Intervention Review

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Dietary advice for reducing cardiovascular risk

  1. Karen Rees1,
  2. Mariana Dyakova1,
  3. Nicola Wilson1,
  4. Kirsten Ward2,
  5. Margaret Thorogood3,
  6. Eric Brunner4,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Heart Group

Published Online: 6 DEC 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 27 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002128.pub5


How to Cite

Rees K, Dyakova M, Wilson N, Ward K, Thorogood M, Brunner E. Dietary advice for reducing cardiovascular risk. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD002128. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002128.pub5.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Division of Health Sciences, Coventry, UK

  2. 2

    King's College London, Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology, London, UK

  3. 3

    Division of Health Sciences, Public Health and Epidemiology, Coventry, UK

  4. 4

    University College London Medical School, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London, UK

*Eric Brunner, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London Medical School, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. e.brunner@ucl.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 6 DEC 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Ammerman 2003 {published data only}
  • Ammerman AS, Keyserling TC, Atwood JR, Hosking JD, Zayed H, Krasny C. A randomized controlled trial of a public health nurse directed treatment program for rural patients with high blood cholesterol. Preventive Medicine 2003;36:340-51.
  • Keyserling TC, Ammerman AS, Atwood JR, Hosking JD, Krasny C, Zayed H, Worthy BH. A cholesterol intervention program for public health nurses in the rural southeast: description of the intervention, study design, and baseline results. Public Health Nursing 1999;16(3):156-67.
Anderson high fibre {published data only}
  • Anderson JW, Garrity TF, Wood CL, Whitis SE, Smith BM, Oeltgen PR. Prospective, randomized, controlled comparison of the effects of low-fat and low-fat plus high-fiber diets on serum lipid concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992;56(5):887-94.
Anderson low fibre {published data only}
  • Anderson JW, Garrity TF, Wood CL, Whitis SE, Smith BM, Oeltgen PR. Prospective, randomized, controlled comparison of the effects of low-fat and low-fat plus high-fiber diets on serum lipid concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992;56(5):887-94.
Anderssen 2007 {published and unpublished data}
Baron men 1990 {published data only}
  • Baron JA, Gleason R, Crowe B, Mann JI. Preliminary trial of the effect of general practice based nutritional advice. British Journal of General Practice 1990;40(333):137-41.
Baron women 1990 {published data only}
  • Baron JA, Gleason R, Crowe B, Mann JI. Preliminary trial of the effect of general practice based nutritional advice. British Journal of General Practice 1990;40(333):137-41.
Beckman 1995 {published data only}
  • Beckmann SL, Os I, Kjeldsen SE, Eide IK, Westheim AS, Hjermann I. Effect of dietary counselling on blood pressure and arterial plasma catecholamines in primary hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension 1995;8(7):704-11.
Beresford 1997 {published data only}
  • Beresford SAA, Curry SJ, Kristal AR, Lazovich D, Feng Z, Wagner EH. A dietary intervention in primary care practice: the eating patterns study. American Journal of Public Health 1997;87(4):610-6.
Beresford 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Beresford SA, Johnson KC, Ritenbaugh C, Lasser NL, Snetselaar LG, Black HR, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA 2006;295(6):643-54.
Bloemberg 1991 {published data only}
  • Bloemberg BPM, Kromhout D, Goddijn HE, Jansen A, Obermann-deBoer GL. The impact of the guidelines for a healthy diet of the Netherlands Nutrition Council on total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic free-living men. American Journal of Epidemiology 1991;134(1):39-48.
Bowen 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bowen DJ, Beresford SA, Christensen CL, Kuniyuki AA, McLerran D, Feng Z, et al. Effects of a multilevel dietary intervention in religious organizations. American Journal of Health Promotion 2009;24(1):15-22.
  • Bowen DJ, Beresford SA, Vu T, Feng Z, Tinker L, Hart A, Jr, et al. Baseline data and design for a randomized intervention study of dietary change in religious organizations. Preventive Medicine 2004;39(3):602-11.
