daily amoxycillin/clavulanate in lower respiratory tract infections. International Journal of Clinical Practice 1999;53(5):325-30.
Ball 1994 {published data only}
  • Ball P. Efficacy and safety of cefprozil versus other beta-lactam antibiotics in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1994;13(10):851-6.
Balmes 1991 {published data only}
  • Balmes P, Clerc G, Dupont B, Labram C, Pariente P, Poirier R. Comparative study of azithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1991;10:437-9.
Bantz 1987 {published data only}
  • Bantz PM, Grote J, Peters-Haertel W, Stahmann J, Timm J, Kasten R, et al. Low-dose ciprofloxacin in respiratory tract infections: a randomized comparison with doxycycline in general practice. American Journal of Medicine 1987;82(Suppl 4A):208-10.
Biermann 1988 {published data only}
  • Biermann C, Loken A, Riise R. Comparison of spiramycin and doxycycline in the treatment of lower respiratory infections in general practice. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1988;22(Suppl B):155-8.
Bonvehi 2003 {published data only}
  • Bonvehi P, Weber K, Busman T, Shortridge D, Notario G. Comparison of clarithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for community-acquired pneumonia in an era of drug-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae. Clinical Drug Investigation 2003;23(8):491-501.
Carbon 1999 {published data only}
  • Carbon C, Ariza H, Rabie WJ, Salvarezza CR, Elkharrat D, Rangaraj M, et al. Comparative study of levofloxacin and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid in adults with mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Microbiology and Infection 1999;5:724-32.
Chodosh 1991 {published data only}
Dark 1991 {published data only}
  • Dark D. Multicenter evaluation of azithromycin and cefaclor in acute lower respiratory tract infections. American Journal of Medicine 1991;91(Suppl 3A):31-5.
Dautzenberg 1992 {published data only}
  • Dautzenberg B, Scheimberg A, Brambilla C, Camus P, Godard P, Guerin JC. Comparison of two oral antibiotics, roxithromycin and amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, in lower respiratory tract infections. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 1992;15(Suppl):85-9.
De Cock 1988 {published data only}
  • De Cock L, Poels R. Comparison of spiramycin with erythromycin for lower respiratory tract infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1988;22(Suppl B):159-63.
Dean 2006 {published data only}
  • Dean NC, Sperry P, Wikler M, Suchyta MS, Hadlock C. Comparing gatifloxacin and clarithromycin in pneumonia symptom resolution and process of care. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2006;50(4):1164-9.
Donowitz 1997 {published data only}
  • Donowitz GR, Brandon ML, Salisbury JP, Harman CP, Tipping DM, Urick AE, et al. Sparfloxacin versus cefaclor in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, double-masked, comparative, multicenter study. Clinical Therapeutics 1997;19(5):936-53.
File 1997 {published data only}
  • File TM Jr, Segreti J, Dunbar L, Player R, Kohler R, Williams RR, et al. A multicenter, randomized study comparing the efficacy and safety of intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin versus ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil in treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1997;41(9):1965-72.
File 2001 {published data only}
  • File TM Jr, Schlemmer B, Garau J, Cupo M, Young C, 049 Clinical Study Group. Efficacy and safety of gemifloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, double-blind comparison with trovafloxacin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2001;48(1):67-74.
File 2004 {published data only}
  • File TM Jr, Lode H, Kurz H, Kozak R, Xie H, Berkowitz E, et al. Double-blind, randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 milligrams) versus those of amoxicillin-clavulanate (875/125 milligrams), both given twice daily for 7 days, in treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2004;48(9):3323-31.
Fogarty 1999 {published data only}
  • Fogarty, C, Grossman C, Williams J, Haverstock D, Church D for the Commutiy-Acquired Pneumonia Study Group. Efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin vs clarithromycin for community-acquired pneumonia. Infections in Medicine 1999;16:748-63.
