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Interprofessional education: effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes (update)

  1. Scott Reeves1,*,
  2. Laure Perrier2,
  3. Joanne Goldman2,
  4. Della Freeth3,
  5. Merrick Zwarenstein4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group

Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 3 AUG 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002213.pub3

How to Cite

Reeves S, Perrier L, Goldman J, Freeth D, Zwarenstein M. Interprofessional education: effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes (update). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD002213. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002213.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of California, San Francisco, Center of Innovation in Inteprofessional Education, San Francisco, California, USA

  2. 2

    Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Continuing Education and Professional Development, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  3. 3

    Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Medical Education, Institute of Health Sciences Education, London, UK

  4. 4

    University of Western Ontario, Department of Family Medicine, London, ON, Canada

*Scott Reeves, Center of Innovation in Inteprofessional Education, University of California, San Francisco, 521 Parnassus Avenue, CL112, San Francisco, California, 94143, USA.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 28 MAR 2013



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Barcelo 2010 {published data only}
  • Barcelo A, Cafiero E, de Boer M, Mesa AE, Lopez MG, Jimenez RA, et al. Using collaborative learning to improve diabetes care and outcomes: the VIDA project. Primary Care Diabetes 2010;4(3):145-53.
Brown 1999 {published data only}
  • Brown JB, Boles M, Mullooly JP, Levinson W. Effect of clinician communication skills training on patient satisfaction: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 1999;131(11):822-9.
Campbell 2001 {published data only}
Hanbury 2009 {published data only}
Helitzer 2011 {published data only}
  • Helitzer DL, Lanoue M, Wilson B, de Hernandez BU, Warner T, Roter D. A randomized controlled trial of communication training with primary care providers to improve patient-centeredness and health risk communication. Patient Education & Counseling 2011;82(1):21-9.
Janson 2009 {published data only}
  • Janson SL, Cooke M, McGrath KW, Kroon LA, Robinson S, Baron RB. Improving chronic care of type 2 diabetes using teams of interprofessional learners. Academic Medicine 2009;84(11):1540-8.
Morey 2002 {published data only}
  • Morey JC, Simon R, Jay GD, Wears RL, Salisbury M, Dukes KA, et al. Error reduction and performance improvement in the emergency department through formal teamwork training: evaluation results of the MedTeams project. Health Services Research 2002;37(6):1553-81.
Nielsen 2007 {published data only}
  • Nielsen PE, Goldman MB, Mann S, Shapiro DE, Marcus RG, Pratt SD, et al. Effects of teamwork training on adverse outcomes and process of care in labor and delivery: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2007;109(1):48-55.
Rask 2007 {published data only}
Strasser 2008 {published data only}
  • Strasser DC, Falconer JA, Stevens AB, Uomoto JM, Herrin J, Bowen SE, et al. Team training and stroke rehabilitation outcomes: a cluster randomized trial. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2008;89(1):10-5.
Taylor 2007 {published data only}
  • Taylor CR, Hepworth JT, Buerhaus PI, Dittus R, Speroff T. Effect of crew resource management on diabetes care and patient outcomes in an inner-city primary care clinic. Quality & Safety in Health Care 2007;16(4):244-7.
Thompson 2000a {published data only}
  • Thompson C, Kinmonth AL, Stevens L, Peveler RC, Stevens A, Ostler KJ, et al. Effects of a clinical-practice guideline and practice-based education on detection and outcome of depression in primary care: Hampshire depression project randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000a;355(9199):185-91.
Thompson 2000b {published data only}
  • Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Thompson DC, Barlow WE, Sugg NK, Maiuro RD, et al. Identification and management of domestic violence: a randomized trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2000b;19(4218):253-63.
Weaver 2010 {published data only}
  • Weaver SJ, Rosen MA, DiazGranados D, Lazzara EH, Lyons R, Salas E, et al. Does teamwork improve performance in the operating room? A multilevel evaluation. Joint Commission Journal on Quality & Patient Safety 2010;36(3):133-42.