  • Hart A, Bowen DJ, Christensen CL, Mafune R, Campbell MK, Saleeba A, et al. Process evaluation results from the Eating for a Healthy Life study. American Journal of Health Promotion 2009;231(5):324-7.
Brekke 2005 {published data only}
  • Brekke HK, Jansson PA, Lenner RA. Long-term (1- and 2-year) effects of lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes relatives. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice 2005 Dec;70(3):225-34.
  • Brekke HK, Jansson PA, Månsson JE, Lenner RA. Lifestyle changes can be achieved through counseling and follow-up in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2003;103(7):835-43.
  • Brekke HK, Lenner RA, Taskinen MR, Mansson JE, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y, et al. Lifestyle modification improves risk factors in type 2 diabetes relatives. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice 2005 Apr;68(1):18-28.
Buller 1999 {published data only}
  • Buller DB, Morrill C, Taren D, Aickin M, Sennott-Miller L, Buller MK, et al. Randomized trial testing the effect of peer education at increasing fruit and vegetable intake. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1999;91(17):1491-500.
Cheng 2004 {published data only}
Coates WHT MP 1999 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bowen D, Clifford CK, Coates R, Evans M, Fenf Z, Fouad M, et al. The women's health trial feasibility study in minority populations: design and baseline descriptions. Annals of Epidemiology 1996;6:507-19.
  • Coates RJ, Bowen DJ, Kristal AR, Feng Z, Oberman A, Hall WD, et al. The women's health trial feasibility study in minority populations: changes in dietary intakes. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999;149(12):1104-12.
Cox 1996 {published data only}
  • Cox RH, Gonzales-Vigilar MCRV, Novascone MA, Silva-Barbeau I. Impact of cancer intervention on diet related cardiovascular disease risks of white and African-American EFNEP clients. Journal of Nutrition Education 1996;28:209-18.
Djuric combination {published and unpublished data}
  • Djuric Z, Ren J, Mekhovich O, Venkatranamoorthy R, Heilbrun LK. Effects of high fruit-vegetable and/or low-fat intervention on plasma micronutrient levels. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2006;25(3):178-87.
  • Radakovich K, Heilbrun LK, Venkatranamamoorthy R, Lababidi S, Klurfeld DM, Djuric Z. Women participating in a dietary intervention trial maintain dietary changes without much effect on household members. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;55(1):44-52.
Djuric high F&V {published and unpublished data}
  • Djuric Z, Ren J, Mekhovich O, Venkatranamoorthy R, Heilbrun LK. Effects of high fruit-vegetable and/or low-fat intervention on plasma micronutrient levels. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2006 Jun;25(3):178-87.
  • Radakovich K, Heilbrun LK, Venkatranamamoorthy R, Lababidi S, Klurfeld DM, Djuric Z. Women participating in a dietary intervention trial maintain dietary changes without much effect on household members. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;55(1):44-52.
Elder promotora {published data only}
  • Elder JP, Ayala GX, Campbell NR, Arredondo EM, Slymen DJ, Baquero B, et al. Long-term effects of a communication intervention for Spanish-dominant Latinas. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2006 Aug;31(2):159-66.
Elder tailored {published data only}
  • Elder JP, Ayala GX, Campbell NR, Arredondo EM, Slymen DJ, Baquero B, et al. Long-term effects of a communication intervention for Spanish-dominant latinas. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2006 Aug;31(2):159-66.
ENCORE {published and unpublished data}
  • Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Hinderliter A, Watkins LL, Craighead L, Lin PH, et al. Effects of the DASH diet alone and in combination with exercise and weight loss on blood pressure and cardiovascular biomarkers in men and women with high blood pressure: the ENCORE study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2010;170(2):126-35.
  • Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Sherwood A, Craighead L, Lin PH, Johnson J, et al. Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet alone and in combination with exercise and caloric restriction on insulin sensitivity and lipids. Hypertension 2010;55(5):1199-205.
