Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockers during percutaneous coronary intervention and as the initial medical treatment of non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

  1. Xavier Bosch1,*,
  2. Jaume Marrugat2,
  3. Juan Sanchis3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Heart Group

Published Online: 8 NOV 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 9 MAY 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002130.pub4


How to Cite

Bosch X, Marrugat J, Sanchis J. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockers during percutaneous coronary intervention and as the initial medical treatment of non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD002130. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002130.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Department of Cardiology, Barcelona, Spain

  2. 2

    Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Program of Research in Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Disorders (RICAD) Institut, Barcelona, Spain

  3. 3

    Hospital Clinic, Department of Medicine, University of Valencia, Cardiology Department, Valencia, Spain

*Xavier Bosch, Department of Cardiology, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Villarroel 170, Barcelona, 08036, Spain. xbosch@clinic.ub.es. xbosch@clinic.ub.es.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 8 NOV 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
3T/2R 2009 {published data only}
  • Valgimigli M, Campo G, de Cesare N, Meliga E, Vranckx P, Furgieri A, et al. Intensifying platelet inhibition with tirofiban in poor responders to aspirin, clopidogrel, or both agents undergoing elective coronary intervention: results from the double-blind, prospective, randomized Tailoring Treatment with Tirofiban in Patients Showing Resistance to Aspirin and/or Resistance to Clopidogrel study. Circulation 2009;119(25):3215-22.
  • Valgimigli M, Campo G, de Cesare N, Vranckx P, Hamon M, Angiolillo DJ, et al. Tailoring treatment with tirofiban in patients showing resistance to aspirin and/or resistance to clopidogrel (3T/2R). Rationale for the study and protocol design. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 2008;22(4):313-20.
ACE 2003 {published data only}
  • Antoniucci D, Migliorini A, Parodi G, Valenti R, Rodriguez A, Hempel A, et al. Abciximab-supported infarct artery stent implantation for acute myocardial infarction and long-term survival: a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial comparing infarct artery stenting plus abciximab with stenting alone. Circulation 2004;109(14):1704-6.
  • Antoniucci D, Rodriguez A, Hempel A, Valenti R, Migliorini A, Vigo F, et al. A randomized trial comparing primary infarct artery stenting with or without abciximab in acute myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2003;42:1879-85.
ADMIRAL 2001 {published data only}
  • Montalescot G. The ADMIRAL study: abciximab with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stent in acute myocardial infarction. American Heart Journal 1999;138:178-9.
  • Montalescot G. Three-year duration of benefit from abciximab in patients receiving stents for acute myocardial infarction in the randomized double-blind ADMIRAL study. European Heart Journal 2005;26:2520-3.
  • Montalescot G, Barragan P, Wittemberg O, Ecollan P, Elhadad S, Villain P, et al. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition with coronary stenting for acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 2001;344(25):1895-903.
ADVANCE 2004 {published data only}
  • Valgimigli M, Percoco G, Barbieri D, Ferrari F, Guardigli G, Parrinello G, et al. The additive value of tirofiban administered with the high-dose bolus in the prevention of ischemic complications during high-risk coronary angioplasty: the ADVANCE Trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2004;44(1):14-9.
ASIAD 2005 {published data only}
  • Chen WH, Kaul U, Leung SK, Lau YK, Tan HC, Leung AW, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of abciximab for prevention of in-stent restenosis in diabetic patients after coronary stenting: results of the ASIAD (Abciximab in Stenting Inhibits restenosis Among Diabetics) Trial. Journal of Invasive Cardiology 2005;17(10):534-8.
ASSIST 2009 {published data only}
  • Le May MR, Wells GA, Glover CA, So DY, Froeschl M, Marquis JF, et al. Primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty with and without eptifibatide in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a safety and efficacy study of integrilin-facilitated versus primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (ASSIST). Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions 2009;2:330-8.
Bhattacharya 2010 {published data only}
  • Bhattacharya R, Pani A, Dutta D, Basak S, Gangopadhyay S, Das Baksi S, et al. Randomised controlled trial evaluating the role of tirofiban in high-risk non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: an East Indian perspective. Singapore Medical Journal 2010;51(7):558-64.
BRAVE-3 2009 {published data only}
  • Mehilli J, Kastrati A, Schulz S, Früngel S, Nekolla SG, Moshage W, et al. Abciximab in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention after clopidogrel loading: a randomized double-blind trial. Circulation 2009;119(14):1933-40.
  • Schulz S, Birkmeier KA, Ndrepepa G, Moshage W, Dotzer F, Huber K, et al. One-year clinical outcomes with abciximab in acute myocardial infarction: results of the BRAVE-3 randomized trial. Clinical Research in Cardiology 2010;99:795-802.
CADILLAC 2002 {published data only}
  • Stone G, Grines CL, Cox DA, García E, Tcheng JE, Griffin JJ, et al. Comparison of angioplasty with stenting, with or without abciximab, in acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 2002;346(13):957-66.
  • Tcheng JE, Kandzari DE, Grines CL, Cox DA, Effron MB, Garcia E, et al. Benefits and risks of abciximab use in primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction: the Controlled Abciximab and Device Investigation to Lower Late Angioplasty Complications (CADILLAC) trial. Circulation 2003;108(11):1316-23.
CANADIAN 1996 {published data only}
  • Theroux P, Kouz S, Roy L, Knudtson ML, Diodati JG, Marquis JF, et al. Platelet membrane receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonism in unstable angina. The Canadian Lamifiban Study. Circulation 1996;94(5):899-905.
CAPTURE 1997 {published data only}
  • Simoons ML, Rutsch W, Vahanian A, Adgey J, Maseri A, Vassanelli C, et al. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of abciximab before and during coronary intervention in refractory unstable angina: The CAPTURE study. Lancet 1997;349(9063):1429-35.
Chen 2000 {published data only}
  • Chen YH, Chen JW, Wu TC, Ding PY, Wang SP, Chang MS. Safety and efficacy of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab in Chinese patients undergoing high-risk angioplasty. Chinese Medical Journal (Taipei) 2000;63(1):8-15.
Claeys 2005 {published data only}
  • Claeys MJ, Van Der Planken MG, Bosmans JM, Michiels JJ, Vertessen F, Van Der GP, et al. Does pre-treatment with aspirin and loading dose clopidogrel obviate the need for glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists during elective coronary stenting? A focus on peri-procedural myonecrosis. European Heart Journal 2005;26(6):567-75.
CLEAR PLATELETS-2 2009 {published data only}
  • Gurbel PA, Bliden KP, Saucedo JF, Suarez TA, DiChiara J, Antonino MJ, et al. Bivalirudin and clopidogrel with and without eptifibatide for elective stenting: effects on platelet function, thrombelastographic indexes, and their relation to periprocedural infarction results of the CLEAR PLATELETS-2 (Clopidogrel with Eptifibatide to Arrest the Reactivity of Platelets) study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2009;53(8):648-57.
Cuisset 2008 {published data only}
  • Cuisset T, Frere C, Quilici J, Morange PE, Mouret JP, Bali L, et al. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors improve outcome after coronary stenting in clopidogrel nonresponders: a prospective, randomized study. [see comment]. JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions 2008;1(6):649-53.
DANTE 2004 {published data only}
  • Chaves AJ, Sousa AG, Mattos LA, Abizaid A, Staico R, Feres F, et al. Volumetric analysis of in-stent intimal hyperplasia in diabetic patients treated with or without abciximab: results of the Diabetes Abciximab steNT Evaluation (DANTE) randomized trial. Circulation 2004;109:861-6.
De Luca 2005 {published data only}
  • De Luca L, De Persio G, Minati M, Iacoboni C, Fedele F. Effects of abciximab and preprocedural glycemic control in diabetic patients undergoing elective coronary stenting. American Heart Journal 2005;149:1135.e11-1135.e18.