Young 2005 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Ammentorp 2007 {published data only}
  • Ammentorp J, Sabroe S, Kofoed PE, Mainz J. The effect of training in communication skills on medical doctors' and nurses' self-efficacy. A randomized controlled trial. Patient Education & Counseling 2007;66(3):270-7.
Anderson 2009 {published data only}
  • Anderson ES, Lennox A. The Leicester Model of Interprofessional education: developing, delivering and learning from student voices for 10 years. Journal of Interprofessional Care 2009;23(6):557-73.
Antunez 2003 {published data only}
Armitage 2009 {published data only}
  • Armitage H, Pitt R, Jinks A. Initial findings from the TUILIP (Trent Universities Interprofessional Learning in Practice) project. Journal of Interprofessional Care 2009;23(1):101-3.
Barrett 2001 {published data only}
Barton 2006 {published data only}
  • Barton C, Miller B, Yaffe K. Improved evaluation and management of cognitive impairment: results of a comprehensive intervention in long-term care [see comment]. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2006;7(2):84-9.
Bashir 2000 {published data only}
  • Bashir K, Blizard B, Bosanquet A, Bosanquet N, Mann A, Jenkins R. The evaluation of a mental health facilitator in general practice: effects on recognition, management, and outcome of mental illness. British Journal of General Practice 2000;50(457123):626-9.
Bauer 2009 {published data only}
  • Bauer G, Bossi L, Santoalla M, Rodriguez S, Farina D, Speranza AM. [Impact of a respiratory disease prevention program in high-risk preterm infants: a prospective, multicentric study]. Archivos Argentinos de Pediatria 2009;107(2):111-8.
Beal 2006 {published data only}
  • Beal T, Kemper K J, Gardiner P, Woods C. Long-term impact of four different strategies for delivering an on-line curriculum about herbs and other dietary supplements. BMC Medical Education 2006;6:39.
Belardi 2004 {published data only}
  • Belardi FG, Weir S, Craig FW. A controlled trial of an advanced access appointment system in a residency family medicine center. Family Medicine 2004;36(5):341-5.
Bell 2000 {published data only}
  • Bell CM, Ma M, Campbell S, Basnett I, Pollock A, Taylor I. Methodological issues in the use of guidelines and audit to improve clinical effectiveness in breast cancer in one United Kingdom health region. European Journal of Surgical Oncology 2000;26(2):130-6.
Bellamy 2006 {published data only}
  • Bellamy A, Fiddian M, Nixon J. Case reviews: promoting shared learning and collaborative practice. International Journal of Palliative Nursing 2006;12(4):158-62.
Benjamin 1999 {published data only}
  • Benjamin EM, Schneider MS, Hinchey KT. Implementing practice guidelines for diabetes care using problem-based learning: a prospective controlled trial using firm systems. Diabetes Care 1999;22(1019):1672-8.
Berg 2009 {published data only}
  • Berg BW, Sampaga A, Garshnek V, Hara KM, Phrampus PA. Simulation crisis team training effect on rural hospital safety climate (SimCritter). Hawaii Medical Journal 2009;68(10):253-5.
Berggren 2008 {published data only}
  • Berggren M, Stenvall M, Olofsson B, Gustafson Y. Evaluation of a fall-prevention program in older people after femoral neck fracture: a one-year follow-up. Osteoporosis International 2008;19(6):801-9.
Birch 2007 {published data only}
Bluespruce 2001 {published data only}
Boyle 2004 {published data only}
Bradshaw 2011 {published data only}
  • Bradshaw LM, Gergar ME, Holko GA. Collaboration in wound photography competency development: a unique approach. Advances in Skin & Wound Care 2011;24(2):85-92.
Buck 1999 {published data only}
  • Buck MM, Tilson ER, Andersen JC. Implementation and evaluation of an interdisciplinary health professions core curriculum. Journal of Allied Health 1999;28(3):174-8.
Burns 2003 {published data only}
  • Burns JP, Mello MM, Studdert DM, Puopolo AL, Truog RD, Brennan TA. Results of a clinical trial on care improvement for the critically ill. Critical Care Medicine 2003;31(8):2107-17.
Buxton 2004 {published data only}
  • Buxton L, Pidduck D, Marston G, Perry D. Development of a multidisciplinary care pathway for a specialist learning disability inpatient treatment and assessment unit. Journal of Integrated Care Pathways 2004;8(3):119-26.
Cameron 2009 {published data only}
  • Cameron TS, McKinstry A, Burt SK, Howard ME, Bellomo R, Brown DJ, et al. Outcomes of patients with spinal cord injury before and after introduction of an interdisciplinary tracheostomy team. Critical Care & Resuscitation 2009;11(1):14-9.
Carew 2001 {published data only}
  • Carew LB, Chamberlain VM. Interdisciplinary update nutrition course offered to educators through interactive television. Journal of Nutrition Education 2001;33(6):352-3.