Fogarty 2002 {published data only}
  • Fogarty CM, Cyganowski M, Palo WA, Hom RC, Craig WA. A comparison of cefditoren pivoxil and amoxicillin/ clavulanate in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group study. Clinical Therapeutics 2002;24(11):1854-70.
Fong 1995 {published data only}
  • Fong IW, Laforge J, Dubois J, Small D, Grossman R, Zakhari R, et al. Clarithromycin versus cefaclor in lower respiratory tract infections. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 1995;18:131-8.
Gotfried 2002 {published data only}
  • Gotfried MH, Dattani D, Riffer E, Devcich KJ, Busman TA, Notario GF, et al. A controlled, double-blind, multicenter study comparing clarithromycin extended-release tablets and levofloxacin tablets in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Clinical Therapeutics 2002;24(5):736-51.
Gris 1996 {published data only}
  • Gris P. Once-daily, 3-day azithromycin versus a three-times-daily, 10-day course of co-amoxiclav in the treatment of adults with lower respriatory tract infections: results of a randomized, double-blind comparative study. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1996;37(Suppl C):93-101.
Hagberg 2002 {published data only}
  • Hagberg L, Torres A, van Rensburg D, Leroy B, Rangaraju M, Ruuth E. Efficacy and tolerability of once-daily telithromycin compared with high-dose amoxicillin for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Infection 2002;30(6):378-86.
Higuera 1996 {published data only}
  • Higuera F, Hidalgo H, Feris J, Giguere G, Collins JJ. Comparison of oral cefuroxime axetil and oral amoxycillin/clavulanate in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1996;37:555-64.
Hoeffken 2001 {published data only}
  • Hoeffken G, Meyer HP, Winter J, Verhoef L, CAP1 Study Group. The efficacy and safety of two oral moxifloxacin regimens compared to oral clarithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Respiratory Medicine 2001;95(7):553-64.
Hoepelman 1993 {published data only}
  • Hoepelman AIM, Sips AP, van Helmond JLM, van Barneveld PWC, Neve AJ, et al. A single-blind comparison of three-day azithromycin and ten-day co-amoxiclav treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1993;31(Suppl E):147-52.
Hoepelman 1998 {published data only}
  • Hoepelman IM, Möllers MJ, van Schie MH, Greefhorst APM, Schlösser NJJ, Sinninghe Damsté EJ, et al. A short (3-day) course of azithromycin tablets versus a 10-day course of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) in the treatment of adults with lower respiratory tract infections and effects on long-term outcome. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 1998;9:141-6.
Kammer 1991 {published data only}
  • Kammer RB, Ress R. Randomized comparative study of ceftibuten versus cefaclor in the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 1991;14:101-5.
Kiani 1990 {published data only}
  • Kiani R, Coulson L, Johnson D, Hammershaimb L. Comparison of once-daily and twice-daily cefixime regimens with amoxicillin in the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1990;48(5):841-52.
Kinasewitz 1991 {published data only}
Lacny 1972 {published data only}
Laurent 1996 {published data only}
  • Laurent K. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of azithromycin versus roxithromycin in the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1996;37(Suppl C):115-24.
Leophonte 2004 {published data only}
  • Léophonte P, File T, Feldman C. Gemifloxacin once daily for 7 days compared to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid thrice daily for 10 days for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia of suspected pneumococcal origin. Respiratory Medicine 2004;98(8):708-20.
Liipo 1994 {published data only}
  • Liippo K, Tala E, Puolijoki H, Brückner OJ, Rodrig J, Smits JPH. A comparative study of dirithromycin and erythromycin in bacterial pneumonia. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;28:131-9.
Lode 1995 {published data only}
  • Lode H, Garau J, Grassi C, Hosie J, Huchon G, Legakis N, et al. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized comparison of sparfloxacin, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and erythromycin. European Respiratory Journal 1995;8:1999-2007.
