Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy

  1. Edgardo Abalos1,*,
  2. Lelia Duley2,
  3. D Wilhelm Steyn3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 6 FEB 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 30 APR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002252.pub3


How to Cite

Abalos E, Duley L, Steyn DW. Antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD002252. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002252.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Centro Rosarino de Estudios Perinatales (CREP), Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

  2. 2

    Nottingham Health Science Partners, Nottingham Clinical Trials Unit, Nottingham, UK

  3. 3

    University of Stellenbosch, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Tygerberg, Stellenbosch, South Africa

*Edgardo Abalos, Centro Rosarino de Estudios Perinatales (CREP), Moreno 878, 6th floor, Rosario, Santa Fe, S2000DKR, Argentina. edgardoabalos@crep.org.ar. crep@crep.org.ar.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 6 FEB 2014

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Argentina 1985 {published data only}
  • Voto L, Lapidus A, Neira J, Margulies M. Atenolol vs alpha methyldopa in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. 5th International Congress for the International Society for the study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1986 July 7-10; Nottingham, UK. 1986:138.
  • Voto LS, Lapidus AM, Neira J, Margulies M. Treatment of hypertension during pregnancy: Atenolol versus Methyldopa [Tratamiento de la hipertensión en el embarazo: Atenolol versus Alfa Metildopa]. Obstetricia y Ginecología Latino-Americanas 1985;43(9-10):335-41.
Argentina 1987 {published data only}
  • Voto LS, Zin C, Neira J, Lapidus AM, Margulies M. Ketanserin versus alpha methyldopa in the treatment of hypertension during pregnancy: a preliminary report. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 1987;10(Suppl 3):S101-S103.
Argentina 1988 {published data only}
  • Casavilla F, Vega HR. Prospective and randomized study on mepindolol and alpha-methydopa efficacy in arterial hypertension (AH) treatment during pregnancy. World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 1988 October 23-28; Brazil. 1988:182.
Australia 1983 {published data only}
  • Livingstone I, Craswell PW, Bevan EB, Smith MT, Eadie MJ. Propranolol in pregnancy - three-year prospective study. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 1983;2:341-50.
Australia 1985 {published data only}
  • Gallery EDM, Gyory AZ. Antihypertensive therapy in pregnancy [abstract]. Kidney International 1984;26(2):232.
  • Gallery EDM, Hunyor SN, Saunders DM, Gyory AZ. A randomized trial of oxyprenolol and a-methyl dopa in therapy of hypertension in pregnancy. 1st Congress of the International Society of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1978 September 27-29; Dublin, Ireland. 1978:88.
  • Gallery EDM, Ross MR, Gyory AZ. Antihypertensive treatment in pregnancy: analysis of different responses to oxprenolol and methyldopa. BMJ 1985;291:563-6.
  • Gallery EDM, Saunders DM, Hunyor SN, Gyory AZ. Randomised comparison of methyldopa and oxprenolol for treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. BMJ 1979;1:1591-4.
Australia 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Davis G, Brown M. Re: glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) patches are unsuitable in hypertensive pregnancy. Australian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2001; Vol. 41, issue 4:474.
Brazil 1985 {published data only}
  • Kahhale S, Carrara W, Barros ACSD, Zugaib M, Neme B. A comparative study between treated (beta-blocker pindolol) and untreated chronic hypertension. 4th World Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1984 June 18-21; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1984:56.
  • Kahhale S, Zugaib M, Carrara W, Paula FJ, Sabbaga E, Neme B. Comparative study of chronic hypertensive pregnant women treated and non-treated with pindolol [Estudio comparativo de gestantes hipertensas crônicas tratadas e näo tratadas com betabloqueador pindolol]. Ginecologia e Obstetrícia Brasileiras 1985;8(2):85-9.
Brazil 1988 {published and unpublished data}
  • Freire S, de França LA, Rau de Almeida Callou M, Alves de Oliveira JE, Barbosa Filho J. Comparative study with pindolol and methyldopa in pregnant women with chronic hypertension [Estudo comparativo com pindolol e metildopa em gestantes com hipertensão arterial crônica]. Jornal Brasileiro de Ginecologia 1988;98(3):157-60.
Brazil 2000a {published and unpublished data}
  • Nascimento DJ. Avaliaçäo do uso do verapamil em gestantes com formas näo graves de doença hipertensiva vascular crônica [Evaluation of the use of Verapamil with non-serious form of chronic vascular hypertension disease during pregnancy] [Doctoral thesis]. Brazil: Facultade Evangélica de Medicina do Paraná, 2000.
Caribbean Is.1990 {published and unpublished data}
  • Plouin PF, Breart G, Llado J, Dalle M, Keller ME, Goujon H, et al. A randomized comparison of early with conservative use of antihypertensive drugs in the management of pregnancy-induced hypertension. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1990;97:134-41.
France 1987 {published data only}
  • Plouin PF, Breart G, Maillard F, Papiernik E, Relier JP, Labetolol Methyldopa Study Group. Antihypertensive efficacy and perinatal safety of labetalol in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy: a randomised comparison to methyldopa [Effets maternels et securite perinatale du labetalol dans le traitement des hypertensions de la grossesse. Comparaison a la methyldopa par un essai cooperatif randomise]. Archives des Maladies du Coeur 1987;80:952-5.
  • Plouin PF, Breart G, Maillard F, Papiernik E, Relier JP, the Labetolol Methyldopa Study Group. Comparison of antihypertensive efficacy and perinatal safety of labetalol and methyldopa in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1988;95:868-76.
France 1988 {published data only}
  • Blazquez, Lardoux H, Leperlier E. Randomized and comparative study of methyl dopa (MD), acebutolol (ACE) and labetalol for the treatment of moderate hypertension during pregnancy (HDP). 6th International Congress, International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1988 May 22-26; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1988:100.
  • Lardoux H, Blazquez G, Leperlier E, Gerard J. Randomized and comparative study of methyldopa (MD), acebutolol (ACE) and labetalol for the treatment of moderate hypertension during pregnancy (HDP) [Essai ouvert, comparatif, avec tirage au sort pour le traitement de l'HTA gravidique moderee: methyldopa, acetbutolol, labetalol]. Archives des Maladies du Coeur 1988;91:137-40.
France 1994 {published data only}
  • Jannet D, Carbonne B, Sebban E, Milliez J. Nicardipine vs metoprolol in the treatment of hypertension during pregnancy: a randomized comparative trial. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1995;49:225.
  • Jannet D, Carbonne B, Sebban E, Milliez J. Nicardipine vs metoprolol in the treatment of hypertension during pregnancy: a randomized comparative trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1994;84:354-9.
Hong Kong 1990 {published data only}
  • Li CY, Lao TT, Yu KM, Wong SP, Leung CF. The effect of labetalol on mild pre-eclampsia. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1990; Perugia, Italy. 1990:191.
India 1992 {published data only}
  • Oumachigui A, Verghese M, Balachander J. A comparative evaluation of metoprolol and methyldopa in the management of pregnancy induced hypertension. Indian Heart Journal 1992;44:39-41.
India 2002 {published data only}
  • Banerjee G, Chatterjee D, Chatterjee A, Mukherjee P, Das A. A randomized controlled trial on use of nimodipine in mild P.I.H. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India 2002;52(4):44-6.