Cobia 1995 {published data only}
Coggrave 2001 {published data only}
  • Coggrave M. Care of the ventilator dependent spinal cord-injured patient. British Journal of Therapy & Rehabilitation 2001;8(4):146-9.
Connolly 1995 {published data only}
  • Connolly PM. Transdisciplinary collaboration of academia and practice in the area of serious mental illness. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Mental Health Nursing 1995;4(4):168-80. [MEDLINE: 97241876]
Cooper 2005 {published data only}
  • Cooper H, Spencer-Dawe E, McLean E. Beginning the process of teamwork: design, implementation and evaluation of an inter-professional education intervention for first year undergraduate students. Journal of Interprofessional Care 2005;19(5):492-508.
Corso 2006 {published data only}
  • Corso R, Brekken L, Ducey C, KnappPhilo J. Professional development strategies to support the inclusion of infants and toddlers with disabilities in infant-family programs. Zero to Three 2006;26(3):36-42.
Crutcher 2004 {published data only}
Dacey 2010 {published data only}
  • Dacey M, Murphy JI, Anderson DC, McCloskey WW. An interprofessional service-learning course: uniting students across educational levels and promoting patient-centered care. Journal of Nursing Education 2010;49(12):696-9.
Dalton 1999 {published data only}
  • Dalton JA, Blau W, Lindley C, Carlson J, Youngblood R, Greer SM. Changing acute pain management to improve patient outcomes: an educational approach. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1999;17(4):277-87.
DeVita 2005 {published data only}
  • DeVita, Schaefer J, Lutz J, Wang H, Dongilli T. Improving medical emergency team (MET) performance using a novel curriculum and a computerized human patient stimulator. Quality & Safety in Health Care 2005;14(5):326-31.
Dienst 1981 {published data only}
  • Dienst ER, Byl N. Evaluation of an educational program in health care teams. Journal of Community Health 1981;6(4):282-98. [MEDLINE: 82120622]
Dobson 2002 {published data only}
Falconer 1993 {published data only}
  • Falconer JA, Roth EJ, Sutin JA, Strasser DC, Chang RW. The critical path method in stroke rehabilitation: lessons from an experiment in cost containment and outcome improvement. Quality Review Bulletin 1993;19(1):8-16. [MEDLINE: 93205371]
Fields 2005 {published data only}
  • Fields M, Peterman J. Intravenous medication safety system averts high-risk medication errors and provides actionable data. Nursing Administration Quarterly 2005;29(1):78-87.
Gandara 2010 {published data only}
  • Gandara E, Ungar J, Lee J, Chan-Macrae M, O'Malley T, Schnipper JL. Discharge documentation of patients discharged to subacute facilities: a three-year quality improvement process across an integrated health care system. Joint Commission Journal on Quality & Patient Safety 2010;36(6):243-51.
Hanson 2005 {published data only}
  • Hanson LC, Reynolds KS, Henderson M, Pickard CG. A quality improvement intervention to increase palliative care in nursing homes. Journal of Palliative Medicine 2005;8(3):576-84.
Harmon 1998 {published data only}
  • Harmon RL, Sheehy LM, Davis DM. The utility of external performance measurement tools in program evaluation. Rahabilitation Nursing 1998;23(1):8-11. [MEDLINE: 98121755]
Hayward 1996 {published data only}
  • Hayward KS, Powell LT, McRoberts J. Changes in student perceptions of interdisciplinary practice in the rural setting. Journal of Allied Health 1996;25(4):315-27. [MEDLINE: 97137480]
Hien 2008 {published data only}
  • Hien le TT, Takano T, Seino K, Ohnishi M, Nakamura K. Effectiveness of a capacity-building program for community leaders in a healthy living environment: a randomized community-based intervention in rural Vietnam. Health Promotion International 2008;23(4):354-64.
Hook 2003 {published data only}
Hope 2005 {published data only}
  • Hope JM, Lugassy D, Meyer R, Jeanty F, Myers S, Jones S, et al. Bringing interdisciplinary and multicultural team building to health care education: the downstate team-building initiative. Academic Medicine 2005;80(1):74-83.
Horbar 2001 {published data only}
  • Horbar JD, Rogowski J, Plsek PE, Delmore P, Edwards WH, Hocker J, et al. Collaborative quality improvement for neonatal intensive care. NIC/Q project investigators of the Vermont Oxford Network. Pediatrics 2001;107(1383):14-22.
Hughes 2000 {published data only}
James 2005 {published data only}
  • James R, Barker J. Evaluation of a model of interprofessional education. Nursing Times 2005;101(40):34-6.
Jones 2006 {published data only}
Jordan-Marsh 2004 {published data only}