Lode 1998 {published data only}
  • Lode H, Aubier M, Portier H, Ortqvist A and the Sparfloxacin Study Group. Sparfloxacin as alternative treatment to standard therapy for community-acquired bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 1998;4(3):135-43.
Lode 2004a {published data only}
Lode 2004b {published data only}
Macfarlane 1996 {published data only}
  • MacFarlane JT, Prewitt J, Gard P, Guion A. Comparison of amoxycillin and clarithromycin as initial treatment of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. British Journal of General Practice 1996;46(407):357-60.
Moola 1999 {published data only}
  • Moola S, Hagberg L, Churchyard GA, Dylewski JS, Sedani S, Staley H. A multicenter study of grepafloxacin and clarithromycin in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest 1999;116(4):974-83.
Müller 1992 {published data only}
NAPSG 1997 {published data only}
  • The Nordic Atypical Pneumona Study Group. Atypical pneumona in the Nordic countires: aetiology and clincal results of a trial comparing fleroxacin and doxycyclin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1997;39:499-508.
Neu 1993 {published data only}
O'Doherty 1997 {published data only}
  • O'Doherty B, Dutchman DA, Pettit R, Maroli A. Randomized, double-blind, comparative study of grepafloxacin and amoxycillin in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1997;40(Suppl A):73-81.
O'Doherty 1998 {published data only}
  • O'Doherty B, Muller O and the Azithromycin Study Group. Randomized, multicentre study of the efficacy and tolerance of Azithromycin versus clarithromycin in the treatment of adults with mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1998;17:828-33.
Pavie 2005 {published data only}
  • Pavie J, de la Prida JM, Diaz A, Saldias F. Assessment of the management of commutiy-acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients [Manejo ambulatorio de la neumonía comunitaria del adulto en las unidades de emergencia. Servicio de Salud Vina del Mar-Quillota de la V Región]. Revista Médica de Chile 2005;133:1322-30.
Petitpretz 2001 {published data only}
  • Petitpretz P, Arvis P, Marel M, Moita J, Urueta J, CAP5 Moxifloxacin Study Group. Oral moxifloxacin vs high-dosage amoxicillin in the treatment of mild-to-moderate, community-acquired, suspected pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. Chest 2001;119(1):185-95.
Peugeot 1991 {published data only}
  • Peugeot RL, Lipsky BA, Hooton TM, Pecoraro RE. Treatment of lower respiratory infections in outpatients with ofloxacin compred with erythromycin. Drugs in Experimental and Clinical Research 1991;17(5):253-7.
Pullman 2003 {published data only}
  • Pullman J, Champlin J, Vrooman PS Jr. Efficacy and tolerability of once-daily oral therapy with telithromycin compared with trovafloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Internation Journal of Clinical Practice 2003;57(5):377-84.
Rahav 2004 {published data only}
  • Rahav G, Fidel J, Gibor Y, Shapiro M. Azithromycin versus comparative therapy for the treatment of community acquired pneumonia. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2004;24(2):181-4.
Ramirez 1999 {published data only}
Rayman 1996 {published data only}
  • Rayman J, Krchnavý M, Balciar P, Duchon J, Fortuník J, Faith L, et al. Ofloxacin once daily versus twice daily in community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Chemotherapy 1996;42:227-30.
Saito 2008 {published data only}
  • Saito A, Watanabe A, Aoki N, Niki Y, Kohno S, Kaku M, et al. Phase III double-blind comparative study of sitafloxacin versus tosufloxacin in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Japanese Journal of Chemotherapy 2008;56(Suppl 1):49-62.
Salvarezza 1998 {published data only}
  • Salvarezza CR, Mingrone H, Fachinelli H, Kijanczuk S. Comparison of roxithromycin with cefixime in the treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1998;41(Suppl B):75-80.
Schleupner 1988 {published data only}
  • Schleupner CJ, Anthony WC, Tan J, File TM, Lifland P, Craig W, et al. Blinded comparison of cefuroxime to cefaclor for lower respiratory tract infections. Archives of Internal Medicine 1988;148:343-8.