De Luca 2008 {published data only}
  • De Luca L, Sardella G, De Persio G, Petrolini A, Fedele F. Impact of abciximab on coronary restenosis in diabetic patients undergoing elective paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Acute Cardiac Care 2008;10:93-9.
ELISA-2 2006 {published data only}
  • Rasoul S, Ottervanger JP, de Boer M, Miedema K, Hoorntje JCA, Gosselink M, et al. A comparison of dual vs. triple antiplatelet therapy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: results of the ELISA-2 trial. European Heart Journal 2006;27:1401-7.
EPIC 1994 {published data only}
  • The EPIC investigators. Use of a monoclonal antibody directed against the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor in high-risk coronary angioplasty. New England Journal of Medicine 1994;330(14):956-61.
  • Topol EJ, Califf RM, Weisman HF, Ellis SG, Tcheng JE, Worley S, et al. Randomised trial of coronary intervention with antibody against platelet IIb/IIIa integrin for reduction of clinical restenosis: results at six months. The EPIC Investigators. Lancet 1994;343(8902):881-6.
  • Topol EJ, Ferguson JJ, Weisman HF, Tcheng JE, Ellis SG, Kleiman NS, et al. Long-term protection from myocardial ischemic events in a randomized trial of brief integrin beta3 blockade with percutaneous coronary intervention. EPIC Investigator Group. Evaluation of Platelet IIb/IIIa Inhibition for Prevention of Ischemic Complication. JAMA 1997;278:479-84.
EPILOG 1997 {published data only}
  • Lincoff AM, Tcheng JE, Califf RM, Kereiakes DJ, Kelly TA, Timmis GC, et al. Sustained suppression of ischemic complications of coronary intervention by platelet GP IIb/IIIa blockade with abciximab: one-year outcome in the EPILOG trial. Evaluation in PTCA to Improve Long-term Outcome with abciximab GP IIb/IIIa blockade. Circulation 1999;99:1951-8.
  • Topol EJ, Califf RM, Lincoff AM, Tcheng JE, Cabot CF, Weisman HF, et al. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade and low-dose heparin during percutaneous coronary revascularization. The EPILOG Investigators. New England Journal of Medicine 1997;336(24):1689-96.
EPISTENT 1998 {published data only}
  • Lincoff AM, Califf RM, Moliterno DJ, Ellis SG, Ducas J, Kramer JH, et al. Complementary clinical benefits of coronary-artery stenting and blockade of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors. Evaluation of Platelet IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Stenting Investigators. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;341(5):319-27.
  • Topol EJ, Lincoff AM, Califf RM, Tcheng JE, Cohen EA, Kleiman NS, et al. Randomised placebo-controlled and balloon-angioplasty-controlled trial to assess safety of coronary stenting with use of platelet glycoprotein-IIb/IIIa blockade. The EPISTENT Investigators. Evaluation of Platelet IIb/IIIa Inhibitor for Stenting. Lancet 1998;352(9122):87-92.
  • Topol EJ, Mark DB, Lincoff AM, Cohen E, Burton J, Kleiman N, et al. Outcomes at 1 year and economic implications of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade in patients undergoing coronary stenting: results from a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet 1999;354(9195):2019-24.
ERASER 1999 {published data only}
ESPRIT 2000 {published data only}
  • O'Shea JC, Buller CE, Cantor WJ, Chandler AB, Cohen EA, Cohen DJ, et al. Long-term efficacy of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade with eptifibatide in coronary stent intervention. JAMA 2002;287(5):618-21.
  • O'Shea JE, Hafley GE, Greenberg S, Hasselblad V, Lorenz TJ, Kit MM, et al. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade with eptifibatide in coronary stent intervention. The ESPRIT trial: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;285(19):2468-73.
  • Tcheng JE. Novel dosing regimen of eptifibatide in planned coronary stent implantation (ESPRIT): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2000;356(9247):2037-44.
Fu 2008 {published data only}
  • Fu XH, Hao QQ, Jia XW, Fan WZ, Gu XS, Wu WL, et al. Effect of tirofiban plus clopidogrel and aspirin on primary percutaneous coronary intervention via transradial approach in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Chinese Medical Journal 2008;121(6):522-7.
Galassi 1999 {published data only}
  • Galassi AR, Russo G, Nicosia A, Tamburino C, Foti R, Rodi G, et al. Usefulness of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in coronary stenting for reconstruction of complex lesions: procedural and 30 day outcome. Cardiologia 1999;44(7):639-45.
Gasior 2003 {published data only}
  • Gasior M, Piegza J, Dziobek B, Wasilewski J, Lekston A, Zebik T, et al. Stenting in chronic total occlusion of left anterior descending artery. Randomised comparison of the impact of adjunctive abciximab therapy on immediate and long-term results [Angioplastyka przewleklego zamkniêcia galêzimiêdzykomorowej przedniej z uzyciem stentu. Badanie porównawcze oceniajace wplyw zastosowania abciximabu na wyniki wczesne i odlegle]. Folia Cardiologica 2003;10(3):279-87.
GUSTO-IV 2001 {published data only}
  • Ottervanger JP, Armstrong P, Barnathan ES, Boersma E, Cooper JS, Ohman EM, et al. Long-term results after the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab in unstable angina: one-year survival in the GUSTO IV-ACS (Global Use of Strategies To Open Occluded Coronary Arteries IV--Acute Coronary Syndrome) Trial. Circulation 2003;107(3):437-42.
  • Simoons ML, The GUSTO IV-ACS Investigators. Effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blocker abciximab on outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes without early coronary revascularization: the GUSTO IV-ACS randomised trial. Lancet 2001;357(9272):1915-24.
IMPACT 1995 {published data only}
  • Tcheng JE, Harrington RA, Kottke-Marchant K, Kleiman NS, Ellis SG, Kereiakes DJ, et al. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the platelet integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blocker Integrelin in elective coronary intervention. IMPACT Investigators. Circulation 1995;91(8):2151-7.
IMPACT-II 1997 {published data only}
  • Kleiman NS. Primary and secondary safety endpoints from IMPACT II. Integrilin to Minimize Platelet Aggregation and Coronary Thrombosis. American Journal of Cardiology 1997;80(4A):29B-33B.
  • Tcheng JE, Lincoff AM, Sigmon KN, Lee KL, Kitt MM, Califf RM, et al. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of effect of eptifibatide on complications of percutaneous coronary intervention: IMPACT-II. Lancet 1997;349(9063):1422-8.
INSTANT 2012 {published data only}
  • Biondi-Zoccai G, Valgimigli M, Margheri M, Marzocchi A, Lettieri C, Stabile A, et al. Assessing the role of eptifibatide in patients with diffuse coronary disease undergoing drug-eluting stenting: the INtegrilin plus STenting to Avoid myocardial Necrosis Trial. American Heart Journal 2012;163:835.e1-7.
ISAR-2 2000 {published data only}
  • Neumann FJ, Kastrati A, Schmitt C, Blasini R, Hadamitzky M, Mehilli J, et al. Effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade with abciximab on clinical and angiographic reestenosis after replacement of coronary stent following an acute myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2000;35:915-21.
ISAR-REACT 2004 {published data only}
  • Kastrati A, Mehilli J, Schühlen H, Dirschinger J, Dotzer F, Ten Berg JM, et al. A clinical trial of abciximab in elective percutaneous coronary intervention after pretreatment with clopidogrel. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;350(3):232-8.
  • Schömig A, Schmitt C, Dibra A, Mehilli J, Volmer C, Sxhühlen H, et al. One year outcomes with abciximab vs. placebo during percutaneous coronary intervention after pre-treatment with clopidogrel. European Heart Journal 2005;26:1379-84.