  • Jordan-Marsh M, Hubbard J, Watson R, Deon Hall R, Miller P, Mohan O. The social ecology of changing pain management: do I have to cry?. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 2004;19(3):193-203.
Kenward 2009 {published data only}
  • Kenward L, Stiles M. Intermediate care: an interprofessional education opportunity in primary care. Journal of Interprofessional Care 2009;23(6):668-71.
Ketola 2000 {published data only}
Kwan 2006 {published data only}
  • Kwan D, Barker KK, Austin Z, Chatalalsingh C, Grdisa V, Langlois S, et al. Effectiveness of a faculty development program on interprofessional education: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Interprofessional Care 2006;20(3):314-6.
Landon 2004 {published data only}
  • Landon BE, Wilson IB, McInnes K, Landrum MB, Hirschhorn L, Marsden PV, et al. Improving patient care: effects of a quality improvement collaborative on the outcome of care of patients with HIV infection: the EQHIV study. Annals of Internal Medicine 2004;140(11):887-96.
Lawrence 2002 {published data only}
  • Lawrence SJ, Shadel BN, Leet TL, Hall JB, Mundy LM. An intervention to improve antibiotic delivery and sputum procurement in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest 2002;122(3):913-9.
Lia-Hoagberg 1997 {published data only}
Llewellyn-Jones 1999 {published data only}
  • Llewellyn-Jones RH, Baikie KA, Smithers H, Cohen J, Snowdon J, Tennant CC. Multifaceted shared care intervention for late life depression in residential care: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1999;319(7211174):676-82.
McBride 2000 {published data only}
  • McBride P, Underbakke G, Plane MB, Massoth K, Brown R, Solberg LI, et al. Improving prevention systems in primary care practices: the health education and research trial (HEART). Journal of Family Practice 2000;49(2707):115-25.
Monette 2008 {published data only}
Nash 1993 {published data only}
  • Nash A, Hoy A. Terminal care in the community - an evaluation of residential workshops for general practitioner/district nurse teams. Palliative Medicine 1993;7(1):5-17. [MEDLINE: 94115720]
O'Boyle 1995 {published data only}
Olivecrona 2010 {published data only}
  • Olivecrona C, Karrlander S, Hylin U, Tornkvist H, Jonsson C, Svensen C. [A successful educational program for medical and nursing students. Interprofessional learning gives insights and strengthens team work]. Lakartidningen 2010;107(3):113-5.
Ouslander 2001 {published data only}
  • Ouslander JG, Maloney C, Grasela TH, Rogers L, Walawander CA. Implementation of a nursing home urinary incontinence management program with and without tolterodine. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2001;2(5):207-14.
Phillips 2002 {published data only}
  • Phillips M, Givens C, Schreiner B. Put into practice: impact of a multidisciplinary education program for children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educator 2002;28(3):400-2.
Price 2005 {published data only}
  • Price D, Howard M, Shaw E, Zazulak J, Waters H, Chan D. Family medicine obstetrics: collaborative interdisciplinary program for a declining resource. Canadian Family Physician 2005;51:68-74.
Rogowski 2001 {published data only}
  • Rogowski JA, Horbar JD, Plsek PE, Baker LS, Deterding J, Edwards WH, et al. Economic implications of neonatal intensive care unit collaborative quality improvement. Pediatrics 2001;107(1384):23-9.
Rubenstein 1999 {published data only}
  • Rubenstein LV, Jackson-Triche M, Unutzer J, Miranda J, Minnium K, Pearson ML, et al. Evidence-based care for depression in managed primary care practices. Health Affairs 1999;18(5439):89-105.
Ryan 2002 {published data only}
  • Ryan A, Carter J, Lucas J, Berger J. You need not make the journey alone: overcoming impediments to providing palliative care in a public urban teaching hospital. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care 2002;19(3):171-80.
Sauer 2010 {published data only}
  • Sauer J, Darioly A, Mast MS, Schmid PC, Bischof N. A multi-level approach of evaluating crew resource management training: a laboratory-based study examining communication skills as a function of team congruence. Ergonomics 2010;53(11):1311-24.
Smarr 2003 {published data only}
  • Smarr KL. The effects of arthritis professional continuing education in vocational rehabilitation [unpublished Ph.D.]. University of Missouri, Columbia 2003.
Smith 2005 {published data only}
  • Smith C, Rebeck S, Schaag H, Kleinbeck S, Moore JM, Bleich MR. A model for evaluating systemic change: measuring outcomes of hospital discharge education redesign. Journal of Nursing Administration 2005;35(2):67-73.
Stewart 2010 {published data only}
  • Stewart EE, Nutting PA, Crabtree BF, Stange KC, Miller WL, Jaen CR. Implementing the patient-centered medical home: observation and description of the national demonstration project. Annals of Family Medicine 2010;8 Suppl 1:S21-32.
