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Intervention Review

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Hormone therapy for preventing cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women

  1. Caroline Main1,*,
  2. Beatrice Knight2,
  3. Tiffany Moxham3,
  4. Rafael Gabriel Sanchez4,
  5. Luis Maria Sanchez Gomez5,
  6. Marta Roqué i Figuls6,
  7. Xavier Bonfill Cosp7

Editorial Group: Cochrane Heart Group

Published Online: 30 APR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 20 APR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002229.pub3


How to Cite

Main C, Knight B, Moxham T, Gabriel Sanchez R, Sanchez Gomez LM, Roqué i Figuls M, Bonfill Cosp X. Hormone therapy for preventing cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD002229. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002229.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Peninsula Technology Assessment Group (PenTAG), Exeter, UK

  2. 2

    University of Exeter Medical School, NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facilt, Exeter, UK

  3. 3

    Florida Atlantic University, Wimberly Library, Boca Raton, Florida, USA

  4. 4

    Hospital Universitario de la Paz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigacion IdiPAZ, Red Espanola de Investigacion Cardiovascular RD/12/0042/0008, Madrid, Spain

  5. 5

    Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Agencia de Evaluacion Tecnologias Sanitarias, Madrid, Spain

  6. 6

    CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain

  7. 7

    CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain - Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

*Caroline Main, Peninsula Technology Assessment Group (PenTAG), Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Noy Scott House, Barrack Road, Exeter, EX2 5DW, UK. carriemain24@gmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions), comment added to review
  2. Published Online: 30 APR 2013