ISAR-REACT 2 2006 {published data only}
  • Kastrati A, Mehilli J, Neumann FJ, Dotzer F, Ten Berg J, Bollwein H, et al. Abciximab in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention after clopidogrel pretreatment. The ISAR-REACT 2 randomized trial. JAMA 2006;295:1531-8.
  • Ndrepepa G, Kastrati A, Mehilli J, Neumann FJ, ten Berg J, Bruskina O, et al. One-year clinical outcomes with abciximab vs. placebo in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention after pre-treatment with clopidogrel: results of the ISAR-REACT 2 randomized trial. European Heart Journal 2008;29:455-61.
ISAR-SMART-2 2004 {published data only}
  • Hausleiter J, Kastrati A, Mehilli J, Schühlen H, Pache J, Dotzer F, et al. A randomized trial comparing phosphorylcholine-coated atenting with balloon angioplasty as well as abciximab with placebo for restenosis reduction in small coronary arteries. Journal of Internal Medicine 2004;256:388-97.
ISAR-SWEET 2004 {published data only}
  • Mehilli J, Kastrati A, Schuhlen H, Dibra A, Dotzer F, von Beckerath N, et al. Randomized clinical trial of abciximab in diabetic patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions after treatment with a high loading dose of clopidogrel. Circulation 2004;110:3627-35.
ITTI 2012 {published data only}
  • Liu CP, Lin MS, Chiu YW, Lee JK, Hsu CN, Hung CS, et al. Additive benefit of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition and adjunctive thrombus aspiration during primary coronary intervention: results of the Initial Thrombosuction and Tirofiban Infusion (ITTI) trial. International Journal of Cardiology 2012;156:174-9.
JEPPORT 2009 {published data only}
  • Nakagawa Y, Nobuyoshi M, Yamaguchi T, Meguro T, Yokoi H, Kimura T, et al. Efficacy of abciximab for patients undergoing balloon angioplasty: data from Japanese evaluation of c7E3 Fab for elective and primary PCI organization in randomized trial (JEPPORT). Circulation Journal : Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society 2009;73(1):145-51.
Juergens 2002 {published data only}
  • Juergens CP, White HD, Belardi JA, Macaya C, Soler-Soler J, Meyer BJ, et al. A multicenter study of the tolerability of tirofiban versus placebo in patients undergoing planned intracoronary stent placement. Clinical Therapeutics 2002;24(8):1332-44.
Kereiakes 1996 {published data only}
  • Kereiakes DJ, Kleiman NS, Ambrose J, Cohen M, Rodriguez S, Palabrica T, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-ranging study of tirofiban (MK-383) platelet IIb/IIIa blockade in high risk patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1996;27(3):536-42.
Kim 2005 {published data only}
  • Kim JH, Jeong MH, Rhew JY, Lim JH, Yun KH, Kim KH, et al. Long-term clinical outcomes of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor combined with low molecular weight heparin in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Circulation Journal 2005;69:159-64.
Kurowski 2005 {published data only}
  • Kurowski V, Toelg R, Jain D, Richter C, Wiegand UKH, Richardt G, et al. Effect of adjunctive treatment with tirofiban on troponin T elevation during stenting of critically stenosed aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts. American Journal of Cardiology 2005;96:681-4.
On-TIME 2 2008 {published data only}
  • van't Hof AW, ten Berg J, Heestermans T, Dill T, Funck RC, van Werkum W, et al. Prehospital initiation of tirofiban in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty (On-TIME 2): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2008;372(9638):537-46.
OPTIMIZE-IT 2009 {published data only}
  • Talarico GP, Brancati M, Burzotta F, Porto I, Trani C, De Vita M, et al. Glycoprotein IIB/IIIA inhibitor to reduce postpercutaneous coronary intervention myonecrosis and improve coronary flow in diabetics: the 'OPTIMIZE-IT' pilot randomized study. Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine (Hagerstown, Md.) 2009;10(3):245-51.
PARAGON A 1998 {published data only}
  • Moliterno DJ. International, randomized, controlled trial of lamifiban (a platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor), heparin, or both in unstable angina. The PARAGON Investigators. Platelet IIb/IIIa Antagonism for the Reduction of Acute coronary syndrome events in a Global Organization Network. Circulation 1998;97(24):2386-95.
PARAGON B 2002 {unpublished data only}
  • Global Organization Network (PARAGON-B) Investigators. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of titrated intravenous lamifiban for acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2002;105(3):316-21.
  • Moliterno DJ. Patient-specific dosing of IIb/IIIa antagonists during acute coronary syndromes: rationale and design of the PARAGON B study. The PARAGON B International Steering Committee. American Heart Journal 2000;139:563-6.
PRACTICE 2007 {published data only}
  • Durand E, Hamm C, Macaya CM, Georges JL, Coste P, Wolf JE, et al. A randomised controlled trial of upstream administration of eptifibatide in patients presenting non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome treated with an invasive strategy. Eurointervention 2007;3(2):228-34.
Prati 2005 {published data only}
  • Prati F, Kwiatkowski P, Caroselli C, Imola F, Manzoli A, Fouad T, et al. Use of abciximab prevents microcirculatory impairment in patients treated with coronary angioplasty for unstable angina: results of a prospective randomized study. Catheterization & Cardiovascular Interventions 2005;66:165-9.
PRIDE 2001 {published data only}
  • Tcheng JE, Talley JD, O'Shea JC, Gilchrist IC, Kleiman NS, Grines CL, et al. Clinical pharmacology of higher dose eptifibatide in percutaneous coronary intervention (The PRIDE Study). American Journal of Cardiology 2001;88:1097-102.
PRISM 1998 {published data only}
  • Bazzino O, Aylward P, Hains A, Slany J, Steinbach K, Van de WF, et al. A comparison of aspirin plus tirofiban with aspirin plus heparin for unstable angina. Platelet Receptor Inhibition in Ischemic Syndrome Management (PRISM) Study Investigators. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;338(21):1498-505.
PRISM Plus 1998 {published data only}
  • Bazzino O, Barrero C, Garre L, Sosa A, Aylward P, Slany J, et al. Inhibition of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor with tirofiban in unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;338(21):1488-97.
PURSUIT 1998 {published data only}
  • Harrington RA. Design and methodology of the PURSUIT trial: evaluating eptifibatide for acute ischemic coronary syndromes. Platelet Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy. American Journal of Cardiology 1997;80:34B-38B.
  • Harrington RA, Lincoff AM, Berdan LG, MacAulay C, Kint PP, Mahaffey KW, et al. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide versus placebo during an acute ischemic coronary event. Circulation. 1998; Vol. 98:I-359.
  • Topol E, Califf R, Simoons M, Diaz R, Paolasso E, Klein W, et al. Inhibition of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa with eptifibatide in patients with acute coronary syndromes. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;339(7):436-43.
RAPPORT 1998 {published data only}
  • Brener SJ, Barr LA, Burchenal JE, Katz S, George BS, Jones AA, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade with primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. ReoPro and Primary PTCA Organization and Randomized Trial (RAPPORT) Investigators. Circulation 1998;98(8):734-41.
RESTORE 1997 {published data only}
  • Gibson CM, Goel M, Cohen DJ, Piana RN, Deckelbaum LI, Harris KE, et al. Six-month angiographic and clinical follow-up of patients prospectively randomized to receive either tirofiban or placebo during angioplasty in the RESTORE trial. Randomized Efficacy Study of Tirofiban for Outcomes and Restenosis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1998;32(1):28-34.
  • Hanrath P, vom DJ, Paulus O, Heyndrickx G, Sosa JA, Muller D, et al. Effects of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade with tirofiban on adverse cardiac events in patients with unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction undergoing coronary angioplasty. The RESTORE Investigators. Randomized Efficacy Study of Tirofiban for Outcomes and REstenosis. Circulation 1997;96(5):1445-53.