Fuemmeler 2006 {published data only}
  • Fuemmeler BF, Masse LC, Yaroch AL, Resnicow K, Campbell MK, Carr C, et al. Psychosocial mediation of fruit and vegetable consumption in the body and soul effectiveness trial. Health Psychology 2006;25(4):474-83.
Gann 2003 {published data only}
  • Gann PH, Chatterton RT, Gapstur SM, Liu K, Garside D, Giovanazzi S, et al. The effects of a low-fat/high-fiber diet on sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling in premenopausal women: a 12-month randomized trial (the diet and hormone study). Cancer 2003;98:1870-9.
Havas 1998 {published data only}
Hellenius 1993 {published data only}
  • Hellenius ML, de Faire U, Berglund B, Hamsten A, Krakau I. Diet and exercise are equally effective in reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. Results from a randomised controlled study in men with slightly to moderately raised cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis 1993;103:81-91.
Henderson WHTV 1990 {published data only}
  • Gorbach SL, Morrill-LaBrode A, Woods MN, Dwyer JT, Selles WD, Henderson M, et al. Changes in food patterns during a low-fat dietary intervention in women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1990;90(6):802-9.
  • Henderson MM, Kushi LH, Thompson DJ, Gorbach SL, Clifford CK, Insull WJ, et al. Feasibility of a randomized trial of a low-fat diet for the prevention of breast cancer: dietary compliance in the Women's Health Trial Vanguard Study. Preventive Medicine 1990;19(2):115-33.
  • Insull W, Henderson MM, Prentice RL, Thompson DJ, Clifford C, Goldman S, et al. Results of a randomized feasibility study of a low-fat diet. Archives of Internal Medicine 1990;150(2):421-7.
John 2002 {published data only}
  • John JH, Ziebland S, Yudkin P, Roe LS, Neil HA. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;359(9322):1969-74.
Keyserling 1997 {published data only}
  • Keyserling TC, Ammerman AS, Davis CE, Mok MC, Garrett J, Simpson R. A randomized controlled trial of a physician-directed treatment program for low-income patients with high blood cholesterol: The Southeast Cholesterol Project. Archives of Family Medicine 1997;6(2):135-45.
Koopman 1990 {published data only}
  • Koopman H, Spreeuwenberg C, Westerman RF, Donker AJM. Dietary treatment of patients with mild to moderate hypertension in a general practice: a pilot intervention study (1). The first three months. Journal of Human Hypertension 1990;4(4):368-71.
Kristal 2000 {published data only}
  • Kristal AR, Curry SJ, Shattuck AL, Feng Z, Li S. A randomized trial of a tailored, self-help dietary intervention: The Puget Sound Eating Patterns Study. Preventive Medicine 2000;31(4):380-9.
Lanza men 2001 {published data only}
  • Lanza E, Schatzkin A, Daston C, Corle D, Freedman L, Ballard-Barbash R, et al. Implementation of a 4-y, high-fiber, high-fruit-and-vegetable, low-fat dietary intervention: results of dietary changes in the Polyp Prevention Trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74(3):387-401.
  • Schatzkin A, Lanza E, Corle D, Lance P, Iber F, Caan B, et al. Lack of effect of a low-fat, high-fiber diet on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;342(16):1149-55.
Lanza women 2001 {published data only}
  • Lanza E, Schatzkin A, Daston C, Corle D, Freedman L, Ballard-Barbash R, et al. Implementation of a 4-y, high-fiber, high-fruit-and-vegetable, low-fat dietary intervention: results of dietary changes in the Polyp Prevention Trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74(3):387-401.
  • Schatzkin A, Lanza E, Corle D, Lance P, Iber F, Caan B, et al. Lack of effect of a low-fat, high-fiber diet on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;342(16):1149-55.
Little 2004 {published data only}
  • Little P, Kelly J, Barnett J, Dorward M, Margetts B, Warm D. Randomised controlled factorial trial of dietary advice for patients with a single high blood pressure reading in primary care. BMJ 2004;328(7447):1054.