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (10 MAR 2015)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
EAGAR 2006 {published data only}
  • Ouyang  P, Tardif J, Herrington D, Stewart K, Thompson P, Walsh M, et al. Randomized trial of hormone therapy in women after coronary bypass surgery: Evidence of differential effect of hormone therapy on angiographic progression of disease in saphenous vein grafts and native coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis 2006;189:375-86.
EPAT 2001 {published data only}
  • Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Lobo RA, Shoupe D, Sevanian A, Mahrer PR, et al. Estrogen in the prevention of atherosclerosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2001;135(11):939-53.
EPHT 2006 {published data only}
  • Hemminki E, Hovi S, Veerus P, Sevón T, Tuimala R, Rahu M, et al. Blinding decreased recruitment in a prevention trial of postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2004;57:1237-43.
  • Veerus P, Fischer K, Hovi S-L, Karro H, Rahu M, Hemminki E. Symptom reporting and quality of life in the Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Trial. BMC Women’s Health 2008;8:5.
  • Veerus P, Hovi S, Fischer K, Rahu M, Hakama M, Hemminki E. Results for the Estonian postmenopausal hormone trial [ISRCTN35338757]. Maturitas 2006;55:162-73.
ERA 2000 {published data only}
  • Herrington DM, Reboussin DM, Bridget Brosnihan K, Sharp PC, Shumaker SA, Snyder TE, et al. Effects of estrogen replacement on the progression of coronary-artery atherosclerosis. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;343(8):522-9.
  • Herrington DM, Reboussin DM, Klein KP, Sharp PC, Shumaker SA, Snyder TE, et al. The estrogen replacement and atherosclerosis (ERA) study: study design and baseline characteristics of the cohort. Controlled Clinical Trials 2000;21(3):257-85.
ESPRIT 2002 {published data only}
EVTET 2000 {published data only}
  • Hoibraaten E, Arnesen H, Larsen S, Wickstrom E, Sandset PM. Increased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism during hormone replacement therapy: results of the randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled estrogen in venous thromboembolism trial (EVTET). Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2000;84:961-7.
HALL 1998 {published data only}
  • Hall G, Pripp U, Schenk-Gustafsson K, Landgren BM. Long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy on symptoms of angina pectoris, quality of life and compliance in women with coronary artery disease. Maturitas 1998 ;28 :235-42 .
HERS I 1998 {published data only}
  • Grady D, Applegate W, Bush T, Furberg C, Riggs B, Hulley S, et al. Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS): design, methods, and baseline characteristics. Controlled Clinical Trials 1998;19(4):314-35.
  • Grady D, Herrington D, Bittner V, Davidson M, Hlatky M, Hsia J, et al. Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy. Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study Follow-up (HERS II). JAMA 2002;288(1):49-57.
  • Hlatky M, Boothroyd D, Vittinghoff E, Sharp P, Whooley MA. Quality-of life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy. Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial. JAMA 2002;287(5):591-7.
  • Hulley S, Grady D, BushT, Furberg C, Herrington D, Riggs B, et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. JAMA 1998;280(7):605-13.
  • Simon JA, Hsia J, Cauley JA, Richards C, Harris F, Fong J, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of stroke: The Heart and Estrogen-progestin Replacement Study (HERS). Circulation 2001;103(5):638-42.
WAVE 2002 {published data only}
  • Hsia J, Alderman EL, Verter JI, Rogers WJ, Thompson P, Howard BV, et al. Women’s angiographic vitamin and estrogen trial: design and methods. Controlled Clinical Trials 2002;23:708-27.
  • Waters D, Alderman E, Hsia J, Howard B, Cobb F, Rogers W, et al. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant vitamin supplements on coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. JAMA 2001;288:2432-40.
WEST 2001 {published data only}
  • Kernan WN, Brass LM, Viscoli CM, Sarrell PM, Makuch R, Horwitz RI. Estrogen after ischemic stroke: clinical basis and design of the womens estrogen for stroke trial. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 1998;7:85-95.
  • Viscoli CM, Brass LM, Kernan WN, Sarrel PM, Suissa S, Horwitz RI. A clinical trial of estrogen-replacement therapy after ischemic stroke. New England Journal of Medicine 2001;345(17):1243-9.
WHI I 2002 {published data only}
  • Anderson GI, Manson J, Wallace R, Lund B, Hall D, Davis S, et al. Implementation of the womens health initiative study design. Annals of Epidemiology 2003;13:S5-17.
  • Cushman M, Kuller LH, Prentice R, Rodabough RJ, Psaty BM, Stafford RS, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and risk of venous thrombosis. JAMA 2004;292(13):1573-80.
  • Hays J, Hunt JR, Hubbell, FA, Anderson GL, Limacher M, Allen C, et al. The Women's Health Initiative recruitment methods and results. Annals of Epidemiology 2003;13(Suppl 9):S18-77.
  • Hays J, Ockene JK, Brunner RL, Kotchen JM, Manson JE, Patterson RE, et al. Effects of estrogen plus progestin on health-related quality of life. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348(104):1839-54.
  • Heiss G, Wallace R, Anderson GL, Aragaki A, Beresford SAA, Brzyski R, et al. Health risks and benefit 3 years after stopping randomized treatment with estrogen and progestin. JAMA 2008;299(9):1036–45.
  • Manson, JE, Hsia J, Johnson KC, Rossouw JE, Assaf A, Lasser N, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and the risk of coronary heart disease. NEJM 2003;349:523-34.
  • Rossouw JE, Prentice RL, Manson JE, Wu L, Barad D, Barnabei VM, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause. JAMA 2007;297(13):1465–77.
  • Stefanick ML, Cochrane BB, Hsia J, Barad DH, Liu JH, Johnson, SR, et al. The Women's Health Initiative postmenopausal hormone trials: Overview and baseline characteristics of participants. Annals of Epidemiology 2003;13(Suppl 9):S78-86.
  • The Womens Health Initiative Study Group. Design of the womens health initiative clinical trial and observational study. Controlled Clinical Trials 1998;19:61-109.
  • Wassertheil-Smoller S, Hendrix S, Limacher M, Heiss G, Kooperberg C, Baird A, et al. Effect of estrogen plus progestin on stroke in postmenopausal women. JAMA 2003;289(20):2673-84.
  • Writing Group for the Women´s Health Initiative Investigators. Risk and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. Principal results from the women´s health initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288(3):321-33.
WHI II 2004 {published data only}