Schulman 1996 {published data only}
  • Schulman SP, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ, Topol EJ, Califf RM, Navetta FI, Willerson JT, et al. Effects of integrelin, a platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist, in unstable angina. A randomized multicenter trial. Circulation 1996;94(9):2083-9.
Shen 2008 {published data only}
  • Shen J, Zhang Q, Zhang RY, Zhang JS, Hu J, Yang ZK, et al. Clinical benefits of adjunctive tirofiban therapy in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Coronary Artery Disease 2008;19(4):271-7.
Simoons 1994 {published data only}
  • Simoons ML, de Boer MJ, van Den Brand MJ, van Miltenburg AJ, Hoorntje JC, Heyndrickx GR, et al. Randomized trial of a GPIIb/IIIa platelet receptor blocker in refractory unstable angina. European Cooperative Study Group. Circulation 1994;89(2):596-603.
  • van Den Brand MJ, Simoons ML, de Boer MJ, van Miltenburg A, van der Wieken LR, de Feyter PJ. Antiplatelet therapy in therapy-resistant unstable angina. A pilot study with REO PRO (c7E3). European Heart Journal 1995;16(Suppl L):36-42.
Tamburino 2002 {published data only}
  • Tamburino C, Russo G, Nicosia A, Galassi A, Foti R, Scriffignano V, et al. Prophylactic abciximab in elective coronary stenting: results of a randomized trial. Journal of Invasive Cardiology 2002;14(2):72-9.
TOPSTAR 2002 {published data only}
  • Bonz AW, Lengenfelder B, Strotmann J, Held S, Turschner O, Harre K, et al. Effect of additional temporary glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition on troponin release in elective percutaneous coronary interventions after pretreatment with aspirin and clopidogrel (TOPSTAR Trial). Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2002;40(4):662-8.
  • Lengenfelder B, Stoerk S, Boes L, Strotmann J, Ertl G, Voelker W, et al. Long-term reduction of mortality in the 4-year follow up of tirofiban therapy in elective percutaneous coronary interventions (TOPSTAR) trial. Journal of Invasive Cardiology 2011;23(4):128-32.
Yan 2009 {published data only}
  • Yan Z, Zhou Y, Zhao Y, Li Y, Nie X, Zhou Z, et al. Efficacy and safety of tirofiban in high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Clinical Cardiology 2009;32:E40-4.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
ACUITY 2006 {published data only}
ADVANCE MI 2005 {published data only}
  • Roe MT. Facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results from the prematurely terminated ADdressing the Value of facilitated ANgioplasty after Combination therapy or Eptifibatide monotherapy in acute Myocardial Infarction (ADVANCE MI) trial. American Heart Journal 2005;150(1):116-22.
Alexander 1999 {published data only}
  • Alexander JH, Harrington RA, Tuttle RH, Berdan LG, Lincoff AM, Deckers JW, et al. Prior aspirin use predicts worse outcomes in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. PURSUIT Investigators. Platelet IIb/IIIa in Unstable angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy. American Journal of Cardiology 1999;83(8):1147-51.
Azar 2010 {published data only}
  • Azar RR, Badaoui G, Sarkis A, Kassab R, Salame E, Aboujaoude S, et al. Effect of high bolus dose tirofiban on the inflammatory response following percutaneous coronary intervention. Clinical Cardiology 2010;33:E14-9.
Batyraliev 2009 {published data only}
  • Batyraliev TA, Fettser DV, Vural A, Pershukov IV, Preobrazhenskii DV, Avsar O, et al. Safety and efficacy of the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in the invasive treatment of patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. [Russian]. Kardiologiia 2009;49(6):4-9.
Bellandi 2006 {published data only}
  • Bellandi F, Maioli M, Leoncini M, Toso A, Dabizzi RP. Early abciximab administration in acute myocardial infarction treated with primary coronary intervention. Internal Journal of Cardiology 2006;108:36-42.
Bertrand 2006 {published data only}
  • Bertrand OF, De Larochellière R, Rodés-Cabau J, Proulx G, Gleeton O, Nguyen CM, et al. A randomized study comparing same-day home discharge and abciximab bolus only to overnight hospitalization and abciximab bolus and infusion after transradial coronary stent implantation. Circulation 2006;114(24):2636-43.
  • Bertrand OF, Faurie B, Larose E, Nguyen CM, Gleeton O, Dery JP, et al. Clinical outcomes after multilesion percutaneous coronary intervention: comparison between exclusive and selective use of drug-eluting stents. Journal of Invasive Cardiology 2008;20(3):99-104.
Blankenship 1998 {published data only}
  • Blankenship JC, Hellkamp AS, Aguirre FV, Demko SL, Topol EJ, Califf RM. Vascular access site complications after percutaneous coronary intervention with abciximab in the Evaluation of c7E3 for the Prevention of Ischemic Complications (EPIC) trial. American Journal of Cardiology 1998;81(1):36-40.
BOCHUM 2004 {published data only}
  • Hanefeld C, Sirtl C, Spiecker M, Bojara W, Grewe PH, Lawo T, et al. Prehospital therapy with the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide in patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes: the Bochum feasibility study. Chest 2004;126(3):935-41.
Boehrer 1994 {published data only}
  • Boehrer JD, Kereiakes DJ, Navetta FI, Califf RM, Topol EJ. Effects of profound platelet inhibition with c7E3 before coronary angioplasty on complications of coronary bypass surgery. EPIC Investigators. Evaluation Prevention of Ischemic Complications. American Journal of Cardiology 1994;74(11):1166-70.
Brener 1999 {published data only}
  • Brener SJ, Barr LA, Burchenal JE, Wolski KE, Effron MB, Topol EJ. Effect of abciximab on the pattern of reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty. RAPPORT investigators. ReoPro And Primary PTCA Organization and Randomized Trial. American Journal of Cardiology 1999;84(6):728-30.
Cannon 1998 {published data only}
  • Cannon CP, McCabe CH, Borzak S, Henry TD, Tischler MD, Mueller HS, et al. Randomized trial of an oral platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist, sibrafiban, in patients after an acute coronary syndrome: results of the TIMI 12 trial. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction. Circulation 1998;97(4):340-9.
Claeys 2002 {published data only}
  • Claeys MJ, Van Der Planken MG, Michiels JJ, Vertessen F, Dilling D, Bosmans JM, et al. Comparison of antiplatelet effect of loading dose of clopidogrel versus abciximab during coronary intervention. Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis 2002;13(4):283-8.
CLEAR PLATELETS 1b 2006 {published data only}
  • Gurbel PA, Bliden KP, Tantry US. Effect of clopidogrel with and without eptifibatide on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein release after elective stenting: results from the CLEAR PLATELETS 1b study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2006;48(11):2186-91.
CLOTILDA 2005 {published data only}
  • Leoncini M, Toso A, Maioli M, Bellandi F, Badia T, Politi A, et al. Effects of tirofiban plus clopidogrel versus clopidogrel plus provisional abciximab on biomarkers of myocardial necrosis in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes treated with early aggressive approach. Results of the CLOpidogrel, upstream TIrofiban, in cath Lab Downstream Abciximab (CLOTILDA) study. American Heart Journal 2005;150(3):401.e9-401.e14.
Costantini 2004 {published data only}
  • Costantini CO, Stone GW, Mehran R, Aymong E, Grines CL, Cox DA, et al. Frequency, correlates, and clinical implications of myocardial perfusion after primary angioplasty and stenting, with and without glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition, in acute myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2004;44(2):305-12.
Cutlip 2003 {published data only}
  • Cutlip DE, Ricciardi MJ, Ling FS, Carrozza JP Jr, Dua V, Garringer J, et al. Effect of tirofiban before primary angioplasty on initial coronary flow and early ST-segment resolution in patients with acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology 2003;92(8):977-80.