Siquier 2006 {published data only}
  • Siquier B, Sánchez-Alvarez J, García-Mendez E, Sabriá M, Santos J, Pallarés R, et al. Efficacy and safety of twice-daily pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin/clavulanate (2000/125 mg) in the treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia in a country with a high prevalence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2006;57(3):536-45.
Sokol 2002 {published data only}
  • Sokol WN Jr, Sullivan JG, Acampora MD, Busman TA, Notario GF. A prospective, double-blind, multicenter study comparing clarithromycin extended-release with trovafloxacin in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Clinical Therapeutics 2002;24(4):605-15.
Sopena 2004 {published data only}
  • Sopena N, Martínez-Vázquez C, Rodríguez-Suárez JR, Segura F, Valencia A, Sabrià M. Comparative study of the efficacy and tolerance of azithromycin versus clarithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Journal of Chemotherapy 2004;16(1):102-3.
Tellier 2004 {published data only}
  • Tellier G, Niederman MS, Nusrat R, Patel M, Lavin B. Clinical and bacteriological efficacy and safety of 5 and 7 day regimens of telithromycin once daily compared with a 10 day regimen of clarithromycin twice daily in patients with mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2004;54(2):515-23.
Tilyard 1992 {published data only}
  • Tilyard MW, Dovey SM. A randomized double-blind controlled trial of roxithromycin and cefaclor in the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections in general practice. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 1992;15:97-101.
Torres 2003 {published data only}
  • Torres A, Muir JF, Corris P, Kubin R, Duprat-Lomon I, Sagnier PP, et al. Effectiveness of oral moxifloxacin in standard first-line therapy in community-acquired pneumonia. European Respiratory Journal 2003;21(1):135-43.
Trémolières 1998 {published data only}
  • Trémolières F, de Kock F, Pluck N, Daniel R. Trovafloxacin versus high-dose amoxicillin (1 g three times daily) in the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1998;17(6):447-53.
Trémolières 2005 {published data only}
  • Trémolières F, Mayaud C, Mouton Y, Weber P, Dellatolas F, Caulin E. Efficacy and safety of pristinamycin vs amoxicillin in community acquired pneumonia in adults [Essai comparatif de l'efficacité et de la tolérance de la pristinamycine vs amoxicilline dans le traitement des pneumonies aigues communautaires de l'adulte]. Pathologie-Biologie 2005;53(8-9):503-10.
van Zyl 2002 {published data only}
  • van Zyl L, le Roux JG, LaFata JA, Volk RS, Palo WA, Flamm R, et al. Cefditoren pivoxil versus cefpodoxime proxetil for community-acquired pneumonia: results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Clinical Therapeutics 2002;24(11):1840-53.
Zuck 1990 {published data only}
  • Zuck P, Rio Y, Ichou F. Efficacy and tolerance of cefpodoxime proxetil compared with ceftriaxone in vulnerable patients with bronchopneumonia. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1990;26(Suppl E):71-7.
Örtqvist 1996 {published data only}
  • Örtqvist A, Valtonen M, Cars O, Wahl M, Saikku P, Jean C, et al. Oral empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study comparing sparfloxacin with roxithromycin. Chest 1996;110:1499-506.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
ALAT 2001
  • Grupo de trabajo de la Asociación Latinoamericana del Tórax (ALAT). Latin American Thoracic Association (ALAT) recommendations on community acquired pneumonia [Recomendaciones ALAT sobre la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (article in Spanish)]. Archivos de Bronconeumología 2001;37:340-8.
ALAT 2004
  • Grupo de trabajo de la Asociación Latinoamericana del Tórax (ALAT). Update to the Latin American Thoracic Association (ALAT) recommendations on community acquired pneumonia (article in English). Archivos de Bronconeumología 2004;40(8):364-74.
Armitage 1994
  • Armitage P, Berry G. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994.