India 2012 {published data only}
  • Molvi SN, Mir S, Rana VS, Jabeen F, Rauoof A. Role of antihypertensive therapy in mild to moderate pregnancy-induced hypertension: A prospective randomized study comparing labetalol with alpha methyldopa. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2012;285(6):1553-62.
India 2013 {published data only}
  • Subhedar V, Inamdar S, Hariharan C, Subhedar S. Comparison of efficacy of labetalol and methyldopa in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology 2013;2(1):27-34.
Ireland 1991 {published and unpublished data}
Israel 1986 {published data only}
  • Ellenbogen A, Jaschevatzky O, Davidson A, Anderman S, Grunstein S. Management of pregnancy-induced hypertension with pindolol - comparative study with methyldopa. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1986;24:3-7.
  • Jaschevatzky OE, Davidson A, Ellenbogen A, Anderman S, Grunstein S. Comparative study of pindolol and methyldopa and transplacental cross of pindolol in PIH. 5th International Congress of the International Society for the study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1986 7-10 July; Nottingham, England. 1986:137.
Israel 1986a {published data only}
  • Rosenfeld J, Bott-Kanner G, Boner G, Nissenkorn A, Friedman S, Ovadia J, et al. Treatment of hypertension during pregnancy with hydralazine monotherapy or with combined therapy with hydralazine and pindolol. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1986;22:197-204.
Israel 1992 {published data only}
  • Bar J, Hirsch M, Friedman S, Fuchs J, Ovadia J, Bott-Kanner G. The effect of beta-adrenergic blocker pindolol on platelet function in chronic hypertensive pregnancies. Proceedings of 9th International Congress, International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1994 March 15-18; Sydney, Australia. 1994:155.
  • Bott-Kanner G, Hirsch M, Boner G, Ovadia J, Modan M, Friedmann S, et al. Evaluation of antihypertensive therapy (AHT) in the management of hypertension in pregnancy (HP). 6th International Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1988 May 22-26; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1988:11.
  • Bott-Kanner G, Hirsch M, Friedman S, Boner G, Ovadia J, Merlob P, et al. Antihypertensive therapy in the management of hypertension in pregnancy - a clinical double-blind study of pindolol. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 1992;B11:207-20.
  • Hirsch M, Bar J, Bott-Kanner G, Kaplan B, Fuchs J, Ovadia J. Effect of the beta-adrenergic blocker pindolol on platelet function in chronic hypertensive pregnancy. Hypertension in Pregnancy 1996;15:193-202.
Israel 1995 {published data only}
  • Paran E, Baile Y, Holzberg G, Masor M, Zmora E, Insler V. Treatment of hypertension in pregnancy: different regime, different outcome. 6th International Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1988 May 22-26; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1988:105.
  • Paran E, Holzberg G, Mazor M, Zmora E, Insler V. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents in the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1995;33:119-23.
  • Paran E, Maisner I, Holzberg G, Mazor M, Zmora E, Biale Y, et al. Beta-blocker treatment of PIH correlated with uteroplacental blood flow measurement. 6th International Congress, International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1988 May 22-26; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1988:109.
Italy 1997 {published data only}
  • Catalano D, Ercolano S, Pollio F, Ascione L, Russo C, De Santi B, et al. Evaluation of nifedipine monotherapy in the management of pregnancy hypertension [Valuazione della monoterapia con nifedipina nel management della gestosi EPH]. Giornale Italiano Di Ostetricia e Ginecologia 1997;6:373-5.
Italy 1998 {published data only}
  • Bortolus R, Ricci E, Chatenoud L, Parazzini F. Nifedipine administered in pregnancy: effect on the development of children at 18 months. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 2000;107:792-4.
  • Gruppo di Studio Ipertensione in Gravidanza. Nifedipine versus expectant management in mild to moderate hypertension in pregnancy. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1998;105:718-22.
  • Luchini L, Bortolus R, Parazzini F. Multicentric, randomized, clinical trial on the efficacy of long-acting nifedipine in improving the prognosis of pregnancy in women with mild or moderate chronic or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Journal of Nephrology 1991;6:51-4.
Italy 1999 {published and unpublished data}
  • Neri I, Ternelli G, Facchinetti F, Volpe A. Effectiveness of oral nifedipine and transdermal glyceryltrinitrate on 24-hours blood pressure values in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2000;19(Suppl 1):O65.
  • Neri I, Valensise H, Fachinetti F, Menghini S, Romanini C, Volpe A. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: a comparison between transdermal glyceryl-trinitrate and oral nifedipine. Hypertension in Pregnancy 1999;18:107-13.
Italy 2000 {published and unpublished data}
  • Borghi C, Degli Esposti D, Cassani A, Immordino V, Bovicelli L, Ambrosioni E. The treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Journal of Hypertension 2002;20(Suppl 2):S52-S56.
  • Borghi C, Immordino V, Degli Esposti D, Boschi S, Cassani A, Bentivenga C, et al. Comparison between nifedipine-gits and methyldopa on blood pressure control, utero-placental hemodynamic and fetal outcome in patients with pre-eclampsia. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2000;19(Suppl 1):P8.
South Africa 1991 {published data only}
  • Odendaal HJ, Schabort I, Pattinson RC. Prazosin for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy: a randomized control trial. In: Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Version 1.2, Disk Issue 6, Autumn. Chalmers I (ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.1991.
South Africa 1993 {published data only}
  • Eloff WJ. The use of nifedipine vs methyldopa in mild to moderate pregnancy associated hypertension. Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Priorities in Perinatal Care; 1993; South Africa. 1993:130-3.
Sudan 2002 {published data only}
  • Elhassan EM, Mirghani OA, Habour AB, Adam I. Methyldopa versus no drug treatment in the management of mild pre-eclampsia. East African Medical Journal 2002;71(4):172-5.
Sweden 1984 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bjorksten B, Finnstrom O, Wichman K. Intrauterine exposure to the beta-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent metoprolol and allergy. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 1988;87:59-62.
  • Finnstrom O, Ezitis J, Ryden G, Wichman K. Neonatal effects of beta-blocking drugs in pregnancy. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica Supplement 1984;118:91-3.
  • Ryden G, Karlberg BE, Wichman K. Metoprolol in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy - effect on the mother and foetus. 4th World Congress of the International Society for the study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1984 Jun 18-21; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1984:38.
  • Wichman K. Metoprolol in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension in pregnancy - effects on fetal heart activity. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 1986;5:195-202.
  • Wichman K, Ezitis J, Finnstrom O, Ryden G. Metoprolol in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy - effect on the newborn baby. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 1984;B3:153.
  • Wichman K, Ezitis J, Finnstrom O, Ryden G. Metoprolol in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy - effects on the newborn baby. 4th World Congress of the International Society for the study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1984 June 18-21; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1984:40.
  • Wichman K, Karlberg BE, Ryden G. Metoprolol in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension in pregnancy - effects on the mother. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 1985;B4:141-56.
  • Wichman K, Ryden G, Karlberg BE. A placebo controlled trial of metoprolol in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 1984;106:90-5.
Sweden 1985 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hogstedt S, Lindberg B, Lindeberg S, Ludviksson K, Sandstrom B. Effect of metoprolol on fetal heart rate patterns during pregnancy and delivery. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 1984;B3:152.