EARLY-ACS 2009 {published data only}
  • Giugliano RP, White JA, Bode C, Armstrong PW, Montalescot G, Lewis BS, et al. Early versus delayed, provisional eptifibatide in acute coronary syndromes. New England Journal of Medicine 2009;360:2176-90.
ELISA 2003 {published data only}
  • van 't Hof AW, de Vries ST, Dambrink JH, Miedema K, Suryapranata H, Hoorntje JCA, et al. A comparison of two invasive strategies in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: results of the Early or Late Intervention in unStable Angina (ELISA) pilot study. 2b/3a upstream therapy and acute coronary syndromes. European Heart Journal 2003;24(15):1401-5.
Ellis 2008 {published data only}
  • Ellis SG, Tendera M, de Belder MA, Van Boven AJ, Widimsky P, Janssens L, et al. Facilitated PCI in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 2008;358(21):2205-17.
Emre 2006 {published data only}
  • Emre A, Ucer E, Yesilcimen K, Bilsel T, Oz D, Sayar N, et al. Impact of early tirofiban administration on myocardial salvage in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing infarct-related artery stenting. Cardiology 2006;106(4):264-9.
ERAMI 2006 {published data only}
  • Gabriel HM, Oliveira JA, da Silva PC, da Costa JM, da Cunha JA. Early administration of abciximab bolus in the emergency department improves angiographic outcome after primary PCI as assessed by TIMI frame count: results of the early ReoPro administration in myocardial infarction (ERAMI) trial. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 2006;68(2):218-24.
Ercan 2004 {published data only}
  • Ercan E, Tengiz I, Duman C, Onbasili OA, Baris N. Effect of tirofiban on C-reactive protein in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. American Heart Journal 2004;147:E1.
EVEREST 2006 {published data only}
  • Bolognese L, Falsini G, Liistro F, Angioli P, Ducci K, Taddei T, et al. Randomized comparison of upstream tirofiban versus downstream high bolus dose tirofiban or abciximab on tissue-level perfusion and troponin release in high-risk acute coronary syndromes treated with percutaneous coronary interventions: the EVEREST trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2006;47:522-8.
Ghaffari 1998 {published data only}
  • Ghaffari S, Kereiakes DJ, Lincoff AM, Kelly TA, Timmis GC, Kleiman NS, et al. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade with abciximab reduces ischemic complications in patients undergoing directional coronary atherectomy. EPILOG Investigators. Evaluation of PTCA to Improve Long-term Outcome by c7E3 GP IIb/IIIa Receptor Blockade. American Journal of Cardiology 1998;82(1):7-12.
GRAPE 1999 {published data only}
  • van den Merkhof LF, Zijlstra F, Olsson H, Grip L, Veen G, Bar FW, et al. Abciximab in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction eligible for primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Results of the Glycoprotein Receptor Antagonist Patency Evaluation (GRAPE) pilot study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1999;33(6):1528-32.
Gunasekara 2006 {published data only}
  • Gunasekara AP, Walters DL, Aroney CN. Comparison of abciximab with 'high-dose' tirofiban in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. International Journal of Cardiology 2006;109:16-20.
GUSTO V 2001 {published data only}
  • The GUSTO Investigators. Reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction with fibrinolytic therapy or combination reduced fibrinolytic therapy and platelet glycoprotein iib/IIIa inhibition: the GUSTO V randomised trial. Lancet 2001;357:1905-14.
Hamm 1999 {published data only}
  • Hamm CW, Heeschen C, Goldmann B, Vahanian A, Adgey J, Miguel CM, et al. Benefit of abciximab in patients with refractory unstable angina in relation to serum troponin T levels. c7E3 Fab Antiplatelet Therapy in Unstable Refractory Angina (CAPTURE) Study Investigators. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;340(21):1623-9.
Hamza 2011 {published data only}
  • Hamza M. Effect of high loading dose of clopidogrel vs glycoprotein llb/llla receptor antagonist in management of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. EuroIntervention 2011;7:M174.
Hanefeld 2002 {published data only}
  • Hanefeld C, Segbers S, Sirtl C, Lemke B, Mugg A. Pre-hospital therapy of acute coronary syndrome with the glycoprotein-IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist eptifibatide - pilot study Bochum [Prahospitale Therapie des akuten Koronarsyndroms mit dem Glykoprotein-IIb/IIIa-Rezeptor-Antagonisten Eptifibatide - Pilotstudie Bochum]. Zeitschrift Für Kardiologie 2002;91(Suppl 5):V/10.
Heeschen 1999 {published data only}
  • Heeschen C, Hamm CW, Goldmann B, Deu A, Langenbrink L, White HD. Troponin concentrations for stratification of patients with acute coronary syndromes in relation to therapeutic efficacy of tirofiban. PRISM Study Investigators. Platelet Receptor Inhibition in Ischemic Syndrome Management. Lancet 1999;354(9192):1757-62.
HORIZONS-AMI 2008 {published data only}
  • Mehran R, Lansky AJ, Witzenbichler B, Guagliumi G, Peruga JZ, Brodie BR, et al. Bivalirudin in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction (HORIZONS-AMI): 1-year results of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009;374:1149-59.
  • Stone GW, Witzenbichler B, Guagliumi G, Peruga JZ, Brodie BR, Dudek D, et al. Bivalirudin during primary PCI in acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 2008;358(21):2218-30.
IMPACT-AMI 1997 {published data only}
  • Ohman EM, Kleiman NS, Gacioch G, Worley SJ, Navetta FI, Talley JD, et al. Combined accelerated tissue-plasminogen activator and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin receptor blockade with Integrilin in acute myocardial infarction. Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial. IMPACT-AMI Investigators. Circulation 1997;95:846-54.
INTAMI 2005 {published data only}
  • Zeymer U, Zahn R, Schiele R, Jansen W, Girth E, Gitt A, et al. Early eptifibatide improves TIMI 3 patency before primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction: results of the randomized integrilin in acute myocardial infarction (INTAMI) pilot trial. European Heart Journal 2005;26:1971-7.
ISAR-REACT 4 {published data only}
  • Kastrati A, Neumann FJ, Schulz S, Massberg S, Byrne RA, Ferenc M, et al. for the ISAR-REACT 4 Trial Investigators. Abciximab and heparin versus bivalirudin for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 2011;365:1980-9.
Ji 2012 {published data only}
  • Ji ZG, Liu HB. Clinical efficacy and short-term prognosis of tirofiban treatment in different duration combined with percutaneous coronary intervention in acute st segment elevation myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology 2012;1:7S.
Kereiakes 1997 {published data only}
  • Kereiakes DJ, Kleiman N, Ferguson JJ, Runyon JP, Broderick TM, Higby NA, et al. Sustained platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade with oral xemilofiban in 170 patients after coronary stent deployment. Circulation 1997;96(4):1117-21.
Kereiakes 1998a {published data only}
  • Kereiakes DJ, Kleiman NS, Ferguson JJ, Masud AR, Broderick TM, Abbottsmith CW, et al. Pharmacodynamic efficacy, clinical safety, and outcomes after prolonged platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade with oral xemilofiban: results of a multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Circulation 1998;98(13):1268-78.
Kereiakes 1998b {published data only}
  • Kereiakes DJ, Lincoff AM, Miller DP, Tcheng JE, Cabot CF, Anderson KM, et al. Abciximab therapy and unplanned coronary stent deployment: favorable effects on stent use, clinical outcomes, and bleeding complications. EPILOG Trial Investigators. Circulation 1998;97(9):857-64.
Kleiman 1998 {published data only}
  • Kleiman NS, Lincoff AM, Kereiakes DJ, Miller DP, Aguirre FV, Anderson KM, et al. Diabetes mellitus, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade, and heparin: evidence for a complex interaction in a multicenter trial. EPILOG Investigators. Circulation 1998;97(19):1912-20.