Taylor 2002 {published data only}
  • Taylor BL, Smith GB. Trainees' views of a multidisciplinary training programme in intensive care medicine. Care of the Critically Ill 2002;18(5):148-51.
Thomas 2007 {published data only}
  • Thomas EJ, Taggart B, Crandell S, Lasky RE, Williams AL, Love LJ, et al. Teaching teamwork during the Neonatal Resuscitation Program: a randomized trial. Journal of Perinatology 2007;27(7):409-14.
Trummer 2006 {published data only}
  • Trummer UF, Mueller UO, Nowak P, Stidl T, Pelikan JM. Does physician-patient communication that aims at empowering patients improve clinical outcome? A case study. Patient Education & Counseling 2006;61(2):299-306.
Tschopp 2005 {published data only}
  • Tschopp JM, Frey JG, Janssens JP, Burrus C, Garrone S, Pernet R, et al. Asthma outpatient education by multiple implementation strategy: outcome of a programme using a personal notebook. Respiratory Medicine 2005;99(3):355-62.
Umble 2003 {published data only}
  • Umble KE, Shay S, Sollecito W. An interdisciplinary MPH via distance learning: meeting the educational needs of practitioners. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2003;9(2):123-35.
Unutzer 2001 {published data only}
  • Unutzer J, Rubenstein L, Katon WJ, Tang L, Duan N, Lagomasino IT, et al. Two-year effects of quality improvement programs on medication management for depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 2001;58(10233):935-42.
Ward 2004 {published data only}
  • Ward C, Wright M. Fast-track palliative care training to bridge the theory-practice gap. Nursing Times 2004;100(12):38-40.
Wells 2000 {published data only}
  • Wells K, Sherbourne C, Schoenbaum M, Duan N, Meredith L, Unutzer J, et al. Impact of disseminating quality improvement programs for depression in managed primary care: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000;283(2176):212-20.
Westfelt 2010 {published data only}
  • Westfelt P, Hedskold M, Pukk-Harenstam K, Svensson R M, Wallin C J. [Efficient training in cooperation within your own emergency department. With patient simulation and skilled trainers]. Lakartidningen 2010;107(10):685-9.
Wisborg 2009 {published data only}
  • Wisborg T, Brattebo G, Brinchmann-Hansen A, Hansen K S. Mannequin or standardized patient: participants' assessment of two training modalities in trauma team simulation. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation & Emergency Medicine 2009;17:59.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Barr 2005
  • Barr H, Koppel I, Reeves S, Hammick M, Freeth D. Effective interprofessional education: assumption, argument and evidence. London: Blackwell, 2005.
Berridge 2010
  • Berridge EJ, Mackintosh N, Freeth D. Supporting patient safety: examining communication within delivery suite teams through contrasting approaches to research observation. Midwifery 2010;26:512-9.
Charles Campion-Smith 2011
  • Campion-Smith C, Austin H, Criswick S, Dowling B, Francis G. Can sharing stories change practice? A qualitative study of an interprofessional narrative-based palliative care course. Journal of Interprofessional Care 2011;25:105–11.
CIHC 2010
  • Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaboration. A national interprofessional competency framework, 2010. Vancouver, B.C.: Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaboration, (accessed 18 February 2013).
Craig 2008
  • Craig P, Dieppe P, Macintyre S, Michie S, Nazareth I, Petticrew M, Guidance, MRC. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ 2008;337:a1655.
Frenk 2010
Interprofessional Educ Collab Expert Panel 2011
  • Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel. Core competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice: Report of an expert panel, 2011. Washington, D.C.: Interprofessional Education Collaborative, (accessed 18 February 2013).
Makowsky 2009
  • Makowsky M, Schindel T, Rosenthal M, Campbell K, Tsuyuki R, Madill H. Collaboration between pharmacists, physicians and nurse practitioners: a qualitative investigation of working relationships in the inpatient medical setting. Journal of Interprofessional Care 2009;23(2):169-84.
Reeves 2008
Reeves 2010
  • Reeves S, Lewin S, Espin S, Zwarenstein M. Interprofessional Teamwork for Health and Social Care. London: Blackwell-Wiley, 2010.
Sargeant 2011
Suter 2012
WHO 2010
  • World Health Organization. Framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice, 2010. (accessed 18 February 2013). [: WHO reference number: WHO/HRH/HPN/10.3.]

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Zwarenstein 2000
Zwarenstein 2009