  • Högstedt S, Lindberg B, Lindberg S, Ludviksson K, Sandström B. Effect of metoprolol on fetal heart rate patterns during pregnancy and delivery. 4th World Congress of the International Society for the study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1984 June 18-21; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1984:39.
  • Högstedt S, Lindeberg S, Axelsson O, Lindmark G, Rane A, Sandström B, et al. A prospective controlled trial of metoprolol-hydralazine treatment in hypertension during pregnancy. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1985;64:505-10.
  • Lindeberg S, Axelsson O, Lindeberg BS, Lindmark G, Ludviksson K, Sandström B. Effect of metoprolol in combination with hydralazine on fetal heart rate patterns during hypertensive pregnancy and delivery. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 1985;4(1):87-94.
Sweden 1995 {published data only}
  • Wide-Swensson D, Ingemarsson I, Lunell NO, Lindberg B, Lindeberg S, Marsal K, et al. Calcium channel blockade (isradipine) in treatment of hypertension in pregnancy: a randomized placebo-controlled study. International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1994;46:3.
  • Wide-Swensson DH, Ingemarsson I, Lunell NO, Forman A, Skajaa K, Lindberg B. Calcium channel blockade (isradipine) in treatment of hypertension in pregnancy: a randomized placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995;173:872-8.
UK 1968 {published data only}
  • Leather HM, Humphreys DM, Baker P, Chadd MA. A controlled trial of hypotensive agents in hypertension in pregnancy. Lancet 1968;2:488-90.
UK 1976 {published data only}
  • Cockburn J, Moar VA, Ounsted MK, Redman CWG. Final report on study of hypertension during pregnancy: the effects of specific treatment on the growth and development of the children. Lancet 1982;1:647-9.
  • Moar VA, Jefferies MA, Mutch LMM, Ounsted MK, Redman CWG. Neonatal head circumference and the treatment of maternal hypertension. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1978;85:933-7.
  • Mutch LMM, Moar VA, Ounsted MK, Redman CWG. Hypertension during pregnancy, with and without specific hypotensive treatment. I. Perinatal factors and neonatal morbidity. Early Human Development 1977;1:47-57.
  • Mutch LMM, Moar VA, Ounsted MK, Redman CWG. Hypertension during pregnancy, with and without specific hypotensive treatment. II The growth and development of the infant in the first year of life. Early Human Development 1977;1:59-67.
  • Ounsted M. The children of women who had hypertension during pregnancy. In: Rubin PC editor(s). Hypertension in Pregnancy. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V, 1988:341-62.
  • Ounsted MK, Moar VA, Good FJ, Redman CWG. Hypertension during pregnancy with and without specific treatment: the development of the children at the age of four years. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1980;87:19-24.
  • Redman CWG, Beilin LJ, Bonnar J. Treatment of hypertension in pregnancy with methyldopa: blood pressure control and side effects. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1977;84:419-26.
  • Redman CWG, Beilin LJ, Bonnar J, Ounsted MK. Fetal outcome in trial of antihypertensive treatment in pregnancy. Lancet 1976;2:753-6.
UK 1980 {published data only}
  • Lamming GD, Pipkin FB, Symonds EM. Comparison of the alpha and beta blocking drug, labetalol, and methyl dopa in the treatment of moderate and severe pregnancy-induced hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 1980;2:865-95.
  • Lamming GD, Symonds EM. Comparison of the alpha and beta blocking drug labetalol and aldomet in the treatment of pregnancy induced hypertension. Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1980 December 1-4; Cairo, Egypt. 1980:9.
  • Lamming GD, Symonds EM. Use of labetalol and methyldopa in pregnancy-induced hypertension. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1979;8:217S-222S.
UK 1982 {published and unpublished data}
  • Cameron AD, Walker JJ, Bonduelle M, Calder AA. A randomised trial of the antihypertensive agent, labetalol, against bed rest in pregnancy hypertension. Archives of Gynecology 1985;237(Suppl 1):295.
  • Lang GD, Lowe GDO, Walker JJ, Forbes CD, Calder AA. Increased blood viscosity in pre-eclampsia: effect of treatment with labetalol. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1983;50:156.
  • Lang GD, Lowe GDO, Walker JJ, Forbes CD, Prentice CRM, Calder AA. Blood rheology in pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation: effects of blood pressure reduction with labetalol. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1984;91:438-43.
  • Walker J. Intrauterine growth retardation and maternal labetalol treatment in a random allocation controlled study [MD thesis]. Scotland: University of Glasgow, 1992:141-55.
  • Walker JJ, Crooks A, Erwin L, Calder AA. Labetalol in pregnancy-induced hypertension: fetal and maternal effects. In: Reilly A, Symonds EM editor(s). International Congress Series 591. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1982:148-60.
UK 1983 {published data only}
  • Reynolds B, Butters L, Evans J, Adams T, Rubin PC. First year of life after the use of atenolol in pregnancy associated hypertension. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1984;59:1061-3.
  • Rubin PC, Butters L, Clark D, Sumner D, Belfield A, Pledger D, et al. Obstetric aspects of the use in pregnancy-associated hypertension of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1984;150:389-92.
  • Rubin PC, Butters L, Clark DM, Low RA, Reid JL. Atenolol in the management of hypertension during pregnancy. Drugs 1983;25:212-4.
  • Rubin PC, Butters L, Clark DM, Reynolds B, Sumner DJ, Steedman D. Placebo-controlled trial of atenolol in treatment of pregnancy-associated hypertension. Lancet 1983;1:431-4.
  • Rubin PC, Butters L, Reynolds B, Low RAL. Atenolol in the management of pregnancy associated hypertension: obstetric and paediatric aspects. 4th World Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1984 June 18-21; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1984:41.
UK 1983a {published data only}
  • Fidler J, Smith V, Fayers P, de Swiet M. Randomised controlled comparative study of methyldopa and oxprenolol in treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. British Medical Journal 1983;286:1927-30.
  • Fidler J, Smith V, Fayers P, de Swiet M. Randomised controlled comparative study of methyldopa and oxprenolol in treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey 1983;286:202-5.
UK 1984 {published data only}
  • Thorley KJ. Atenolol: side effects in the newborn infant. British Medical Journal 1982;285:1116.
  • Thorley KJ. Randomised trial of atenolol and methyl dopa in pregnancy related hypertension. 4th World Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1984 June 18-21; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1984:53.
  • Thorley KJ. Randomised trial of atenolol and methyl dopa in pregnancy related hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 1984;133:168.
UK 1989 {published data only}
  • Pickles C, Symonds E, Brinkman C. Effects of labetalol (L) vs placebo (P) on arterial pressure (AP) and forearm venous distensibility (FVD) in women with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). 5th International Congress of the International Society for the study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1986 7-10 July; Nottingham, England. 1986:92.
  • Pickles CJ, Broughton Pipkin F, Symonds EM. A randomised placebo controlled trial of labetalol in the treatment of mild to moderate pregnancy induced hypertension. Britisth Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1992;99:964-8.
  • Pickles CJ, Symonds EM, Broughton Pipkin F. The fetal outcome in a randomized double-blind controlled trial of labetalol vs placebo in pregnancy-induced hypertension. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1989;96:38-43.