Klootwijk 1998 {published data only}
  • Klootwijk P, Meij S, Melkert R, Lenderink T, Simoons ML. Reduction of recurrent ischemia with abciximab during continuous ECG-ischemia monitoring in patients with unstable angina refractory to standard treatment (CAPTURE). Circulation 1998;98(14):1358-64.
Krause 1996 {published data only}
  • Krause M, Rutsch W, Franke O, Langemann C, Dreysse S, Riess H. Fradafiban, a non-peptide GP IIB/IIA antagonist during elective coronary angioplasty: safety and antiplatelet effects. Annals of Hematology 1996;72:A53.
Lefkovits 1996 {published data only}
  • Lefkovits J, Ivanhoe RJ, Califf RM, Bergelson BA, Anderson KM, Stoner GL, et al. Effects of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade by a chimeric monoclonal antibody (abciximab) on acute and six-month outcomes after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. EPIC investigators. American Journal of Cardiology 1996;77(12):1045-51.
Lenderink 2003 {published data only}
  • Lenderink T, Boersma E, Heeschen C, Vahanian A, de Boer MJ, Umans V, et al. Elevated troponin T and C-reactive protein predict impaired outcome for 4 years in patients with refractory unstable angina, and troponin T predicts benefit of treatment with abciximab in combination with PTCA. [see comment]. European Heart Journal 2003;24(1):77-85.
Lincoff 1997 {published data only}
  • Lincoff AM, Califf RM, Anderson KM, Weisman HF, Aguirre FV, Kleiman NS, et al. Evidence for prevention of death and myocardial infarction with platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade by abciximab (c7E3 Fab) among patients with unstable angina undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization. EPIC Investigators. Evaluation of 7E3 in Preventing Ischemic Complications. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1997;30(1):149-56.
Mahaffey 1999 {published data only}
  • Mahaffey KW, Harrington RA, Simoons ML, Granger CB, Graffagnino C, Alberts MJ, et al. Stroke in patients with acute coronary syndromes: incidence and outcomes in the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in unstable angina. Receptor suppression using integrilin therapy (PURSUIT) trial. The PURSUIT Investigators. Circulation 1999;99(18):2371-7.
Mak 1997 {published data only}
  • Mak KH, Challapalli R, Eisenberg MJ, Anderson KM, Califf RM, Topol EJ. Effect of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition on distal embolization during percutaneous revascularization of aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts. EPIC Investigators. Evaluation of IIb/IIIa platelet receptor antagonist 7E3 in Preventing Ischemic Complications. American Journal of Cardiology 1997;80(8):985-8.
McClure 1999 {published data only}
  • McClure MW, Berkowitz SD, Sparapani R, Tuttle R, Kleiman NS, Berdan LG, et al. Clinical significance of thrombocytopenia during a non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in unstable angina: receptor suppression using integrilin therapy (PURSUIT) trial experience. Circulation 1999;99(22):2892-900.
McElwee 1997 {published data only}
  • McElwee NE, Johnson ER. Potential economic impact of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors in improving outcomes of patients with acute ischemic coronary syndromes. American Journal of Cardiology 1997;80(4A):39B-43B.
Miller 1999 {published data only}
  • Miller JM, Smalling R, Ohman EM, Bode C, Betriu A, Kleiman NS, et al. Effectiveness of early coronary angioplasty and abciximab for failed thrombolysis (reteplase or alteplase) during acute myocardial infarction (results from the GUSTO-III trial). Global Use of Strategies To Open occluded coronary arteries. American Journal of Cardiology 1999;84(7):779-84.
Mockel 2005 {published data only}
  • Mockel M, Bocksch W, Strohm S, Kuhnle Y, Vollert J, Nibbe L, et al. Facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: comparison of prehospital tirofiban versus fibrinolysis before direct PCI. International Journal of Cardiology 2005;103:193-200.
Morrow 2001 {published data only}
  • Morrow DA, Cannon CP, Rifai N, Frey MJ, Vicari R, Lakkis N, et al. Ability of minor elevations of troponins I and T to predict benefit from an early invasive strategy in patients with unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction: results from a randomized trial. [see comment]. JAMA 2001;286(19):2405-12.
Muller 1997 {published data only}
  • Muller TH, Weisenberger H, Brickl R, Narjes H, Himmelsbach F, Krause J. Profound and sustained inhibition of platelet aggregation by Fradafiban, a nonpeptide platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist, and its orally active prodrug, Lefradafiban, in men. Circulation 1997;96(4):1130-8.
Murdock 1997 {published data only}
Narins 1999 {published data only}
  • Narins CR, Miller DP, Califf RM, Topol EJ. The relationship between periprocedural myocardial infarction and subsequent target vessel revascularization following percutaneous coronary revascularization: insights from the EPIC trial. Evaluation of IIb/IIIa platelet receptor antagonist 7E3 in Preventing Ischemic Complications. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1999;33(3):647-53.
Neumann 1998 {published data only}
  • Neumann FJ, Blasini R, Schmitt C, Alt E, Dirschinger J, Gawaz M, et al. Effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade on recovery of coronary flow and left ventricular function after the placement of coronary-artery stents in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1998;98(24):2695-701.
Newby 1999 {published data only}
  • Newby LK. Long-term oral platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonism with sibrafiban after acute coronary syndromes: study design of the sibrafiban versus aspirin to yield maximum protection from ischemic heart events post-acute coronary syndromes (SYMPHONY) trial. Symphony Steering Committee. American Heart Journal 1999;138(2 Pt 1):210-8.
Newby 2001 {published data only}
  • Newby LK, Ohman EM, Christenson RH, Moliterno DJ, Harrigton RA, White HD, et al. Benefit of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition in patients with acute coronary syndromes and troponin T-positive status. The PARAGON-B troponin substudy. Circulation 2001;103:2891-6.
Okmen 2004 {published data only}
  • Okmen E, Sanli A, Uyarel H, Dayi S, Tartan Z, Cam N. Effects of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition with tirofiban on minor myocardial damage in angiographically successful percutaneous coronary angioplasty. Cardiology 2004;102:18-23.
Okmen 2006 {published data only}
  • Okmen E, Sanli A, Uyarel H, Dayi S, Tartan Z, Cam N. Impacts of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition on QT dispersion after successful percutaneous coronary intervention. Angiology 2006;57(3):273-81.
On-TIME 2004 {published data only}
  • van't Hof AW, Ernst N, de Boer MJ, de Winter R, Boersma E, Bunt T, et al. Facilitation of primary coronary angioplasty by early start of a glycoprotein 2b/3a inhibitor: results of the ongoing tirofiban in myocardial infarction evaluation (On-TIME) trial. [see comment]. European Heart Journal 2004;25(10):837-46.
PARADIGM 1998 {published data only}
  • Harrington RA, Van de WF, Luyten A, Potkin B, McIntosh-Yellin N, Morgan C, et al. Combining thrombolysis with the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor lamifiban: results of the platelet aggregation receptor antagonist dose investigation and reperfusion gain in myocardial infarction (PARADIGM) trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1998;32(7):2003-10.
PARAGON-B 2001 {published data only}
  • Newby LK, Ohman EM, Christenson RH, Moliterno DJ, Harrigton RA, White HD, et al. Benefit of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition in patients with acute coronary syndromes and troponin T-positive status. The PARAGON-B troponin substudy. Circulation 2001;103:2891-6.
Pels 2008 {published data only}
  • Pels K, Schröder J, Witzenbichler B, Mller D, Morguet A, Pauschinger M, et al. Prehospital versus periprocedural abciximab in ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated by percutaneous coronary intervention. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 2008;15(6):324-9.