Lutz non-tailored {published data only}
  • Lutz SF, Ammerman AS, Atwood JR, Campbell MK, DeVellis RF, Rosamond WD. Innovative newsletter interventions improve fruit and vegetable consumption in healthy adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999;99(6):705-9.
Lutz tailored&goals {published data only}
  • Lutz SF, Ammerman AS, Atwood JR, Campbell MK, DeVellis RF, Rosamond WD. Innovative newsletter interventions improve fruit and vegetable consumption in healthy adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999;99(6):705-9.
Lutz tailored 1999 {published data only}
  • Lutz SF, Ammerman AS, Atwood JR, Campbell MK, DeVellis RF, Rosamond WD. Innovative newsletter interventions improve fruit and vegetable consumption in healthy adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999;99(6):705-9.
Maskarinec 1999 {published data only}
  • Maskarinec G, Chan CL, Meng L, Franke AA, Cooney RV. Exploring the feasibility and effects of a high-fruit and -vegetable diet in healthy women. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 1999;8(10):919-24.
Moy 2001 {published data only}
  • Moy TF, Yanek LR, Raquen˜o JV, Bezirdjian PJ, Blumenthal RS, Wilder LB, et al. Dietary counseling for high blood cholesterol in families at risk of coronary disease. Preventive Cardiology 2001;4(4):158-64.
Neil dietitian1995 {published data only}
  • Neil HAW, Roe L, Godlee RJP, Moore JW, Clark GMG, Brown J, et al. Randomised trial of lipid lowering dietary advice in general practice:the effects on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and antioxidants. BMJ 1995;310:569-73.
Neil nurse 1995 {published data only}
  • Neil HAW, Roe L, Godlee RJP, Moore JW, Clark GMG, Brown J, et al. Randomised trial of lipid lowering dietary advice in general practice:the effects on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and antioxidants. BMJ 1995;310:569-73.
Riddell 2000 {published data only}
  • Riddell LJ, Chisholm A, Williams S, Mann JI. Dietary strategies for lowering homocysteine concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;71(6):1448-54.
Rock 2001 {published data only}
  • Rock CL, Moskowitz A, Huizar B, Saenz CC, Clark JT, Daly TL, et al. High vegetable and fruit diet intervention in premenopausal women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2001;101(10):1167-74.
Sacerdote 2006 {published data only}
  • Sacerdote C, Fiorini L, Rosato R, Audenino M, Valpreda M, Vineis P. Randomized controlled trial: Effect of nutritional counselling in general practice. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006;35(2):409-15.
Schatzkin 2000 {published data only}
  • Schatzkin A, Lanza E, Corle D, Lance P, Iber F, Caan B, et al. The Polyp Prevention Trial Study Group: Lack of effect of a low-fat, high fibre diet on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;342(16):1149-55.
  • Schatzkin A, Lanza E, Freedman LS, Tangrea J, Cooper MR, Marshall JR, et al. The polyp prevention trial I: Rationale, design, recruitment and baseline participant characteristics. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 1996;5:375-83.
Silman 1983 {published data only}
  • Silman AJ, Mitchell P, Locke C, Humpherson P. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a low sodium diet in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. Lancet 1983;28:1179-82.
Smith-Warner 2000 {published data only}
  • Smith-Warner SA, Elmer PJ, Tharp TM, Fosdick L, Randall B, Gross M, et al. Increasing vegetable and fruit intake: Randomized intervention and monitoring in an at-risk population. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2000;9(3):307-17.
Sorensen work+family {published and unpublished data}
  • Sorensen G, Stoddard A, Peterson K, Cohen N, Hunt MK, Stein E, et al. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption through worksites and families in the Treatwell 5-a-day study. American Journal of Public Health 1999;89(1):54-60.
Sorensen worksite {published and unpublished data}
  • Sorensen G, Stoddard A, Peterson K, Cohen N, Hunt MK, Stein E, et al. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption through worksites and families in the Treatwell 5-a-day study. American Journal of Public Health 1999;89(1):54-60.