  • Pickles CJ, Symonds EM, Broughton Pipkin F. The fetal outcome of early intervention therapy in pregnancy induced hypertension. A randomised, double-blind controlled trial of labetalol vs placebo. 6th International Congress, International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1988 May 22-26; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1988:107.
UK 1990 {published and unpublished data}
  • Butters L, Kennedy S, Rubin PC. Atenolol in essential hypertension during pregnancy. BMJ 1990;301:587-9.
UK 1992 {published and unpublished data}
  • Cruickshank DJ, Campbell D, Robertson AA, MacGillivray I. Intra-uterine growth retardation and maternal labetalol treatment in a random allocation controlled study. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1992;12:223-7.
  • Cruickshank DJ, Campbell DM. Atenolol in essential hypertension during pregnancy. BMJ 1990;301:1103.
  • Cruickshank DJ, Robertson AA, Campbell DM, MacGillivray I. Does labetalol influence the development of proteinuria in pregnancy hypertension? A randomised controlled study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1992;45:47-51.
  • Cruickshank DJ, Robertson AA, Campbell DM, MacGillivray I. Maternal obstetric outcome measures in a randomised controlled study of labetalol in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 1991;B10:333-4.
USA 1979 {published data only}
USA 1987 {published data only}
  • Sibai BM, Gonzalez AR, Mabie WC, Moretti M. A comparison of labetalol plus hospitalization vs hospitalization alone in the management of preeclampsia remote from term. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1987;70:323-7.
USA 1987a {published data only}
  • Weitz C, Khouzami V, Maxwell K, Johnson JWC. Treatment of hypertension in pregnancy with methyldopa: a randomized double blind study. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1987;25:35-40.
USA 1990 {published and unpublished data}
  • Sibai BM. The need of hypertensive drugs in management of mild to moderate pregnant hypertension. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1990; Perugia, Italy. 1990:133.
  • Sibai BM, Mabie WC, Shamsa F, Villar MA, Anderson GD. A comparison of no medication vs methyldopa or labetalol in chronic hypertension during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1990;162:960-7.
USA 1992 {published data only}
  • Barton JR, Mercer BM, Sibai BM. The effect of nifedipine on urinary excretion of calcium in preeclampsia. American Journal of Perinatology 1997;14:609-12.
  • Sibai BM, Barton JR, Akl S, Sarinoglu C, Mercer BM. A randomized prospective comparison of nifedipine and bed rest vs bed rest alone in the management of preeclampsia remote from term. Amercian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1992;167:879-84.
  • Sibai BM, Barton JR, Akl S, Sarinoglu C, Mercer BM. A randomized prospective comparison of nifedipine and bed rest vs bed rest alone in the management of preeclampsia remote from term. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1992;166:280.
Venezuela 1988 {published data only}
  • Faneite PJ, Gonzalez X, Salazar G. Evaluation of antihypertensives in pregnancy: prospective randomized study of mepindolol and alpha methyldopa [Evaluación de antihipertensivos en embarazadas: Mepindolol y alfametildopa. Estudio prospectivo y randomizado]. Revista de Obstetricia y Ginecologia de Venezuela 1988;48:139-43.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Argentina 1990 {published data only}
  • Voto LS, Quiroga CA, Lapidus AM, Catuzzi P, Uranga IF, Margulies M. Effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension - Part B Hypertension in Pregnancy 1990;9(3):339-48.
Argentina 1994 {published data only}
  • Fabregues G, Sure P, Knaudt S, Gonzalez Pena J, Esper R. The use of atenolol to prevent preeclampsia and superimposed preeclampsia. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1994;46:95.
Australia 1985a {published data only}
  • Henderson-Smart DJ, Horvath JS, Phippard A, Korda A, Child A, Duggin GG, et al. Effect of antihypertensive drugs on neonatal blood pressure. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 1984;11:351-4.
  • Horvath JS, Henderson-Smart DJ, Phippard A, Korda A, Child A, Duggin GG, et al. The effect of antihypertensive drugs on neonatal blood pressure. 4th World Congress of the International Society for the study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1984 June 18-21; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1984:42.
  • Horvath JS, Phippard A, Korda A, Henderson-Smart D, Child A, Duggin GG, et al. A controlled trial comparing clonidine hydrochloride and alpha methyl dopa in pregnant women with hypertension. 4th World Congress of the International Society for the study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1984 June 18-21; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1984:246.
  • Horvath JS, Phippard A, Korda A, Henderson-Smart DJ, Child A, Tiller DJ. Clonidine hydrochloride - a safe and effective antihypertensive agent in pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1985;66:634-8.
  • Horvath JS, Phipparel A, Korda A, Henderson-Smart D, Child A, Duggin GG, et al. A controlled trial comparing clonidine hydrochloride and alpha methyl dopa in pregnant women [abstract]. Kidney International 1984;26(2):233.
Australia 1991 {published and unpublished data}
  • Phippard A, Fisher W, Child A, Henderson-Smart D, Horvarth J, Korda A, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled study on the effect of therapy for mild to moderate hypertension in primigravidae. 6th International Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1988 May 22-26; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1988:112.
  • Phippard AF, Fischer WE, Horvath JS, Child AG, Korda AR, Henderson-Smart DJ, et al. Early blood pressure control improves pregnancy outcome in primigravid women with mild hypertension. Medical Journal of Australia 1991;154:378-82.
Belgium 1988 {published data only}
  • Loquet P, Buytaert P, Renier M. The influence of pindolol and atenolol on serial feto-placental blood flow measurements in non-proteinuric hypertension in pregnancy. 6th International Congress, International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1988 May 22-26; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1988:111.
  • Renier M, Loquet P, Buytaert P. The influence of pindolol and atenolol on serial feto-placental blood flow measurements in non-proteinuric hypertension in pregnancy. Proceedings of the 11th European Congress of Perinatal Medicine;1988 April 10-13; Rome, Italy. 1988.
Brazil 1997 {published data only}
  • Pereira TS, Pereira CIGS, Junior JA, Netto HC. Influence of nifedipine on the fetal placental flow. Jornal Brasileiro de Ginecologia 1997;107(10):371-80.
Brazil 2000 {published data only}
  • Alves EA. Estudo prospectivo, comparativo da Isradipina e Atenolol no tratamento de gestantes hipertensas [Prospective, comparative study of isradipine and atenolol for the treatment of hypertensive pregnant women] [Doctoral Thesis]. Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, 1998.
  • Darcie S, Leone CR, Calil VMLT, Prescinotti EP, Kahhale S, Zugaib M. Glycemia in newborns of hypertensive mothers according to maternal treatment [Glicemia no recém-nascido de mäe hipertensas de acordo com a terapêutica materna]. Revista do Hospital das Clínicas 2004;59(5):244-0.
  • Kahhale S, Alves EA, Takiuti NH, Zugaib M. Efficacy and safety of isradipina and atenolol in hypertensive disorders in pregnancy [abstract]. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2000;19(1):98.
  • Leone CR, Calil VMLT, Darcie S, Prescinotti EP, Kahhale S, Zugaib M. Growth of newborn of the mothers with hypertension during the first year of life: therapeutics in pregnancy on the newborn [Crescimento de recém-nascidos de mäes hipertensas durante o primeiro ano de vida: influência da terapêutica materna]. Revista Paulista de Pediatría 2003;21(1):19-26.