ATS 2001
  • American Thoracic Society. Guidelines for the management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. American Journal of Critical Care 2001;163:1730-54.
BTS 1992
  • British Thoracic Society Research Committee and Public Health Laboratory Service. The aetiology, management and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia on the intensive care unit. Respiratory Medicine 1992;86:7-13.
BTS 2001
  • British Thoracic Society. British Thoracic Society Guidelines for the management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Thorax 2001;56(Suppl IV):1-64.
BTS 2004
Carratala 2005
  • Carratalà J, Fernández-Sabé N, Ortega L, Castellsagué X, Rosón B, Dorca J, et al. Outpatient care compared with hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized trial in low-risk patients. Annals of Internal Medicine 2005;142(3):165-72.
CCAPWG 2000
  • Canadian Community-Acquired Pneumonia Working Group. Canadian guidelines for the initial management of community-acquired pneumonia: an evidence-based update by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2000;31:383-421.
Foy 1979
Guest 1997
Hedlund 2005
  • Hedlund J, Strålin K, Ortqvist A, Holmberg H, Community-Acquired Pneumonia Working Group of the Swedish Society of Infectious Diseases. Swedish guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2005;37(11-12):791-805.
Hoeffken 2005
  • Höffken G, Lorenz J, Kern W, Welte T, Bauer T, Dalhoff K, et al. S3-guideline on ambulant acquired pneumonia and deep airway infections. Pneumologie 2005;59(9):612-64. [: German guidelines 2005]
IDSA 2000
  • Infectious Dieseases Society of America. Practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2000;31:347-82.
IDSA 2003
  • Infectious Dieseases Society of America. Update of practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2003;37:1405-33.
Jokinen 1993
  • Jokinen C, Heiskanen L, Juvonen H, et al. Incidence off community-acquired pneumonia in the population of four municipalities in eastern Finland. Am J Epidemiol 1993;137:977-88.
JRS 2005
  • Committee for The Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines for the management of respiratory infections. Guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults, revised edition. Respirology 2006;11(Suppl 3):79-133.
Lefebvre 2008
  • Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J. Chapter 6: Searching for studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S editor(s). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.
Loeb 2002
Macfarlane 1984
  • Macfarlane JT, Miller AC, Smith WHR, et al. Comparative radiographic features of community-acquired legionnaires' disease, pneumococcal pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia and psittacosis. Thorax 1984;39:28-33.
Maimon 2008
Mandell 2007
  • Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007;44(Suppl 2):S27-72.
Memish 2007
  • Memish ZA, Arabi YM, Ahmed QA, Shibl AM, Niederman MS, GCC CAP Working Group. Executive summary of the Gulf Cooperation Council practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia. Journal of Chemotherapy 2007;19(Suppl 1):7-11. [: Memish 2007]
Robenshtok 2008
SATS 2007
  • Working Group of the South African Thoracic Society. Management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. South African Medical Journal 2007;97(12 Pt 2):1296-306.
Strålin 2007
  • Strålin K, Goscinski G, Hedlund J, Lidman C, Spindler C, Ortqvist A, et al. Management of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Evidence-based guidelines from the Swedish Infectious Diseases Association [Handläggning av samhälls-förvärvad pneumoni hos vuxna. Evidensbaserade riktlinjer från Svenska infektionsläkarföreningen. (Abridged version of the 2007 update; http://www.infektion.net/klinik/lunga/pneumoni/Vardprogram_Pneumoni_slutvers_2007.pdf (in Swedish). (Accessed March 23rd, 2009)]. Lakartidningen 2008;105(38):2582-7.
Torres 1991
Woodhead 1987
  • Woodhead MA, Macfarlane JT, McCracken JS, et al. Prospective study of the aetiology and outcome of pneumonia in the community. Lancet 1987;i:671-4.
Woodhead 2005

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Bjerre 2004
  • Bjerre LM, Verheij TJ, Kochen MM. Antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002109.pub2]