Stevens 2003 {published data only}
  • Stevens VJ, Glasgow RE, Toobert DJ, Karanja N, Smith KS. One-year results from a brief, computer-assisted intervention to decrease consumption of fat and increase consumption of fruits and vegetables. Preventive Medicine 2003;36(5):594-600.
Takahashi 2006 {published data only}
  • Takahashi Y, Sasaki S, Okubo S, Hayashi M, Tsugane S. Blood pressure change in a free-living population-based dietary modification study in Japan. Journal of Hypertension 2006;24(3):451-8.
  • Takashashi Y, Sasaki S, Takahashi M, Okubo S, Hayashi M, Tsugane S. A population-based intervention trial in a high risk area for stomach cancer and stroke: changes in intakes and related biomarkers. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(5):432-41.
Tilley 1999 {published data only}
  • Tilley BC, Glanz K, Kristal AR, Hirst K, Li S, Vernon SW, et al. Nutrition intervention for high-risk auto workers: results of the Next Step Trial. Preventive Medicine 1999;28(3):284-92.
  • Tilley BC, Vernon SW, Glanz K, Myers R, Sanders K, Lu M, et al. Worksite cancer screening and nutrition intervention for high-risk auto workers: design and baseline findings of the Next Step Trial. Preventive Medicine 1997;26:227-35.
TOHP I {published and unpublished data}
  • Cook NR, Cutler JA, Obarzanek E, Buring JE, Rexrode KM, Kumanyika SK, et al. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). BMJ 2007;334(7599):885-8.
  • Whelton PK, Hebert PR, Cutler JA, Applegate WB, Eberlein KA, Klag MJ, et al. Baseline characteristics of participants in phase 1 of the trials of hypertension prevention. Annals of Epidemiology 1992;2:295-310.
  • Whelton PK, Kumanyika SK, Cook NR, Cutler JA, Borhani NO, Hennekens CH, et al. Efficacy of nonpharmacologic interventions in adults with high-normal blood pressure: results from phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Trials of hypertension prevention collaborative research group. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;65(2 Suppl):652s-60s.
TOHP II {published and unpublished data}
  • Cook NR, Cutler JA, Obarzanek E, Buring JE, Rexrode KM, Kumanyika SK, et al. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). BMJ 2007;334(7599):885-8.
  • Whelton PK, Appel L, Charleston J, Dalcin A, Haythornthwaite J, Rosofsky W, et al. Effects of weight loss and sodium reduction intervention on blood pressure and hypertension incidence in overweight people with high-normal blood pressure. The trials of hypertension prevention, phase II. Archives of Internal Medicine 1997;157(6):657-67.
van der Veen 2002 {published data only}
  • van der Veen J, Bakx C, van den Hoogen H, Verheijden M, van den Bosch W, van Ween C, et al. Stage-matched nutrition guidance for patients at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized intervention study in family practice. Journal of Family Practice 2002;51(9):751-8.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Anderson 2001 {published data only}
  • Anderson JV, Bybee DI, Brown RM, McLean DF, Garcia EM, Breer ML, et al. 5 a day fruit and vegetable intervention improves consumption in a low income population. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2001;101(2):195-202.
Appel 2001 {published data only}
  • Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Easter L, Wilson AC, Folmar S, Lacy CR. Effects of reduced sodium intake on hypertension control in older individuals: results from the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly (TONE). Archives of Internal Medicine 2001;161(5):685-93.
Bhargava 2004 {published data only}
  • Bhargava A, Hays J. Behavioral variables and education are predictors of dietary change in the Women's Health Trial: Feasibility Study in Minority Populations. Preventive Medicine 2004;38(4):442-51.
Boyd 1990 {published data only}
  • Boyd NF, Cousins M, Beaton M, Kriukov V, Lockwood G, Tritchler D. Quantitative changes in dietary fat intake and serum cholesterol in women: results from a randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990;52(3):470-6.
