Intervention Review

Primary groin irradiation versus primary groin surgery for early vulvar cancer

  1. Jacobus van der Velden1,*,
  2. Guus Fons2,
  3. Theresa A Lawrie3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group

Published Online: 11 MAY 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 6 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002224.pub2

How to Cite

van der Velden J, Fons G, Lawrie TA. Primary groin irradiation versus primary groin surgery for early vulvar cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD002224. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002224.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Academic Medical Centre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Amsterdam, Netherlands

  2. 2

    Academic Medical Centre, Department of Gynaecologic Oncology, Amsterdam, Netherlands

  3. 3

    Royal United Hospital, Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group, Bath, UK

*Jacobus van der Velden, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academic Medical Centre, PO Box 22660, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, Netherlands.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 11 MAY 2011




  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary


Despite changes in technique, morbidity after surgery for vulvar cancer is high and mainly related to the groin dissection. Primary radiotherapy to the groin is expected to result in lower morbidity. However, studies on the efficacy of primary radiotherapy to the groin in terms of groin recurrences and survival show conflicting results.


To determine whether the effectiveness and safety of primary radiotherapy to the inguinofemoral lymph nodes in early vulvar cancer is comparable with surgery.

Search methods

We searched The Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2010.

Selection criteria

We selected randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing inguinofemoral lymph node dissection and primary radiotherapy of the inguinofemoral lymph nodes for patients with early squamous cell cancer of the vulva.

Data collection and analysis

Two reviewers independently assessed study quality and extracted results. Primary outcome measures were the incidence of groin recurrences, patient survival and morbidity.

Main results

No new RCTs were identified by the updated search. Out of twelve identified papers only one met the selection criteria. From this one small RCT of 52 women, there was a trend towards increased groin recurrence rates (relative risk (RR) 10.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 175.78), lower disease-specific survival rates (RR 3.70, 95% CI 0.87 to 15.80), less lymphoedema (RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.03) and fewer life-threatening cardiovascular complications (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.45) in the radiotherapy group. Primary surgery was associated with a longer hospital stay than primary groin irradiation (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.58).

Authors' conclusions

Primary radiotherapy to the groin results in less morbidity but may be associated with a higher risk of groin recurrence and decreased survival when compared with surgery. Due to the small numbers in this trial and criticisms regarding the depth of radiotherapy applied, corroboration of these findings by larger RCTs using a standardised radiotherapy method, is desirable. However, until better evidence is available, surgery should be considered the first choice treatment for the groin nodes in women with vulvar cancer. Individual patients not physically able to withstand surgery may be treated with primary radiotherapy.


Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary

There is insufficient evidence that radiotherapy works as well as surgery for treating groin nodes in early vulvar cancer.

Cancer of the vulva is mainly a disease of elderly women. Surgery involves removal of the tumour and surrounding lymph nodes, occasionally followed by radiotherapy. Although survival rates are high if the tumour is found early enough, removal of the lymph nodes causes odema (swelling), particularly in the legs. Wound healing and psychosexual problems are also common. While radiotherapy may be effective in the short term, there is not enough evidence from trials to show that it is as effective as surgery in preventing tumour regrowth in the lymph nodes of the groin.