Brazil 2000b {published data only}
  • Vasconcellos MJ, Chaves Netto H, Kahhale S, Almeida PJ. Verapamil use in chronic hypertension pregnant women. XVI FIGO World Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 2000 Sept 3-8; Washington DC. Book 2. 2000:46.
  • Vasconcellos MJA, Chaves Netto H, Kahhale S. Incidence of small fetuses for the gestational age among chronic hypertensive women in use of verapamil (chronico oral use). Hypertension in Pregnancy 2000;19(Suppl 1):P166.
  • Vasconcellos MJA, Chaves Netto H, Kahhale S. Verapamil: its effect on placental circulation in mild to moderate chronic hypertensive pregnant women. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2000;19(Suppl 1):P163.
  • Vasconcellos MJA, Chaves Netto H, Kahhale S, Almeida PJ. Use of verapamil in chronic hypertensive pregnant women: flow analysis of uterine and umbilical artery [Uso do verapamil em gestantes hipertensas crônicas: análise do fluxo das artérias uterinas e umbilical]. Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia é Obstetrícia 2000;22(5):265-74.
China 1991 {published data only}
  • Qian XH, Huang YL, Wu SP. Treatment of hypertension syndrome of pregnancy with ligustrazine. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1991;11(9):533-4, 516.
China 1993 {published data only}
  • Hong YJ, Lin CF, Chen JC, Pan P, Wong KL, Wei TT. Nifedipine in preeclampsia for cesarean section. Ma Tsui Hsueh Tsa Chi (Acta Anaesthesiologica Sinica) 1993;31(1):43-8.
China 1998 {published data only}
  • Li M, Yang M, Qiu X. The effect of nimodipine on retinal blood flow in pregnancy induced hypertension. Chung-Hua Fu Chan Ko Tsa Chih 1998;33(7):397-9.
China 1999 {published data only}
  • Wang Z, Song H. Clinical observation on therapeutical effect of prepared rhubarb in treating pregnancy induced hypertension. Chung-Kuo Chung Hsi i Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1999;19:725-7.
China 2000 {published data only}
  • Yang X, Liu Y. The effect of nifedipine on postpartum blood loss in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2000;35(3):151-2.
Cuba 1994 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gómez Sosa E, Miró Maceo M, Alcade MT. Mild chronic hypertension: antihypertensive medication and maternal and perinatal results [Hipertensión Crónica Moderada: Medicación Antihipertensiva y resultados maternos y perinatales]. Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral 1994;10(4):340-3.
Czech Republic 1993 {published data only}
  • Soucek M, Prasek J, Spinarova L. Atenolol and bisoprolol in the treatment of mild and moderately severe hypertension [Atenolol a bisoprolol v lécbe mírné a stredne tezké hypertenze]. Vnitrni Lekarstvi 1993;39(6):541-8.
Denmark 1991 {published data only}
  • Rudnicki M, Frölich A, Fischer Rasmussen W, McNair P. The effect of magnesium on maternal blood pressure in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1991;70:445-50.
  • Rudnicki M, Frölich A, Fischer-Rasmussen W. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension: effects on maternal and neonatal magnesium and calcium homeostasis. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism 1991;17(6):399-403.
  • Rudnicki M, Junge J, Frölich A, Ornvold K, Fischer-Rasmussen W. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study. APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica 1990;98(12):1123-7.
Denmark 2000 {published data only}
  • Rudnicki M, Frølich A, Pilsgaard K, Nyrnberg L, Møller M, Sanchez M, et al. Comparison of magnesium and methyldopa for the control of blood pressure in pregnancies complicated with hypertension. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 2000;49:231-5.
Dominican Rep 1992 {published data only}
  • Cid-Troncoso J, Pérez-Pérez M, Jiménez JA, Núñez-Diplan AM, Balbi M, Santana E. Nifedipine retard vs methyldopa in chronic hypertension with superimposed toxemia [Nifedipina retard vs. alfa-metil-dopa en la hipertensión arterial crónica mas toxemia agregada]. Revista Médica Dominicana 1992;53(2/3):76-8.
Dominican Rep 1992a {published data only}
  • Deschamps C, Guzman P, Mejia M, Sanchez Ramirez PB, Sanchez Beltre JE, Gomez Hernandez J. Comparison of hydralazine and alpha methyldopa in hypertension in pregnancy [Comparacion de hidralazina y alfametildopa en la hipertension durante el embarazo]. Acta Medica Dominicana 1992;14(6):222-4.
Egypt 1988 {published data only}
  • Salem HT, Ghanemah S, Seleem S, Sayed EH, Abdel-Latif A, Chard T. Bromocriptine therapy in pre-eclamptic toxaemia of pregnancy (PET). World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 1988 October 23-28; Brazil. 1988:184.
Egypt 1993 {published data only}
Egypt 1997 {published data only}
  • Salem HT, Salah M, Kotb HI, Makarem MH, Mostafa SAM, Mohamed SA. The use of specific opioid receptor antagonist (Naltrexone) in hypertensive pregnancy. Research Activities on Reproductive Health. Assiut: Assiut University, Faculty of Medicine, 1997:74.
Egypt 2009 {published data only}
  • Tanbouli T, Mawsouf MN, Re L, Martinez-Sanchez G, Saaed G, El SM, et al. Effect of ozone therapy on foetoplacental blood flow in hypertensive pregnant women. International Journal of Ozone Therapy 2009;8(2):211-6.
Finland 1988 {published data only}
  • Tuimala R, Hartikainen-Sorri AL. Randomised comparison of atenolol and pindolol for treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Current Therapeutic Research 1988;44(4):579-84.
  • Tuimala R, Hartikainen-Sorri AL. Treatment of hypertension during pregnancy by beta blocking agents. 4th World Congress of the International Society for the study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1984 June 18-21; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1984:52.
Finland 1988a {published data only}
  • Yla-Outinen A, Tuimala R. Management of pregnancy induced hypertension by using nifedipine - a prospective randomized trial. 6th International Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1988 May 22-26; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1988:133.
Finland 1995 {published data only}
  • Räsänen J, Joupilla P. Uterine and fetal hemodynamics and fetal cardiac function after atenolol and pindolol infusion. A randomized study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1995;62:195-201.
Finland 1999 {published data only}
  • Laivuori HM, Laakso M, Tikkanen MJ, Cacciatore B, Ylikorkala RO, Kaaja Rj. Short-term metabolic effects of isradipine and metoprolol in pre-eclampsia. Journal of Hypertension 1999;17(8):1189-94.
France 1988a {published data only}
  • Madonna O, M'Pio I, Labeeuw M, Pozet N, Zech P. Evaluation of renal function in pregnant hypertensives under treatment. A comparison between methyldopa, pindolol and atenolol. 6th International Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1988 May 22-26; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1988:260.
France 1990 {published data only}
  • Bonnin P, Mintz P, Kedra AW, Pruna A, Ciraru-Vigneron N, Savin E, et al. Effects of nifedipine and atenolol on the fetal-maternal circulation in moderate hypertension in pregnancy [Effets de la nifedipine et de l'atenolol sur les circulations foeto-maternelles en cas d'hypertension arterielle gravidique moderee]. Therapie 1990;45(6):525.