Braeckman 1999 {published and unpublished data}
Burke 2005 {published data only}
  • Burke LE, Dunbar-Jacob J, Orchard TJ, Sereika SM. Improving adherence to a cholesterol-lowering diet: a behavioral intervention study. Patient Education & Counseling 2005;57(1):134-42.
Cappuccio 2006 {published data only}
Chalmers 1986 {published data only}
  • Chalmers J, Morgan T, Doyle A, Dickson B, Hopper J, Mathews J, et al. Australian National Health and Medical Research Council dietary salt study in mild hypertension. Journal of Hypertension. Supplement 1986;4(6):S629-37.
Colombo 2005 {published data only}
  • Colombo C, Muti P, Pala V, Cavalleri A, Venturelli E, Locardi M, et al. Plant-based diet, serum fatty acid profile, and free radicals in postmenopausal women: the diet and androgens (DIANA) randomized trial. International Journal of Biological Markers 2005 Jul;20(3):169-76.
Djuric 2009 {published data only}
  • Djuric Z, Ren J, Blythe J, VanLoon G, Sen A. A Mediterranean dietary intervention in healthy American women changes plasma carotenoids and fatty acids in distinct clusters. Nutrition Research 2009;29(3):156-63.
Due 2008 {published data only}
  • Due A, Larsen TM, Mu H, Hermansen K, Stender S, Astrup A. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: a 6-mo randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;88(5):1232-41.
Eid 2006 {published data only}
Estruch 2006 {published data only}
  • Estruch R, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Corella D, Salas-Salvado J, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Covas MI, et al. Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2006;145(1):1-11.
Fehily 1983 {published data only}
  • Fehily AM, Burr ML, Phillips KM, Deadman NM. The effect of fatty fish on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1983;38(3):349-51.
Fitzgibbon 2004 {published data only}
  • Fitzgibbon ML, Gapstur SM, Knight SJ. Results of Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables: a dietary/breast health randomized clinical trial for Latino women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2004;28(2):95-104.
Fries 2005 {published data only}
  • Fries E, Edinboro P, McClish D, Manion L, Bowen D, Beresford SA, et al. Randomized trial of a low-intensity dietary intervention in rural residents: the Rural Physician Cancer Prevention Project. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2005;28(2):162-8.
Havas 2003 {published data only}
Hellenius 1997 {published data only}
  • Hellenius ML, Krakau I, DeYear FU. Favourable long-term effects from advice on diet and exercise given to healthy men with raised cardiovascular risks. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases 1997;7:293-300.
Henkin 2000 {published data only}
  • Henkin Y, Shai I, Zuk R, Brickner D, Zuilli I, Neumann L, et al. Dietary treatment of hypercholesterolemia: do dietitians do it better? A randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Medicine 2000;109(7):549-55.
HPTR 1990 {published data only}
  • Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. The Hypertension Prevention Trial: three-year effects of dietary changes on blood pressure. Archives of Internal Medicine 1990;150(1):153-62.
Hunt 2001 {published data only}
Hyman 1998 {published data only}
Iso 2002 {published data only}
  • Iso H, Imano H, Nakagawa Y, Kiyama M, Kitamura A, Sato S, et al. One-year community-based education program for hypercholesterolemia in middle-aged Japanese: a long-term outcome at 8-year follow-up. Atherosclerosis 2002;164(1):195-202.
Korhonen 2003 {published data only}
  • Korhonen M, Kastarinen M, Uusitupa M, Puska P, Nissinen A. The effect of intensified diet counseling on the diet of hypertensive subjects in primary health care: a 2-year open randomized controlled trial of lifestyle intervention against hypertension in eastern Finland. Preventive Medicine 2003;36(1):8-16.
Larsen 2010 {published data only}
  • Larsen TM, Dalskov S, van Baak M, Jebb S, Kafatos A, Pfeiffer A, et al. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (Diogenes) Dietary Study in eight European countries - a comprehensive design for long-term intervention. Obesity Reviews 2010;11(1):76-91.