Peng 2009 {published data only}
  • Peng JJ, Ma ZM, Ren LH, Ma ZM, Ren LH, Fu GQ, et al. Effect of tirofiban in acute anterior myocardial infarction patients without ST segment resolution after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi 2009;37(8):725-8.
Petronio 2002 {published data only}
  • Petronio AS, Musumeci G, Limbruno U, De Carlo M, Baglini R, Paterni G, et al. Abciximab improves 6-month clinical outcome after rescue coronary angioplasty. American Heart Journal 2002;143:334-41.
PROLOG 1997 {published data only}
  • Lincoff AM, Tcheng JE, Califf RM, Bass T, Popma JJ, Teirstein PS, et al. Standard versus low-dose weight-adjusted heparin in patients treated with the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antibody fragment abciximab (c7E3 Fab) during percutaneous coronary revascularization. PROLOG Investigators. American Journal of Cardiology 1997;79(3):286-91.
Rakowski 2007 {published data only}
  • Rakowski T, Zalewski J, Legutko J, Bartus S, Rzeszutko L, Dziewierz A, et al. Early abciximab administration before primary percutaneous coronary intervention improves infarct-related artery patency and left ventricular function in high-risk patients with anterior wall myocardial infarction: a randomized study. American Heart Journal 2007;153(3):360-5.
RELAx-AMI 2007 {published data only}
  • Maioli M, Bellandi F, Leoncini M, Toso A, Dabizzi RP. Randomized early versus late abciximab in acute myocardial infarction treated with primary coronary intervention (RELAx-AMI Trial). Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2007;49(14):1517-24.
Ren 2012 {published data only}
  • Ren XN, Wang LF, Wang MS, Xu L. Effect of early high-loading-dose tirofiban on platelet activity in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. [Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Cardiology 2012;40:131-5.
ReoPro-BRIDGING 2004 {published data only}
  • Gyongyosi M, Domanovits H, Benzer W, Haugk M, Heinisch B, Sodeck G, et al. Use of abciximab prior to primary angioplasty in STEMI results in early recanalization of the infarct-related artery and improved myocardial tissue reperfusion - results of the Austrian multi-centre randomized ReoPro-BRIDGING Study. European Heart Journal 2004;25(23):2125-33.
REPLACE-2 2003 {published data only}
  • Lincoff AM, Kleiman NS, Kereiakes DJ, Feit F, Bittl JA, Jackman JD, et al. Long-term efficacy of bivalirudin and provisional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade vs heparin and planned glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade during percutaneous coronary revascularization: REPLACE-2 randomized trial. JAMA 2004;292:696-703.
Roe 2003 {published data only}
  • Roe MT, Christenson RH, Ohman EM, Bahr R, Fesmire FM, Storrow A, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of early eptifibatide for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. American Heart Journal 2003;146(6):993-8.
Shen 2007 {published data only}
  • Shen J, Zhang Q, Zhang RY. Clinical outcomes and safety of primary percutaneous coronary intervention combined with tirofiban therapy in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [Chinese]. Chung-Hua Hsin Hsueh Kuan Ping Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Cardiology] 2007;35(11):1005-9.
Simpfendorfer 1997 {published data only}
  • Simpfendorfer C, Kottke-Marchant K, Lowrie M, Anders RJ, Burns DM, Miller DP, et al. First chronic platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade. A randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of xemilofiban in unstable angina with percutaneous coronary interventions. Circulation 1997;96(1):76-81.
SPEED P-St 2000 {published data only}
  • Hermann HC, Moliterno DJ, Ohman EM, Sebbins AL, Bode C, Betriu A. Facilitation of early percutaneous coronary intervention after Reteplase with or without abciximab in acute myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2000;36:1489-96.
Steen 2005 {published data only}
  • Steen H, Lehrke S, Wiegand UK, Merten C, Schuster L, Richardt G, et al. Very early cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for quantification of myocardial tissue perfusion in patients receiving tirofiban before percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction. American Heart Journal 2005;149(3):564.
STOPAMI 2000 {published data only}
  • Schomig A, Schwaiger M, Mehilli J, Neverve J, Pache J, Schricke U, et al. 1-year mortality after stenting with abciximab or thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction and prognostic value of myocardial salvage. Results of the STOPAMI study. Zeitschrift Fur Kardiologie 2001;90(Suppl 2):109.
  • Schricke U, Mehilli J, Neverve J, Ibrahim T, Nekolla S, Blasini R, et al. Myocardial salvage and clinical one-year results in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction and stent placement with abciximab or thrombolysis: a STOPAMI sub-group analysis. Zeitschrift Fur Kardiologie 2001;90(Suppl 2):74.
  • Schömic A, Kastrati A, Dirschinger J, Mehilli J, Schricke U, Pache J, et al. Coronary stenting plus platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade compared with tissue plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;343:385-91.
STOPAMI-2 2002 {published data only}
  • Kastrati A, Mehilli J, Dirschinger J, Schricke U, Neverve J, Pache J, et al. Myocardial salvage after coronary stenting plus abciximab versus fibrinolysis plus abciximab in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a randomised trial. Lancet 2002;359:920-5.
Svensson 2006 {published data only}
SYMPHONY 2 2001 {published data only}
TAMI-8 1993 {published data only}
  • Kleiman NS, Ohman EM, Califf RM, George BS, Kereiakes D, Aguirre FV, et al. Profound inhibition of platelet aggregation with monoclonal antibody 7E3 Fab after thrombolytic therapy. Results of the Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction (TAMI) 8 Pilot Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1993;22(2):381-9.
TARGET 2001 {published data only}
  • Topol EJ, Moliterno DJ, Herrmann HC, Powers ER, Grines CL, Cohen DJ, et al. Comparison of two platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, tirofiban and abciximab, for the prevention of ischemic events with percutaneous coronary revascularization. New England Journal of Medicine 2001;344:1888-94.
Thiele 2005 {published data only}
  • Thiele H, Engelmann L, Elsner K, Kappl MJ, Storch WH, Rahimi K, et al. Comparison of pre-hospital combination-fibrinolysis plus conventional care with pre-hospital combination-fibrinolysis plus facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction. European Heart Journal 2005;26:1956-63.
TIGER-PA 2003 {published data only}
  • Lee DP, Herity NA, Hiatt BL, Fearon WF, Rezaee M, Carter AJ, et al. Adjunctive platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition with tirofiban before primary angioplasty improves angiographic outcomes: results of the TIrofiban Given in the Emergency Room before Primary Angioplasty (TIGER-PA) pilot trial. Circulation 2003;107(11):1497-501.
TIMI 14 1999 {published data only}
  • Antman EM, Giugliano RP, Gibson CM, McCabe CH, Coussement P, Kleiman NS, et al. Abciximab facilitates the rate and extent of thrombolysis: results of the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 14 trial. The TIMI 14 Investigators. Circulation 1999;99(21):2720-32.
TIMI 15A 2000 {published data only}
  • Giugliano RP, McCabe CH, Sequeira RF, Frey MJ, Henry TD, Piana RN, et al. First report of an intravenous and oral glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (RPR 109891) in patients with recent acute coronary syndromes: results of the TIMI 15A and 15B trials. American Heart Journal 2000;140:81-93.
TITAN-TIMI 34 2006 {published data only}
  • Gibson CM, Kirtane AJ, Murphy SA, Rohrbeck S, Menon V, Lins J, et al. Early initiation of eptifibatide in the emergency department before primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results of the Time to Integrilin Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction (TITAN)-TIMI 34 trial. American Heart Journal 2006;152(4):668-75.