  • Brunner RL, Gass M, Aragaki A, Hays J, Granek I, Woods N, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen on health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005;165:1976-86.
  • Curb JD, Prentice RL, Bray PF, Langer RD, Van Horn K, Barnabei VM, et al. Venous thrombosis and conjugated equine estrogen in women without a uterus. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006;166:772-80.
  • Hendrix SL, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Johnson KC, Howard BV, Kooperberg C, Rossouw JE, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen on stroke in the women's health initiative. Circulation 2006;113:2425-34.
  • Hsia J, Langer RD, Manson JE, Kuller L, Johnson KC, Hendrix SL, et al. Conjugated equine estrogens and coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006;291:1701-12.
  • The Womens Health Initiative Steering Committee. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. The womens health initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291(14):1701-12.
WISDOM 2007 {published data only}
  • Vickers MR, MacLacLennan A, Lawton B, Ford D, Martin J, Meredith S, et al. Main morbidities recorded in the women's international study of long duration estrogen after menopause (WISDOM): a randomised controlled trial of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. BMJ 2007;335(7613):239.
  • Vickers MR, Martin J, Meade TW. The Women’s international study of long-duration of estrogen after menopause (WISDOM): a randomised controlled trial. BMC Women's Health 2007;7:2.
  • Welton AJ, Vickers MR, Kim J, Ford D, Lawton BA, MacLennan AH, et al. Health related quality of life after combined hormone replacement therapy: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008;337:550-3.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Angerer 2001 {published data only}
  • Angerer P, Störk S, Kothny W, Scmitt P, von Schacky C. Effect of oral postmenopausal hormone replacement on progression of atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 2001;21:262-8.
Clarke 2002 {published data only}
Davidson 1997 {published data only}
  • Davidson MH, Maki KC, Cyrwski MS, Maki AC, et al. Rationale and design of a trial to evaluate the impact of continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on the cardiovascular disease risk profile. 11th International Symposium on Atherosclerosis. Paris, October, 1997.
HERS II {published data only}
  • Grady D, Herrington D, Bittner V, Blumenthal R, Davidson M, et al. Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II). JAMA 2002;288 (1):49-57.
Holmberg 2004 {published data only}
Hsia 2003 {published data only}
  • Hsia J,  Bittner V,  Tripputi M,  Howard BV. Metabolic syndrome and coronary angiographic disease progression: the Women's Angiographic Vitamin & Estrogen trial. American Heart Journal 2003;146(3):439-45.
Hsia 2004 {published data only}
  • Hsia JM, Criqui MH, Rodabough RJ, Langer RD, Resnick HE, Phillips LS, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and the risk of peripheral arterial disease: the Women's Health Initiative. Circulation 2003;109(5):620-6.
Huang 2009 {published data only}
Karim 2008 {published data only}
  • Karim R, Hodis HN, Stanczyk FZ, Lobo RA, Mack WJ. Relationship between serum levels of sex hormones and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2008;93(1):131-8.
Lamon-Fava 2009 {published data only}
  • Lamon-Fava S, Herrington DSM, Reboussin DM, Sherman M, Horvath K, Schaefer EJ, et al. Changes in remnant and high-density lipoproteins associated with hormone therapy and progression of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women. Atherosclerosis 2009;205(1):325-30.
Marsden 2002 {published data only}
  • Marsden J, Sacks N. The national randomised trial of hormone replacement therapy in women with a history of early stage breast cancer: an update. Journal of the British Menopause Society 2002;8(4):129.
Moriyama 2008 {published data only}
  • Moriyama CK, Oneda B, Bernardo FR, Cardoso CG, Forjaz CL, Abrahao SB. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of physical exercises and estrogen therapy on health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women. Menopause 2008;15(4):613-8.
Mosca 2009 {published data only}
  • Mosca L, Grady D, Barrettt-Connor E, Collins P, Wenger N, Amramson B, et al. Effect of raloxifene on stroke and venous thromboembolism according to subgroups in postmenopausal women at increased risk of coronary heart disease. Stroke 2009;40(1):147-55.
Nair 2005 {published data only}
Neuhouser 2009 {published data only}
  • Neuhouser ML, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Thomson C, Aragaki A, Anderson GL, Manson JE, et al. Multivitamin use and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease in the Women's Health Initiative cohorts. Archives of Internal Medicine 2009;169(3):294-304.
Pinkerton 2009 {published data only}
  • Pinkerton JV, Utian HW, et al. Relief of vasomotor symptoms with the tissue-selective estrogen complex containing bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens: A randomized, controlled trial. Menopause 2009;16(6):1116-24.
Prentice 2008 {published data only}
Prentice 2009 {published data only}
  • Prentice RL, Manson JE, et al. Benefits and risks of postmenopausal hormone therapy when it is initiated soon after menopause. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009;170(1):2-23.
Toh 2010 {published data only}
  • Toh S, Hernandez-Diaz S, Logan R, Rossouw JE, Hernan MA. Coronary heart disease in postmenopausal recipients of estrogen plus progestin therapy: does the increased risk ever disappear? A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2010;152(4):I-40.
Yeboah 2008 {published data only}
  • Yeboah J, Klein K, Brosniham B, Reboussin D, Herrington D. Effects of hormone therapy on soluble cell adhesion molecules in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease. Menopause 2008 2008;15(6):1060-4.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
ELITE 2004 (NCT00114517) {published data only}
  • NCT00114517. ELITE: early versus late intervention trial with estradiol. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00114517 (assessed 15 March 2013). [: NCT00114517]
KEEPS 2005 (NCT00154180) {published data only}
  • NCT00154180. Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00154180 (assessed 15 March 2013). [: NCT00154180]

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
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  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
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  • Curb JD, Prentice RL, Bray PF, Langer RD, Van Horn K, Barnabei VM, et al. Venous thrombosis and conjugated equine estrogen in women without a uterus. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006;166:166.
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