  • Larsen TM, Dalskov S-M, van Baak M, Jebb SA, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer AFH, et al. for the Diet, Obesity, and Genes (Diogenes) Project. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. New England Journal of Medicine 2010;363:2102-13.
Leduc 1994 {published data only}
  • Leduc CP, Cherniak D, Faucher J. Effectiveness of a group dietary intervention on hypercholesterolemia: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Atherosclerosis 1994;109(1-2):149.
Marcus 2001 {published data only}
  • Marcus AC, Heimendinger J, Wolfe P, Fairclough D, Rimer BK, Morra M, et al. A randomized trial of a brief intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake: a replication study among callers to the CIS. Preventive Medicine 2001;33(3):204-16.
Martin 2006 {published data only}
  • Martin LJ, Greenberg CV, Kriukov V, Minkin S, Jenkins DJ, Boyd NF. Intervention with a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet does not influence the timing of menopause. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006 Oct;84(4):920-8.
Ni Mhurchu 1998 {published data only}
  • Ni Mhurchu C, Margetts BM, Speller V. Randomised clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of two dietary interventions for patients with hyperlipidaemia. Clinical Science 1998;95:479-87.
Ockene 1999 {published data only}
  • Ockene IS, Hebert JR, Ockene JK, Saperia GM, Stanek E, Nicolosi R, et al. Effect of physician-delivered nutrition counseling training and an office-support program on saturated fat intake, weight, and serum lipid measurements in a hyperlipidemic population: Worcester Area Trial for Counseling in Hyperlipidemia (WATCH). Archives of Internal Medicine 1999;159(7):725-31.
Resnicow 2001 {published data only}
  • Resnicow K, Jackson A, Wang T, De AK, McCarty F, Dudley WN, et al. A motivational interviewing intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake through Black churches: results of the Eat for Life trial. American Journal of Public Health 2001;91(10):1686-93.
Richards 2006 {published data only}
  • Richards A, Kattelmann KK, Ren C. Motivating 18- to 24-year-olds to increase their fruit and vegetable consumption. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2006;106(9):1405-11.
Sartorelli 2005 {published data only}
  • Sartorelli DS, Sciarra EC, Franco LJ, Cardoso MA. Beneficial effects of short-term nutritional counselling at the primary health-care level among Brazilian adults. Public Health Nutrition 2005;8(7):820-5.
Simon 1997 {published data only}
  • Simon MS, Heilbrun LK, Boomer-Allison, Kresge C, Depper J, Kim PN, et al. A randomized trial of a low-fat dietary intervention in women at high risk for breast cancer. Nutrition and Cancer 1997;27(2):136-42.
Smith 1997 {published data only}
  • Smith AM, Owen N, Baghurst KI. Influence of socioeconomic status on the effectiveness of dietary counselling in healthy volunteers. Journal of Nutrition Education 1997;29(1):27-35.
Sorensen 1992 {published data only}
  • Sorensen G, Morris DM, Hunt MK, Hebert JR, Harris DR, Stoddard A, et al. Work-site nutrition intervention and employees' dietary habits: the Treatwell program. American Journal of Public Health 1992;82(6):877-80.
Torjesen 1997 {published data only}
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WHI 2006 {published data only}
  • Beresford SA, Johnson KC, Ritenbaugh C, Lasser NL, Snetselaar LG, Black HR, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA 2006;295(6):643-54.
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Willaing 2004 {published data only}
  • Willaing I, Ladelund S, Jorgensen T, Simonsen T, Nielsen LM. Nutritional counselling in primary health care: a randomized comparison of an intervention by general practitioner or dietician. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation 2004;11(6):513-20.
Williams-Piehota {published data only}
  • Williams-Piehota P, Pizarro J, Navarro Silvera SA, Mowad L, Salovey P. Need for cognition and message complexity in motivating fruit and vegetable intake among callers to the cancer information service. Health Communication 2006;19(1):75-84.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
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