  • Ciraru-Vigneron N, Pruna A, Akposso K, Bonnin P, Kedra W, Mintz P, et al. Comparison of the effects of nefedipine and atenolol in the treatment of uncomplicated hypertension in pregnancy [Comparaison des effets de la nifedipine et de l'atenolol dans le traitement de l'hypertension arterielle gravidique non compliquée]. Therapie 1992;47(3):221.
  • Ciraru-Vigneron N, Pruna A, Mintz P, Bonnin P, Lefevre V, Beaufils M, et al. Comparison of nifedipine and atenolol in treatment of moderate pregnancy hypertension. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1990; Perugia, Italy. 1990:340.
  • Mintz P, Ciraru-Vigneron N, Ravina JH, Pruna A, Idatte JH, Bonnin P, et al. Comparison of the effects of nifedipine and atenolol in the treatment of non-complicated hypertension in pregnancy [Comparaison des effets de la nifedipine et de l'atenolol dans le traitement de l'hypertension arterielle gravidique non compliquée]. Therapie 1989;44(6):461.
Germany 2012 {published data only}
  • Groten T, Fitzgerald J, Lehmann T, Schneider U, Kahler C, Schleussner E. Reduction of preeclampsia related complications with with the NO-donor penterythriltetranitrat (petn) in risk pregnancies - A prospective randomized double-blind placebo pilot study. Pregnancy Hypertension 2012;2(3):181.
Hong Kong 1993 {published data only}
  • Yuen FT, Mo YP, Yin LC, Terence L. A double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial of labetalol in the treatment of mild pregnancy induced hypertension. Proceedings of the 2nd International Scientific Meeting of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists; 1993; Hong Kong, Singapore. 1993.
Hungary 1999 {published data only}
  • Tamás P, Csermely T, Ertl T, Vizer M, Szabó I, Prievara FT. Calcium dobesilate lowers the blood pressure in mild to moderate midtrimester hypertension: a pilot study. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 1999;47:210-3.
  • Tamás P, Csermely T, Szabó EI. Doxium - a novel drug in the management of gestational hypertension?. 16th European Congress of Perinatal Medicine; 1998 June 10-13; Zagreb. 1998.
  • Tamás P, Szabó I, Szekely J, Csermely T, Prievara FT, Nemeth L, et al. Effects of doxium 500(tm) in gestational hypertension [A Doxium 500 (R) hatasanak vizgalata terhessegi hypertoniaban (kettos vak, placebo-kontrollalt tanulmany)]. Magyar Noorvosok Lapja 1997;60:181-7.
India 1999 {published data only}
  • Shenoy S, Chandrika D, Pisharody R. RCT of low dose aspirin to prevent the progression of pregnancy induced hypertension grade A to B. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1999;52(Suppl 1):28S.
India 2011 {published data only}
  • Pandey K, Gupta N, Gupta R, Gupta S. Comparing obstetric outcome using labetalol/methyldopa in pregnancy induced hypertension. 54th All India Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 2011 January 5-9; Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. 2011:46.
India 2012a {published data only}
  • Verma R, Lahon K, TonpaY SD, Kale VJ. A comparative randomised controlled parallel group study of maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes of labetalol versus methyldopa in the treatment of new onset hypertension during pregnancy. International Journal of Pharma & Bio Sciences 2012;3(1):201-11.
India 2012b {published data only}
  • Dasgupta S. Does prophylactic magnesium sulphate in mild preeclampsia reduce umbilical artery pulsatility index? A randomized placebo controlled trial. Clinical Trials Registry - India (http://www.ctri.nic.in) (accessed 8 July 2011) 2011.
  • Dasgupta S, Ghosh D, Seal SL, Kamilya G, Karmakar M, Saha D. Randomized controlled study comparing effect of magnesium sulfate with placebo on fetal umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery blood flow in mild preeclampsia at >= 34 weeks gestational age. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 2012;38(5):763-71.
Iran 2000 {published and unpublished data}
  • Yassae F. A comparison of the effect of nifedipine and hydralazine in treatment of pregnancy induced hypertension. XVI FIGO World Congress of Obstetric and Gynecology (Book 3); 2000 Sept 3-8; Washington DC, USA. 2000:93.
Iran 2005 {published data only}
  • Ghahiri A, Berjis K. A comparison between intravenous magnesium sulfate and oral magnesium chloride in mild preeclampsia. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2005;10(1):6-9.
Israel 1988 {published data only}
  • Davidson A, Ellenbogen A, Jaschevatzky O, Attias Y, Anderman S, Grunstein S. Randomized comparison of pindolol and atenolol for treatment of hypertension during pregnancy. 6th International Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1988 May 22-26; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1988:99.
Israel 1992a {published data only}
Israel 1999 {published data only}
  • Thaler I, Amit A, Kamil D, Itskovitz-Eldor J. The effect of isosorbide dinitrate on placental blood flow and maternal blood pressure in women with pregnancy induced hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension 1999;12(4):341-7.
Italy 1986 {published data only}
  • Martinelli P, Ferrara LA, Pasanisi F, Arpaia F, Paladini D, Mancini M. Nifedipine and atenolol in the treatment of pregnancy associated hypertension. 5th International Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1986 July 7-10; Nottingham, England. 1986:128.
Italy 1990 {published data only}
  • Marlettini MG, Crippa S, Morselli-Labate AM, Contarini A, Orlandi C. Randomised comparison of calcium antagonists and beta-blockers in the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1990;48(4):684-94.
  • Orlandi C, Marlettini MG, Cassani A, Crippa S. Antihypertensive therapy in pregnancy. Proceedings of the 11th European Congress of Perinatal Medicine; 1988; Rome, Italy. 1988:271.
Italy 1990a {published data only}
  • Di Iorio R, Horvath S, Marinoni E, Manzari G, Martinico E, Bresadola M. Use of a thromboxane receptor inhibitor in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1990; Perugia, Italy. 1990.
Italy 2000a {published data only}
  • Picciolo C, Roncaglia N, Neri I, Pasta F, Arreghini A, Facchinetti F. Nitric oxide in the prevention of pre-eclampsia. Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine 2000;5:212-5.
Italy 2001 {published data only}
  • Scarpellini F, Sbracia M, Lecchini S, Bolis P. Nitric oxide donor treatment reduces apoptosis in placental vessels of pregnancy induced hypertension [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001;185(6 Suppl):S177.
Italy 2004 {published data only}
  • Neri I, Venturini P, Battista Allais G, Facchinetti F. Acupuncture plus alfa-metildopa in the treatment of chronic hypertension: a protocol design [abstract]. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2004;23(Suppl 1):54.
Italy 2006 {published data only}
  • Facchinetti F, Piccinini F, Pizzi C, Bukowski R, Volpe A, Saade G. Effect of arginine supplementation in patients with gestational hypertension. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;187(6):S213.
  • Neri I, Blasi I, Facchinetti F. Effects of acute L-arginine infusion on non-stress test in hypertensive pregnant women. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2004;16(1):23-6.
  • Neri I, Jasonni VM, Gori GF, Blasi I, Facchinetti F. Effect of L-arginine on blood pressure in pregnancy-induced hypertension: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 2006;19(5):277-81.