Valgimigli 2005 {published data only}
  • Valgimigli M, Percoco G, Malagutti P, Campo G, Ferrari F, Barbieri D, et al. Tirofiban and sirolimus-eluting stent vs abciximab and bare-metal stent for acute myocardial infarction: a randomized trial. JAMA 2005;293:2109-17.
van den Brand 1999 {published data only}
  • van den Brand M, Laarman GJ, Steg PG, De Scheerder I, Heyndrickx G, Beatt K, et al. Assessment of coronary angiograms prior to and after treatment with abciximab, and the outcome of angioplasty in refractory unstable angina patients. Angiographic results from the CAPTURE trial. European Heart Journal 1999;20(21):1572-8.
van den Merkhof 1999 {published data only}
  • van den Merkhof LF, Zijlstra F, Olsson H, Grip L, Veen G, Bar FW, et al. Abciximab in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction eligible for primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Results of the Glycoprotein Receptor Antagonist Patency Evaluation (GRAPE) pilot study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1999;33(6):1528-32.
Wong 2003 {published data only}
  • Wong P, Harding S, Inglessis I, Choi CJ, Walters D, Chang Y, et al. The effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor on the microcirculation in patients undergoing high-risk coronary stenting; a prospective, randomized study. Journal of Thrombosis & Thrombolysis 2003;16:163-6.
Zajdel 2002 {published data only}
  • Zajdel W, Zalewski J, Czunko P, et al. Randomised trial assessing efficacy and safety of cornaroplasty in coronary arteries of reference size of < 2,9 mm with the use of integrillin - eptifibatide -- preliminary results. Kardiologia Polska 2002;57:II-166.
Zeymer 2008 {published data only}
  • Zeymer U. Eptifibatide versus abciximab in primary PCI for acute St-elevation myocardial infarction: EVA-AMI Study. Clinical Research in Cardiology 2008;97(1):2-3.
Zhang 2011 {published data only}
  • Zhang YX, Lu CY, Zhou SH, Xue Q, Gao L, Tian JW, et al. Tirofiban improved the prognosis of senior acute coronary syndrome patients received percutaneous coronary intervention. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue/Chinese Critical Care Medicine/Zhongguo Weizhongbing Jijiuyixue 2011;23:727-30.
Zhao 1999 {published data only}
  • Zhao XQ, Theroux P, Snapinn SM, Sax FL. Intracoronary thrombus and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade with tirofiban in unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Angiographic results from the PRISM-PLUS trial (Platelet receptor inhibition for ischemic syndrome management in patients limited by unstable signs and symptoms). PRISM-PLUS Investigators. Circulation 1999;100(15):1609-15.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
ACCF/AHA Guideline NSTEACS 2013
  • Anderson JL, Adams CD, Antman EM, Bridges CR, Califf RM, Casey DE Jr, et al. 2012 ACCF/AHA focused update incorporated into the guideline for the management of patients with unstable angina/non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2013;61(23):e179-347. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.01.014]
ACCF/AHA Guideline revascularization 2012
  • Patel MR, Dehmer GJ, Hirshfeld JW, Smith PK, Spertus JA. ACCF/SCAI/STS/AATS/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/SCCT 2012 Appropriate use criteria for coronary revascularization focused update: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, and the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2012;59(9):857-81.
Als-Nielsen 2003
  • Als-Nielsen B, Chen W, Gluud C, Kjaergard LL. Association of funding and conclusions in randomized drug trials: a reflection of treatment effect or adverse events?. JAMA 2003;290:921-8.
ATC 2002
  • Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ 2002;324:71-86.
Boersma 1999
  • Boersma E, Akkerhuis KM, Theroux P, Califf RM, Topol EJ, Simoons ML. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: early benefit during medical treatment only, with additional protection during percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation 1999;100(20):2045-8.
Boersma 2002
  • Boersma E, Harrington RA, Moliterno DJ, White H, Théroux P, Van de Werf F, et al. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of all major randomised clinical trials. Lancet 2002;359:189-98.
Bovill 1991
  • Bovill EG, Terrin ML, Stump DC. Hemorrhagic events during therapy with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, heparin, and aspirin for acute myocardial infarction. Results of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI), Phase II Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 1991;115:256-65.
CRUSADE 2006
  • Mehta RH, Roe MT, Chen AY, Lytle BL, Pollack CV, Brindis RG, et al. Recent trends in the care of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Insights from the CRUSADE initiative. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006;166:2027-34.
CURE 2001
  • The Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events Trial Investigators (CURE). Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. New England Journal of Medicine 2001;345:494-502.
ESC Guidelines CV Prevention 2012
  • Perk J, De Backer G, Gohlke H, Graham I, Reiner Z, Verschuren M, et al. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. European Heart Journal 2012;33(13):1635-701.
ESC Guidelines NSTEACS 2011
  • Hamm CW, Bassand JP, Agewall S, Bax J, Boersma E, Bueno H, et al. ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: The Task Force for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). European Heart Journal 2011;32(23):2999-3054.
ESC Guidelines revascularization 2010
  • Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS), European Association for Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI), Wijns W, Kolh P, Danchin N, Di Mario C, Falk V, Folliguet T, et al. Guidelines on myocardial revascularization. European Heart Journal 2010;31(20):2501-55.
Falk 1995
GRACE 2007
  • Fox KAA, Anderson FA Jr, Dabbous OH, Steg PG, López-Sendón J, Van de Werf F, et al. Intervention in acute coronary syndromes: do patients undergo intervention on the basis of their risk characteristics? The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE). Heart 2007;97:147-8.
Gurbel 2005
  • Gurbel PA, Bliden KP, Zaman KA, Yoho JA, Hayes KM, Tantry US. Clopidogrel loading with eptifibatide to arrest the reactivity of platelets. Results of the clopidogrel loading with eptifibatide to arrest the reactivity of platelets (CLEAR PLATELETS) study. Circulation 2005;111:1153-9.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Hochholzer 2005
  • Hochholzer W, Trenk D, Frundi D, Blanke P, Fischer B, Andris K, et al. Time dependence of platelet inhibition after a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel in a large, unselected cohort of candidates for percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation 2005;111(20):2560-4.
Mehta 2003
  • Mehta SR, Yusuf S. Short- and long-term oral antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2003;41(4 Suppl S):79S-88S.
NICE 2010
  • Robinson M, Ginnelly L, Sculpher MJ, Jones L, Riemsma R, Palmer S, et al. Guidance of the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2002; re-issued March 2010. [www.nice.org.uk/guidance/TA47]
OASIS-5 2006
  • Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, Afzal R, Pogue J, Granger CB, et al. Comparison of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. Fifth Organization to Assess Strategies in Acute Ischemic Syndromes Investigators. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;354(14):1464-76.
Patrono 2011
  • Patrono C, Andreotti F, Arnesen H, Badimon L, Baigent C, Collet JP, et al. Antiplatelet agents for the treatment and prevention of atherothrombosis. European Heart Journal 2011;32(23):2922-32.
PCI-CURE 2001
  • Mehta SR, Yusuf S, Peters RJ, Bertrand ME, Lewis BS, Natarajan MK, et al. Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study. Lancet 2001;358:527-33.
Phillips 1988
PLATO 2009
  • Wallentin L, Becker RC, Budaj A, Christopher P, Cannon CP, Emanuelsson H, et al. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. New England Journal of Medicine 2009;361(11):1045-57.
Quinn 2002
Steinhubl 2007
  • Steinhubl SR, Kastrati A, Berger PB. Variation in the definitions of bleeding in clinical trials of patients with acute coronary syndromes and undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions and its impact on the apparent safety of antithrombotic drugs. American Heart Journal 2007;154:3211.
TRITON TIMI-38 2007
  • Wiviott SD, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, Montalescot G, Ruzyllo W, Gottlieb S, et al. TRITON-TIMI 38 Investigators. Prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. New England Journal of Medicine 2007;357:2001-15.
Universal definition MI 2012
  • Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, Simoons ML, Chaitman BR, White HD, Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. Third universal definition of myocardial infarction. Circulation 2012;126:2020-3035.