Italy 2008 {published data only}
  • Noris M, Fratelli N, Rampello S, Gherardi G, Platto C, Todeschini M, et al. A double-blind, randomized, pilot study on L-arginine oral supplementation in pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2008;27(4):505.
Italy 2010 {published data only}
  • Neri I, Monari F, Sgarbi L, Berardi A, Masellis G, Facchinetti F. L-Arginine supplementation in women with chronic hypertension: Impact on blood pressure and maternal and neonatal complications. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 2010;23(12):1456-60.
Japan 1997 {published data only}
  • Makino Y, Izumi H, Makino I, Shirakawa K. The effect of nitric oxide on uterine and umbilical artery flow velocity waveform in pre-eclampsia. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1997;73(2):139-43.
Kuwait 1995 {published data only}
  • El-Qarmalawi AM, Morsy AH, Al-Fadly A, Obeid A, Hashem M. Labetalol vs methyldopa in the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1995;49:125-30.
Mexico 2008 {published data only}
  • Lopez-Molina K, Gonzalez-Altamirano JC, Valdivia-Silva JE. Early L-arginine therapy improves notably the fetal growth in preeclamptic women. A randomized controlled trial. 55th Annual Meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Investigation; 2008 March 26-29; San Diego, USA 2008:Abstract no: 801.
Pakistan 1994 {published data only}
  • Gilani A, Khan Z. Role of aspirin in management of pregnancy induced hypertension. A study in Pakistani population. Specialist 1994;10(4):323-5.
Panama 2012 {published data only}
  • Reyes OA. Hydralazine vs. Labetalol for the management of hypertensive crisis in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. a randomized controlled trial. ClinicalTrials.gov 2012.
Philippines 2000 {published data only}
  • Decano MB, Cabrera LT. The effects of transdermal nitroglicerin (nitrol patch) on the uterine and umbilical artery blood flow in preeclampsia: a randomized double blind placebo controlled study. XVI Figo World Congress of Obstetric and Gynecology (Book 1); 2000 Sept 3-8; Washington DC, USA. 2000:26.
Russia 1993 {published data only}
  • Osadchaia OV, Nazarenko LG, Bobritskaia VV. The clinical and hemodynamic aspects of using peripheral vasodilators in hypertension in pregnant women [Klinicheskie i gemodinamicheskie aspekty primeneniia perifericheskikh vazodilatorov pri gipertenzii beremennykh]. Akusherstvo i Ginekologia 1993;1993(2):16-20.
Singapore 1996 {published data only}
  • Montan S, Anandakumar C, Arulkumaran S, Ingemarsson I, Ratnam SS. Randomised controlled trial of methyldopa and isradipine in preeclampsia - effects on uteroplacental and fetal hemodynamics. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 1996;24:177-84.
  • Wide-Swensson D, Montan S, Arulkumaran S, Ingemarsson I, Ratnam SS. Effect of methyldopa and isradipine on fetal heart rate pattern assessed by computerized cardiotocography in human pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;169:1581-5.
Singapore 1998 {published data only}
  • Yin KH, Koh SCL, Malcus P, Montan S, Biswas A, Arulkumaran S, et al. Preeclampsia: haemostatic status and the short-term effects of methyldopa and isradipine therapy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 1998;24(3):231-8.
Slovakia 2002 {published data only}
  • Sirotiaková J, Mlyncek M, Kriska M, Letkovicová M. Acebutolol in the treatment of arterial hypertension in pregnancy--comparison with commonly used hypertensive agents [Acebutolol v liecbe arteriovej hypertenzie v gravidite--porovnanie s bezne uzivanymi antihypertenzivami]. Ceska Gynekologie 2002;67(1):8-15.
South Africa 1988 {published data only}
South Africa 1990 {published data only}
South Africa 1991a {published data only}
  • Puzey MS, Ackovic KL, Lindow SW, Gonin R. The effect of nifedipine on fetal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms in pregnancies complicated by hypertension. South African Medical Journal 1991;79:192-4.
South Africa 1997 {published data only}
  • Steyn DW, Odendaal HJ. Blood pressure patterns in pregnant patients on oral ketanserin. Cardiovascular Journal of Southern Africa 2001;12(2):82-7.
  • Steyn DW, Odendaal HJ. Fetal heart baseline variability in patients on oral ketanserin. 10th World Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy;1996 August 4-8; Seattle, Washington, USA. 1996:171.
  • Steyn DW, Odendaal HJ. Maternal outcome six years after presenting with mild to moderate mid-trimester hypertension during pregnancy. 21st Conference on Priorities in Perinatal Care in South Africa; 2002 March 5-8; Eastern Cape, South Africa. 2002.
  • Steyn DW, Odendaal HJ. Maternal outcome six years after presenting with mild to moderate mid-trimester hypertension during pregnancy. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2002;21(Suppl 1):9.
  • Steyn DW, Odendaal HJ. Oral ketanserin in mild midtrimester hypertension - a randomised controlled trial. Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Priorities in Perinatal Care; 1997; South Africa. 1997:88-9.
  • Steyn DW, Odendaal HJ. Oral ketanserin plus aspirin decrease the incidence of proteinuric hypertension and perinatal mortality in patients with mild midtrimester hypertension. 10th World Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy;1996 August 4-8; Seattle, Washington, USA. 1996:131.
  • Steyn DW, Odendaal HJ. Randomised controlled trial of ketanserin and aspirin in prevention of pre-eclampsia. Lancet 1997;350:1267-71.
  • Steyn DW, Odendaal HJ. The effect of oral ketanserin on fetal heart rate parameters. Journal of Maternal Fetal Investigation 1998;8:126-9.
  • Steyn DW, Odendaal HJ, Kirsten GF. Mental development in children six years after in utero exposure to ketanserin - a follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2002;21(Suppl 1):131.
Spain 1988 {published data only}
  • Torres Pons PJ, Roca M, Codina C, Cobo E, Cararach V, Gonzalez-Merlo J. Labetalol in the treatment of mild hypertension in pregnancy. A double blind controlled trial. 6th International Congress, International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1988 May 22-26; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1988:102.
Sri Lanka 1994 {published data only}
  • Jayawardana J, Lekamge N. A comparison of nifedipine with methyldopa in pregnancy induced hypertension. Ceylon Medical Journal 1994;39:87-90.
Sweden 1992 {published data only}
  • Montan S, Ingemarsson I, Marsál K, Sjöberg NO. Negative influence of atenolol compared with pindolol on fetal hemodynamics in pregnancies with hypertension - a controlled study. Proceedings of 7th World Congress of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1990; Perugia, Italy. 1990:192.
  • Montan S, Ingemarsson I, Marsál K, Sjöberg NO. Randomised controlled trial of atenolol and pindolol in human pregnancy: effects on fetal haemodynamics. BMJ 1992;304:946-9.
Sweden 1993 {published data only}
  • Hjertberg R, Belfrage P, Faxelius G, Lagercrantz H. Neonatal outcome in infants <1500g, a randomized study of labetalol vs dihydralazine-treated hypertensive pregnant women. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Hypertension in Pregnancy; 1990; Perugia, Italy. 1990:361.
  • Hjertberg R, Faxelius G, Belfrage P. Comparison of outcome of labetalol or hydralazine therapy during hypertension in pregnancy in very low birth weight infants. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1993;72:611-5.
  • Hjertberg R, Faxelius G, Lagercrantz H. Neonatal adaptation in hypertensive pregnancy - a study of labetalol vs hydralazine treatment. Proceedings of 14th European Congress of Perinatal Medicine; 1994 June 5-8; Helsinki, Finland. 1994:18.
  • Hjertberg R, Faxelius G, Lagercrantz H. Neonatal adaption in hypertensive pregnancy - a study of labetalol vs hydralazine treatment. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 1993;21:69-75.
Uganda 1992 {unpublished data only}
  • Lule J. Aspirin and methyldopa for moderate hypertension in pregnancy. Personal communication June 6 1992.
UK 1978 {published data only}
  • Redman CWG. A controlled trial of the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy: labetalol compared with methyldopa. The investigation of labetalol in the management of hypertension in pregnancy. International Congress Series 591. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1978:101-10.
  • Redman CWG. Controlled trials of treatment of hypertension during pregnancy. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Nephrology; 1981; Athens, Greece. 1981:523-4.
UK 1991 {published data only}
USA 1957 {published data only}
USA 1981 {published data only}
  • Welt SI, Dorminy JH, Jelovsek FR, Crenshaw MC, Gall SA. The effect of prophylactic management and therapeutics on hypertensive disease in pregnancy: preliminary studies. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1981;57:557-65.
USA 1990a {unpublished data only}
  • Weiner CP. Trial to evaluate oral hypotensive agents in early onset preeclampsia. Personal communication November 1990.
USA 1991 {published data only}
  • Thaler I, Wiener Z, Manor D, Itskovitz J. Effect of calcium channel blocker nifedipine on uterine artery flow velocity waveforms. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine 1991;10(6):301-4.
USA 2005 {published data only}
  • August P. Treatment targets for chronic hypertension in pregnancy. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00194974 (accessed 17 May 2013) 2005.
Venezuela 1985 {published and unpublished data}
  • Sánchez S, Zschaeck D, Alfonso C, González I, Kalbakdij B. Labetalol in the treatment of hypertension associated with pregnancy [Labetalol en el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial asociada al embarazo]. Centro Médico 1985;24(81):101-9.
Venezuela 1997 {published data only}
  • González JC, Andolcetti R. Labetalol vs. methyldopa in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy [Labetalol vs metildopa en el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial asociada con el embarazo]. Boletín Médico de Postgrado 1997;13(1):3-8.
Venezuela 2001 {published data only}
  • Reyna-Villasmil E, Prieto-Franchi M, Guerra-Velázquez M, Torres-Montilla M. Effect of transdermal nitroglycerin on umbilical artery blood flow in preeclampsia (abstract). Journal of Perinatal Medicine 2001;29(Suppl 1):486.
Venezuela 2007 {published data only}
  • Centeno DMW, Urbina JCP, De Las Salas M, Fuenmayor AJ. Effect of carvedilol in the treatment of hypertension in pregnant women. XLIV ERA-EDTA Congress; 2007 June 21-24; Barcelona, Spain. 2007:Poster no: FP078.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Canada 2008 {published data only}
  • Smith G. Use of a nitric oxide (ISMN) for the prevention and management of pre-eclampsia (pilot study). http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/pf/45790835 (accessed 20 February 2008).

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
ASSHP 1993
  • Anonymous. Australian Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy: Consensus statement: management of hypertension in pregnancy: executive summary. Medical Journal of Australia 1993;158:700-2.
Brown 2000
Brown 2001
  • Brown MA, Lindheimer MD, De Swiet M, Van Assche A, Moutquin J. The classification and diagnosis of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: statement from the international society for the study of hypertension in pregnancy (ISSHP). Hypertension in Pregnancy 2001;20(1):ix-xiv.
Chappell 1999
CHSCC 1997
  • Anonymous. Report of the Canadian Hypertension Society Consensus Conference: 3. Pharmacologic treatment of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1997;157:1245-54.
Churchill 2007
Davey 1988
  • Davey DA, MacGilivray I. The classification and definition of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1988;158:892-8.
Duley 1999
  • Duley L, Henderson-Smart DJ. Reduced salt intake compared to normal dietary salt, or high intake, in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1999, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001687]
Duley 2007
Duley 2013
Frishman 1979
Frishman 1995
  • Frishman WH, Huberfeld S, Okin S, Wang Y-H, Kumar A, Shareef B. Serotonin and serotonin antagonism in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1995;35:541-72.
Gifford 1990
  • Gifford RW, August P, Chesley LC, Cunningham G, Ferris TF, Lindheimer MD, et al. National high blood pressure education program working group report on high blood pressure in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1990;163:1691-712.
Harbord 2006
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Hofmeyr 2012
Hytten 1980
  • Hytten F, Chamberlain G. Clinical physiology in obstetrics. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1980.
Ingenito 1970
  • Ingenito AJ, Barrett JP, Procita L. A centrally mediated peripheral hypotensive effect of methyldopa. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1970;175:593-9.
Isaac 1980
Magee 2003
  • Magee LA, Duley L. Oral beta-blockers for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002863]
Magee 2013
Meher 2005
  • Meher S, Duley L, on behalf of the Prevention of Pre-eclampsia Cochrane Review authors. Interventions for preventing pre-eclampsia and its consequences: generic protocol. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005301]
Meher 2005a
NHBPEP 2000
  • Gifford RW Jr, August PA, Cunningham G, Green LA, Lindhemier MD, McNellis D, et al. Report of the national high blood pressure education program working group on high blood pressure in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000;183(Suppl 1):S1-S22.
NICE 2011
  • NICE. Hypertension in pregnancy: The management of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. NICE Clinical Guideline 107. Manchester, UK: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2011:1-53.
North 1999
Redman 1988
  • Redman CWG, Jefferies M. Revised definition of pre-eclampsia. Lancet 1988;1:809-12.
Redman 1993
RevMan 2012
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.2. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2012.
Roberts 1993
Robinson 1980
  • Robinson BF, Dobbs RJ, Kelsey CR. Effects of nifedipine on resistance vessels, arteries and veins in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1980;10:433-8.
Rubin 1996
  • Rubin P. Measuring diastolic blood pressure in pregnancy. BMJ 1996;313:4-5.
Seligman 1994
  • Seligman SP, Buyon JP, Clancy RM, Young BK, Abramson SB. The role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1994;171(4):944-8.
Stunkard 1954
Thornton 2004
  • Thornton JG, Hornbuckle J, Vail A, Spiegelhalter DJ, Levene M, GRIT study group. Infant wellbeing at 2 years of age in the Growth Restriction Intervention Trial (GRIT): multicentred randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364(9433):513-20.
Villar 1989
  • Villar J, Repke J, Markush L, Calvert W, Rhoads G. The measuring of blood pressure during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1989;161:1019-24.
von Dadelszen 2000
  • von Dadelszen P, Ornstein MP, Bull SB, Logan AG, Koren G, Magee LA. Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2000;355:87-92.
WHO 1988
  • World Health Organization International Collaborative Study of Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy. Geographic variation in the incidence of hypertension in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1988;158:80-3.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Abalos 2001
  • Abalos E, Duley L, Steyn DW, Henderson-Smart DJ. Antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002252]
Abalos 2007